238 relations: Abraham Janssens, Adam Bartsch, Adriaen Brouwer, Aert de Gelder, Ahasuerus and Haman at the Feast of Esther, Akbar, Alizarin, Allegory, Amsterdam, Ancient Rome, Andrea Mantegna, Andromeda Chained to the Rocks, Apelles, Aristotle with a Bust of Homer, Arnold Houbraken, Art, Art dealer, Art Institute of Chicago, Art of the Low Countries, Auguste Rodin, Azurite, Baroque, Bathsheba at Her Bath (Rembrandt), Belshazzar's Feast (Rembrandt), Birmingham Museum of Art, Boaz and Ruth (paintings), Bone char, Book of Tobit, Breach of promise, Burgess (title), Burin (engraving), Calligraphy, Caravaggio, Carbon black, Carel Fabritius, Catalogue raisonné, Chiaroscuro, Chinese painting, Christiaan Huygens, Christian Tümpel, Christopher Paudiß, Constantijn Huygens, Cosimo III de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Danaë (Rembrandt painting), Dara Shukoh, David Hockney, Detroit Institute of Arts, Diego Velázquez, Digital Library for Dutch Literature, Drafter, ..., Drawing, Dresden, Drypoint, Dulwich Picture Gallery, Dutch Golden Age, Dutch Golden Age painting, Dutch people, Dutch Reformed Church, Dutch Republic, Engraving, Ernst Gombrich, Ernst van de Wetering, Etching, Ferdinand Bol, Flemish Baroque painting, Francisco Goya, Frans Hals, Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange, Frick Collection, Gaius Julius Civilis, Gamboge, Gary Schwartz (art historian), Geertje Dircx, Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister (Kassel), Gemäldegalerie, Berlin, Gerbrand van den Eeckhout, Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Gerrit Dou, Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione, Godfrey Kneller, Gouda, South Holland, Govert Flinck, Guild of Saint Luke, Guilder, Hatching, Heiman Dullaart, Hendrick Fromantiou, Hendrick van Uylenburgh, Hendrickje Stoffels, Hercules Seghers, Hermitage Museum, Het Bildt, History of art, History of the Jews in Amsterdam, Hundred Guilder Print, Hunterian Museum and Art Gallery, Iconography, Impressionism, Italian art, J. Paul Getty Museum, Jacob Blessing the Sons of Joseph, Jacob de Gheyn III, Jacob Isaacsz. van Swanenburg, Jacob Levecq, Jacob Pynas, Jacques Callot, Jahangir, Jan Lievens, Jan Victors, Jürgen Ovens, Jodenbreestraat, Johannes Vermeer, Joris van Schooten, Joshua Reynolds, Joslyn Art Museum, Judas Repentant, Returning the Pieces of Silver, Judith at the Banquet of Holofernes, Julius S. Held, Kenneth Clark, Kenwood House, Kloveniersdoelen, Amsterdam, Kris, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Landgrave, Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel, Landscape painting, Latin, Lead-tin-yellow, Leeuwarden, Leiden, Leiden University, Leonardo da Vinci, List of art media, List of drawings by Rembrandt, List of etchings by Rembrandt, List of paintings by Rembrandt, List of Rembrandt pupils, Louvre, Lyon, Mauritshuis, Max Liebermann, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Michelangelo, Miller, Minneapolis Institute of Art, Mortgage loan, Museo del Prado, Museum of Fine Arts of Lyon, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Musketeer, Mythology, National Gallery, National Gallery of Art, Nationalmuseum, Netherlands, Netherlands Institute for Art History, New Testament, Nicolaes Maes, Nigel Konstam, Ochre, Old Man with a Gold Chain, Old Master, Old master print, Old Testament, Omaha, Nebraska, Otto Benesch, Painting, Peter Paul Rubens, Philip de Koninck, Philosopher in Meditation, Pieter J.J. van Thiel, Pieter Lastman, Portrait of Dirck van Os, Portrait painting, Print room, Printmaking, Private collection, Pushkin Museum, Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Raphael, Rembrandt House Museum, Rembrandt Research Project, Rhine, Rijksmuseum, Royal Castle, Warsaw, Royal Palace of Amsterdam, Saint Petersburg, Samuel Dirksz van Hoogstraten, Saskia van Uylenburgh, Schloss Wilhelmshöhe, Self-Portrait (Rembrandt, Vienna), Self-Portrait with Beret and Turned-Up Collar, Self-Portrait with Two Circles, Self-portraits by Rembrandt, Shah Jahan, Simon Schama, Sint Annaparochie, Soot, State (printmaking), Stockholm, Susanna and the Elders (Rembrandt), Syndics of the Drapers' Guild, The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp, The Artist in his Studio, The Blinding of Samson, The Conspiracy of Claudius Civilis, The Descent from the Cross (Rembrandt, 1634), The Guardian, The Hague, The Jewish Bride, The Kitchen Maid (Rembrandt), The Mill (Rembrandt), The Night Watch, The Polish Rider, The Prodigal Son in the Brothel, The Return of the Prodigal Son (Rembrandt), The Stoning of Saint Stephen, The Three Crosses, Titian, Titus van Rijn, Tronie, Tuberculosis, Ultramarine, Utrecht Caravaggism, Vellum, Vermilion, Vincent van Gogh, Virgin and Child with a Cat, Visual arts, Wallraf–Richartz Museum, Warsaw, Westerkerk, White lead, Willem de Poorter, Willem Drost, Willem van der Vliet, Woburn Abbey. Expand index (188 more) » « Shrink index
Abraham Janssens I, Abraham Janssen I or Abraham Janssens van Nuyssen (1575–1632) was a Flemish painter, who is known principally for his large religious and mythological works, which show the influence of Caravaggio.
Johann Adam Bernhard Ritter von Bartsch (17 August 1757 – 21 August 1821) was an Austrian scholar and artist.
Adriaen Brouwer (Oudenaarde, c. 1605 – Antwerp, January 1638) was a Flemish painter active in Flanders and the Dutch Republic in the first half of the 17th century.
Aert de Gelder (or Arent; October 26, 1645 – August 27, 1727) was a Dutch painter.
The painting Ahasveros and Haman at the Feast of Esther is one of the few works of Rembrandt van Rijn whose complete provenance is known.
Abu'l-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar (15 October 1542– 27 October 1605), popularly known as Akbar I, was the third Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1556 to 1605.
Alizarin or 1,2-dihydroxyanthraquinone (also known as Mordant Red 11 and Turkey Red) is an organic compound with formula that has been used throughout history as a prominent red dye, principally for dyeing textile fabrics.
As a literary device, an allegory is a metaphor in which a character, place or event is used to deliver a broader message about real-world issues and occurrences.
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Andrea Mantegna (September 13, 1506) was an Italian painter, a student of Roman archeology, and son-in-law of Jacopo Bellini.
Andromeda Chained to the Rocks (1630) is a 34 x 25 oil on panel painting by the Dutch Golden Age painter Rembrandt.
Apelles of Kos (Ἀπελλῆς; fl. 4th century BC) was a renowned painter of ancient Greece.
Aristotle with a Bust of Homer, also known as Aristotle Contemplating a Bust of Homer, is an oil-on-canvas painting by Rembrandt.
Arnold Houbraken (28 March 1660 – 14 October 1719) was a Dutch painter and writer from Dordrecht, now remembered mainly as a biographer of artists from the Dutch Golden Age.
Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts (artworks), expressing the author's imaginative, conceptual idea, or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power.
An art dealer is a person or company that buys and sells works of art.
The Art Institute of Chicago, founded in 1879 and located in Chicago's Grant Park, is one of the oldest and largest art museums in the United States.
The art of the Low Countries consists of painting, sculpture, architecture, printmaking, pottery and other forms of visual art produced in the Low Countries, and since the 19th century in Belgium in the southern Netherlands and the Netherlands in the north.
François Auguste René Rodin (12 November 1840 – 17 November 1917), known as Auguste Rodin, was a French sculptor.
Azurite is a soft, deep blue copper mineral produced by weathering of copper ore deposits.
The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.
Bathsheba at Her Bath (or Bathsheba with King David's Letter) is an oil painting by the Dutch artist Rembrandt (1606–1669) finished in 1654.
Belshazzar's Feast is a painting by Rembrandt housed in the National Gallery, London.
Founded in 1951, the Birmingham Museum of Art in Birmingham, Alabama, today has one of the finest collections in the Southeastern United States, with more than 24,000 paintings, sculptures, prints, drawings, and decorative arts representing a numerous diverse cultures, including Asian, European, American, African, Pre-Columbian, and Native American.
Boaz and Ruth are a pair of paintings by Rembrandt dated to 1643 and thought to represent the painter and his wife as the biblical characters Boaz and Ruth.
Bone char (carbo animalis.) is a porous, black, granular material produced by charring animal bones.
The Book of Tobit is a book of scripture that is part of the Catholic and Orthodox biblical canons, pronounced canonical by the Council of Hippo (in 393), Councils of Carthage of 397 and 417, Council of Florence (in 1442) and confirmed for Roman Catholics by the Council of Trent (1546).
Breach of promise is a common law tort, abolished in many jurisdictions.
Burgess originally meant a freeman of a borough (England, Wales, Ireland) or burgh (Scotland).
Calligraphy (from Greek: καλλιγραφία) is a visual art related to writing.
Michelangelo Merisi (Michele Angelo Merigi or Amerighi) da Caravaggio (28 September 1571 – 18 July 1610) was an Italian painter active in Rome, Naples, Malta, and Sicily from the early 1590s to 1610.
Carbon black (subtypes are acetylene black, channel black, furnace black, lamp black and thermal black) is a material produced by the incomplete combustion of heavy petroleum products such as FCC tar, coal tar, ethylene cracking tar, with the addition of a small amount of vegetable oil.
A catalogue raisonné is a comprehensive, annotated listing of all the known artworks by an artist either in a particular medium or all media.
Chiaroscuro (Italian for light-dark), in art, is the use of strong contrasts between light and dark, usually bold contrasts affecting a whole composition.
Chinese painting is one of the oldest continuous artistic traditions in the world.
Christiaan Huygens (Hugenius; 14 April 1629 – 8 July 1695) was a Dutch physicist, mathematician, astronomer and inventor, who is widely regarded as one of the greatest scientists of all time and a major figure in the scientific revolution.
Christian Tümpel (1937–2009) was a German art historian active in the Netherlands.
''Loth und seine Töchter'' (around 1649, Budapest) Christoph(er) Paudiß (1630 in Lower Saxony – 1666 in Freising, Upper Bavaria) was a Bavarian Baroque painter and a student of Rembrandt van Rijn.
Sir Constantijn Huygens, Lord of Zuilichem (4 September 159628 March 1687), was a Dutch Golden Age poet and composer.
Cosimo III de' Medici (14 August 1642 – 31 October 1723) was the penultimate (sixth) Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany.
Danaë is a 1636 painting by the Dutch artist Rembrandt.
Dara Shukoh, also known as Dara Shikoh (دارا شِکوہ), (20 March 1615 – 30 August 1659), was the eldest son and heir-apparent of the fifth Mughal emperor Shah Jahan.
David Hockney, (born 9 July 1937) is an English painter, draftsman, printmaker, stage designer and photographer.
The Detroit Institute of Arts (DIA), located in Midtown Detroit, Michigan, has one of the largest and most significant art collections in the United States.
Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez (baptized on June 6, 1599August 6, 1660) was a Spanish painter, the leading artist in the court of King Philip IV, and one of the most important painters of the Spanish Golden Age.
The Digital Library for Dutch Literature (Dutch: Digitale Bibliotheek voor de Nederlandse Letteren or DBNL) is a website (showing the abbreviation as dbnl) about Dutch language and Dutch literature.
A drafter, draughtsman (British English) or draftsman, drafting technician (American English and Canadian English) is a person who makes detailed technical drawings or plans for machinery, buildings, electronics, infrastructure, sections, etc.
Drawing is a form of visual art in which a person uses various drawing instruments to mark paper or another two-dimensional medium.
Dresden (Upper and Lower Sorbian: Drježdźany, Drážďany, Drezno) is the capital city and, after Leipzig, the second-largest city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany.
Drypoint is a printmaking technique of the intaglio family, in which an image is incised into a plate (or "matrix") with a hard-pointed "needle" of sharp metal or diamond point.
Dulwich Picture Gallery is an art gallery in Dulwich, South London.
The Dutch Golden Age (Gouden Eeuw) was a period in the history of the Netherlands, roughly spanning the 17th century, in which Dutch trade, science, military, and art were among the most acclaimed in the world.
Dutch Golden Age painting is the painting of the Dutch Golden Age, a period in Dutch history roughly spanning the 17th century, during and after the later part of the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) for Dutch independence.
The Dutch (Dutch), occasionally referred to as Netherlanders—a term that is cognate to the Dutch word for Dutch people, "Nederlanders"—are a Germanic ethnic group native to the Netherlands.
The Dutch Reformed Church (in or NHK) was the largest Christian denomination in the Netherlands from the onset of the Protestant Reformation until 1930.
The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from the Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, usually flat surface by cutting grooves into it.
Sir Ernst Hans Josef Gombrich (30 March 1909 – 3 November 2001) was an Austrian-born art historian who, after settling in England in 1936, became a naturalised British citizen in 1947 and spent most of his working life in the United Kingdom.
Ernst van de Wetering (born 9 March 1938, Hengelo) is a Dutch art historian and an expert on Rembrandt and his work.
Etching is traditionally the process of using strong acid or mordant to cut into the unprotected parts of a metal surface to create a design in intaglio (incised) in the metal.
Ferdinand Bol (24 June 1616 – 24 August 1680) was a Dutch painter, etcher and draftsman.
Flemish Baroque painting refers to the art produced in the Southern Netherlands during Spanish control in the 16th and 17th centuries.
Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes (30 March 1746 – 16 April 1828) was a Spanish romantic painter and printmaker.
Frans Hals the Elder (– 26 August 1666) was a Dutch Golden Age painter, normally of portraits, who lived and worked in Haarlem.
Frederick Henry, or Frederik Hendrik in Dutch (29 January 1584 – 14 March 1647), was the sovereign Prince of Orange and stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders, and Overijssel from 1625 to 1647.
The Frick Collection is an art museum located in the Henry Clay Frick House on the Upper East Side in Manhattan, New York City at 1 East 70th Street, at the northeast corner with Fifth Avenue.
Gaius Julius Civilis was the leader of the Batavian rebellion against the Romans in 69 AD.
Gamboge is a partially transparent deep saffron to mustard yellow pigment.
Gary Schwartz (born 1940) is an American art historian, resident in the Netherlands, who is an authority on the art of Rembrandt and Dutch Golden Age painting and prints.
Geertje Dircx (c. 1610-1615 – c. 1656) was the lover of Rembrandt van Rijn after the death of his wife Saskia.
The Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister (Old Masters Gallery) in Dresden, Germany, displays around 750 paintings from the 15th to the 18th centuries.
The Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister is an art gallery housed in the Schloss Wilhelmshöhe in Kassel in Germany.
The Gemäldegalerie (Picture Gallery) is an art museum in Berlin, Germany, and the museum where the main selection of paintings belonging to the Berlin State Museums (Staatliche Museen zu Berlin) is displayed.
Gerbrand van den Eeckhout (19 August 1621 – 29 September 1674), was a Dutch Golden Age painter and a favourite student of Rembrandt.
The Germanisches Nationalmuseum is a museum in Nuremberg, Germany.
Gerrit Dou (7 April 1613 – 9 February 1675), also known as Gerard and Douw or Dow, was a Dutch Golden Age painter, whose small, highly polished paintings are typical of the Leiden fijnschilders.
Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione (baptized 23 March 16095 May 1664) was an Italian Baroque artist, painter, printmaker and draftsman, of the Genoese school.
Sir Godfrey Kneller, 1st Baronet (born Gottfried Kniller; 8 August 1646 – 19 October 1723), was the leading portrait painter in England during the late 17th and early 18th centuries, and was court painter to English and British monarchs from Charles II to George I. His major works include The Chinese Convert (1687; Royal Collection, London); a series of four portraits of Isaac Newton painted at various junctures of the latter's life; a series of ten reigning European monarchs, including King Louis XIV of France; over 40 "kit-cat portraits" of members of the Kit-Cat Club; and ten "beauties" of the court of William III, to match a similar series of ten beauties of the court of Charles II painted by his predecessor as court painter, Sir Peter Lely.
Gouda is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands with a population of 72,338.
Govert (or Govaert) Teuniszoon Flinck (25 January 16152 February 1660) was a Dutch painter of the Dutch Golden Age.
The Guild of Saint Luke was the most common name for a city guild for painters and other artists in early modern Europe, especially in the Low Countries.
Guilder is the English translation of the Dutch and German gulden, originally shortened from Middle High German guldin pfenninc "gold penny".
Hatching (hachure in French) is an artistic technique used to create tonal or shading effects by drawing (or painting or scribing) closely spaced parallel lines.
Heyman Dullaert or Dullaart (Rotterdam, 6 February 1636 - Rotterdam, 6 May 1684) was a Dutch Golden Age painter and poet.
Hendrik de Fromantiou (1633 – after 1693) was a Dutch still life painter.
Hendrick Gerritsz van Uylenburgh (c. 1587 – 1661) was an influential Dutch Golden Age art dealer who helped launch the careers of Rembrandt, Govert Flinck, Ferdinand Bol and other painters.
Hendrickje Stoffels (1626 – 21 July 1663) was the longtime lover of Rembrandt.
Hercules Pieterszoon Seghers or Segers (c. 1589 – c. 1638) was a Dutch painter and printmaker of the Dutch Golden Age.
The State Hermitage Museum (p) is a museum of art and culture in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
het Bildt is a former municipality in the province of Friesland in the northern Netherlands; its capital was Sint Annaparochie.
The history of art focuses on objects made by humans in visual form for aesthetic purposes.
Amsterdam has historically been the center of the Dutch Jewish community, and has had a continuing Jewish community for the last 370 years.
The Hundred Guilder Print is an etching by Rembrandt.
The University of Glasgow's Hunterian is the oldest museum in Scotland.
Iconography, as a branch of art history, studies the identification, description, and the interpretation of the content of images: the subjects depicted, the particular compositions and details used to do so, and other elements that are distinct from artistic style.
Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement characterised by relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), ordinary subject matter, inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience, and unusual visual angles.
Since ancient times, Greeks, Etruscans and Celts have inhabited the south, centre and north of the Italian peninsula respectively.
The J. Paul Getty Museum, commonly referred to as the Getty, is an art museum in California housed on two campuses: the Getty Center and Getty Villa.
Jacob Blessing the Sons of Joseph is a 1656 oil painting by Dutch artist Rembrandt van Rijn.
Jacob de Gheyn III, also known as Jacob III de Gheyn (1596–1641), was a Dutch Golden Age engraver, son of Jacob de Gheyn II, canon of Utrecht (city), and the subject of a 1632 oil painting by Rembrandt.
Jacob Levecq (1634–1675), was a Dutch Golden Age painter trained by Rembrandt.
Jacques Callot (– 1635) was a baroque printmaker and draftsman from the Duchy of Lorraine (an independent state on the north-eastern border of France, southwestern border of Germany and overlapping the southern Netherlands).
Mirza Nur-ud-din Beig Mohammad Khan Salim مرزا نور الدین محمد خان سلیم, known by his imperial name (جہانگیر) Jahangir (31 August 1569 – 28 October 1627), was the fourth Mughal Emperor who ruled from 1605 until his death in 1627.
Jan Lievens (24 October 1607 – 4 June 1674) was a Dutch painter, usually associated with Rembrandt, working in a similar style.
Jan Victors or Fictor (bapt. June 13, 1619 – December 1679) was a Dutch Golden Age painter mainly of history paintings of Biblical scenes, with some genre scenes.
Jürgen Ovens (1623 – 9 December 1678), also known as Georg, or Jurriaen Ovens whilst in the Netherlands, was a portrait painter and art-dealer from North Frisia and, according to Arnold Houbraken, a pupil of Rembrandt.
The Jodenbreestraat ("Jewish Broad Street") is a street in the centre of Amsterdam, which connects the Sint Antoniesluis sluice gates to the Mr.
Johannes Vermeer (October 1632 – December 1675) was a Dutch painter who specialized in domestic interior scenes of middle-class life.
Joris van Schooten (1587–1651) was a Dutch Golden Age painter and the uncle of the Leiden mathematician Frans van Schooten.
Sir Joshua Reynolds (16 July 1723 – 23 February 1792) was an English painter, specialising in portraits.
The Joslyn Art Museum is the principal fine arts museum in the state of Nebraska, United States of America.
Judas Repentant, Returning the Thirty Pieces of Silver is a painting by Rembrandt, depicting the story of Matthew 27:3: "Then Judas, which had betrayed him, when he saw that he was condemned, repented himself, and brought again the thirty pieces of silver to the chief priests and elders".
Judith at the Banquet of Holofernes (also known as Artemisia Receiving Mausolus' Ashes and Sophonisba Receiving the Poisoned Cup) is a painting by the Dutch master Rembrandt.
Julius Samuel Held (1905–2002) was an art historian, collector, and expert on Dutch painters Peter Paul Rubens, Anthony van Dyck, and Rembrandt.
Kenneth Mackenzie Clark, Baron Clark (13 July 1903 – 21 May 1983) was a British art historian, museum director, and broadcaster.
Kenwood House (also known as the Iveagh Bequest) is a former stately home, in Hampstead, London, on the northern boundary of Hampstead Heath.
The Kloveniersdoelen ("musketeers' shooting range") was a complex of buildings in Amsterdam which served as headquarters and shooting range for the local schutterij (civic guard).
The kris (ngoko Javanese:; krama inggil Javanese:; ngoko: keris; krama; dhuwung; krama inggil: wangkingan, lit. "to slice"; Jawi: کريس, Thai: กริช krit, Minangkabau: karih, Tagalog: kalis; Bugis and Makassarese: sele) is an asymmetrical dagger with distinctive blade-patterning achieved through alternating laminations of iron and nickelous iron (pamor).
The Kunsthistorisches Museum ("Museum of Art History", also often referred to as the "Museum of Fine Arts") is an art museum in Vienna, Austria.
Landgrave (landgraaf, Landgraf; lantgreve, landgrave; comes magnus, comes patriae, comes provinciae, comes terrae, comes principalis, lantgravius) was a noble title used in the Holy Roman Empire, and later on in its former territories.
The Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel (Landgrafschaft Hessen-Kassel), spelled Hesse-Cassel during its entire existence, was a state in the Holy Roman Empire that was directly subject to the Emperor.
Landscape painting, also known as landscape art, is the depiction of landscapes in art – natural scenery such as mountains, valleys, trees, rivers, and forests, especially where the main subject is a wide view – with its elements arranged into a coherent composition.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Lead-tin-yellow is a yellow pigment, of historical importance in oil painting, also known as the "Yellow of the Old Masters".
Leeuwarden (longname), Stadsfries: Liwwadden) is a city and municipality in Friesland in the Netherlands. It is the provincial capital and seat of the States of Friesland. The municipality has a population of 122,293. The region has been continuously inhabited since the 10th century. It came to be known as Leeuwarden in the early 9th century AD and was granted city privileges in 1435. It is the main economic hub of Friesland, situated in a green and water-rich environment. Leeuwarden is a former royal residence and has a historic city center, many historically relevant buildings, and a large shopping center with squares and restaurants. Leeuwarden was awarded the title European Capital of Culture for 2018. The Elfstedentocht (Eleven Cities Tour), an ice skating tour passing the eleven cities of Friesland, started and finished in Leeuwarden. The following towns and villages within the municipality have populations in excess of 1,000 people: Leeuwarden, Stiens, Grou, Goutum, Wergea, Jirnsum, Reduzum, and Wirdum. The municipality is governed by the mayor Ferd Crone and a coalition of the Labour Party, Christian Democratic Appeal, and GreenLeft.
Leiden (in English and archaic Dutch also Leyden) is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands.
Leiden University (abbreviated as LEI; Universiteit Leiden), founded in the city of Leiden, is the oldest university in the Netherlands.
Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519), more commonly Leonardo da Vinci or simply Leonardo, was an Italian polymath of the Renaissance, whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography.
Art media is the material used by an artist, composer or designer to create a work of art.
The following is a list of drawings by Rembrandt that are generally accepted as autograph.
The following is a list of etchings by the Dutch painter and etcher Rembrandt, with the catalogue numbers of Adam Bartsch.
The following is a list of paintings by Rembrandt that are accepted as autograph by the Rembrandt Research Project.
The Amsterdam studio of the prolific Dutch Golden Age painter Rembrandt included numerous younger pupils/assistants.
The Louvre, or the Louvre Museum, is the world's largest art museum and a historic monument in Paris, France.
Lyon (Liyon), is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France.
The Mauritshuis (Maurice House) is an art museum in The Hague, Netherlands.
Max Liebermann (20 July 1847 – 8 February 1935) was a German-Jewish painter and printmaker, and one of the leading proponents of Impressionism in Germany.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art of New York, colloquially "the Met", is the largest art museum in the United States.
Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni or more commonly known by his first name Michelangelo (6 March 1475 – 18 February 1564) was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect and poet of the High Renaissance born in the Republic of Florence, who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art.
A miller is a person who operates a mill, a machine to grind a cereal crop to make flour.
The Minneapolis Institute of Art (Mia), formerly known as the Minneapolis Institute of Arts, is a fine art museum located in the Whittier neighborhood of Minneapolis, Minnesota, on a campus that covers nearly 8 acres (32,000 m²), formerly Morrison Park.
A mortgage loan, or simply mortgage, is used either by purchasers of real property to raise funds to buy real estate, or alternatively by existing property owners to raise funds for any purpose, while putting a lien on the property being mortgaged.
The Prado Museum is the main Spanish national art museum, located in central Madrid.
The Museum of Fine Arts of Lyon (Musée des beaux-arts de Lyon) is a municipal museum of fine arts in the French city of Lyon.
The Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, Massachusetts, is the fifth largest museum in the United States.
A musketeer (mousquetaire) was a type of soldier equipped with a musket.
Mythology refers variously to the collected myths of a group of people or to the study of such myths.
The National Gallery is an art museum in Trafalgar Square in the City of Westminster, in Central London.
The National Gallery of Art, and its attached Sculpture Garden, is a national art museum in Washington, D.C., located on the National Mall, between 3rd and 9th Streets, at Constitution Avenue NW.
Nationalmuseum (or National Museum of Fine Arts) is the national gallery of Sweden, located on the peninsula Blasieholmen in central Stockholm.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
The Netherlands Institute for Art History or RKD (Dutch: RKD-Nederlands Instituut voor Kunstgeschiedenis) is located in The Hague and is home to the largest art history center in the world.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
Nicolaes Maes, also known as Nicolaes Maas (January 1634 – November 24, 1693 (buried)) was a Dutch Golden Age painter of genre and portraits.
Nigel Konstam (born 1932) is a British sculptor and art historian who has researched the history of art and lectured internationally on art historical subjects.
Ochre (British English) (from Greek: ὤχρα, from ὠχρός, ōkhrós, pale) or ocher (American English) is a natural clay earth pigment which is a mixture of ferric oxide and varying amounts of clay and sand.
Old Man with a Gold Chain is a portrait by Rembrandt, painted around 1631 and now in the Art Institute of Chicago.
Sleeping Venus'' (c. 1510), Dresden, Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister. In art history, "Old Master" (or "old master"), Christies.com.
An old master print is a work of art produced by a printing process within the Western tradition.
The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.
Omaha is the largest city in the state of Nebraska and the county seat of Douglas County.
Otto Benesch (June 29, 1896 – November 16, 1964) was an Austrian art historian.
Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a solid surface (support base).
Sir Peter Paul Rubens (28 June 1577 – 30 May 1640) was a Flemish artist.
Philip de Koninck, or Philips Koninck (5 November 1619 – 4 October 1688 was a Dutch landscape painter and younger brother of Jacob Koninck. in the RKD De Koninck was the son of the jeweler Aert Coninx. He was married twice; in 1641 with Cornelia, a sister of Abraham Furnerius, living in Rotterdam, and in 1657 with Margaretha van Rhijn from Amsterdam. Philip studied painting under his brother Jacob in Rotterdam. After his second marriage he moved to Amsterdam. According to the Dutch writer on art Arnold Houbraken, Koninck completed his training in Rembrandt’s studio in Amsterdam. In the late 1640s, De Koninck, began to paint panoramas, his canvases divided in half, horizontally, between equal measures of earth and sky. Koninck was evidently much affected by Rembrandt etchings like 'The Goldweigher's Field', which looked across a broad sweep of country layered with bands of shade and light. Also the style of Hercules Segers is to be detected in his work. Impressionable and single-minded, Philips Koninck began to paint like this for the next decade, almost all his panoramas pieced together as if narrow ribbons of darkness and brightness had been laid across the canvas. He was a great success, enough of one, at any rate, to buy and operate a barge line that ran between Amsterdam and Rotterdam via Leiden, so that his business could travel through his own landscapes. He painted chiefly broad, sunny landscapes, full of space, light and atmosphere; they are seen from a high perspective, allowing a prominent view of the sky. Portraits by him, somewhat in the manner of Rembrandt, also exist (e.g. see Joost van den Vondel); there are examples of these in the galleries at Copenhagen and Oslo. Of his landscapes, the principal are View at the mouth of a river at the Hague, with a slightly larger replica in the National Gallery, London; Woodland border and countryside (with figures by Adriaen van de Velde) at Amsterdam; and landscapes in Brussels, Florence (the Uffizi), Berlin and Cologne. Koninck, a prosperous businessman, living on Reguliersgracht, appears to have painted only a few pictures during the last decade of his life. Several of his works have been falsely attributed to Rembrandt and many more to his nephew Salomon de Koninck (1609–1656), a disciple of Rembrandt, whose paintings and etchings consist mainly of portraits and biblical scenes. He was also the uncle of the painters Jacob II and Daniel Koninck. All of these painters are to be distinguished from David Koninck (1636?-1687), also known as Rammelaar. David Koninck was born in Antwerp and studied there under Jan Fyt. He later settled in Rome, where he is stated to have died in 1687; this, however, is doubtful. His pictures are chiefly landscapes with animals and still life.
Philosopher in Meditation (Bredius 431) is the traditional title of an oil painting in the Musée du Louvre, Paris, that has long been attributed to the 17th-century Dutch artist Rembrandt.
Pieter J.J. van Thiel (1928–2012) was a Dutch art historian known mostly as one of the founders of the Rembrandt Research Project.
Pieter Lastman (1583–1633) was a Dutch painter.
The Portrait of Dirck van Os is a later painting by Rembrandt (1606-1669), created circa 1658.
Portrait painting is a genre in painting, where the intent is to depict a human subject.
A print room is either a room or industrial building where printing takes place, or a room in an art gallery or museum, where a collection of old master and modern prints, usually together with drawings, watercolours and photographs, are held and viewed.
Printmaking is the process of making artworks by printing, normally on paper.
A private collection is a privately owned collection of works (usually artworks).
The Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts (Музей изобразительных искусств им., also known as ГМИИ) is the largest museum of European art in Moscow, located in Volkhonka street, just opposite the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour.
Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary, first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition.
Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino (March 28 or April 6, 1483April 6, 1520), known as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance.
The Rembrandt House Museum (Museum Het Rembrandthuis) is a historic house and art museum in Amsterdam in the Netherlands.
The Rembrandt Research Project (RRP) is an initiative of the Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO), which is the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research.
--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.
The Rijksmuseum (National Museum) is a Dutch national museum dedicated to arts and history in Amsterdam.
The Royal Castle in Warsaw (Zamek Królewski w Warszawie) is a castle residency that formerly served throughout the centuries as the official residence of the Polish monarchs.
The Royal Palace of Amsterdam in Amsterdam (Dutch: Koninklijk Paleis van Amsterdam or Paleis op de Dam) is one of three palaces in the Netherlands which are at the disposal of the monarch by Act of Parliament.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
Samuel Dirksz van Hoogstraten (2 August 1627, Dordrecht – 19 October 1678, Dordrecht) was a Dutch painter of the Golden Age, who was also a poet and author on art theory.
Saskia van Uylenburgh (2 August 1612 – 14 June 1642) was the wife of painter Rembrandt van Rijn.
Schloss Wilhelmshöhe is a Neoclassical palace located in, a part of Kassel, Germany.
Self Portrait (or The Large Self-Portrait)Prohaska.
Self-Portrait with Beret and Turned-Up Collar is a 1659 oil on canvas painting by the Dutch artist Rembrandt, one of over 40 self-portraits by Rembrandt.
Self-Portrait with Two Circles is an oil on canvas painting by the Dutch artist Rembrandt, painted c. 1665–1669, one of over 40 painted self-portraits by Rembrandt.
The dozens of self-portraits by Rembrandt were an important part of his oeuvre.
Mirza Shahab-ud-din Baig Muhammad Khan Khurram (5 January 1592 – 22 January 1666), better known by his regnal name Shah Jahan (شاہ جہاں), (Persian:شاه جهان "King of the World"), was the fifth Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1628 to 1658.
Sir Simon Michael Schama, CBE, FRSL, FBA (born 13 February 1945) is an English historian specialising in art history, Dutch history, and French history.
Sint Annaparochie is the principal and largest settlement of the municipality of Waadhoeke in Friesland, the Netherlands.
Soot is a mass of impure carbon particles resulting from the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons.
In printmaking, a state is a different form of a print, caused by a deliberate and permanent change to a matrix such as a copper plate (for engravings etc.) or woodblock (for woodcut).
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.
Susanna and the Elders is a 1647 painting by Rembrandt, now in the Gemaldegalerie in Berlin.
The Sampling Officials (De Staalmeesters), also called Syndics of the Drapers’ Guild, is a 1662 oil painting by Rembrandt.
The Anatomy Lesson of Dr.
The Artist in his Studio is an oil painting on panel by Rembrandt c. 1628.
The Blinding of Samson is a 1636 painting by Rembrandt, now in the Städel.
The Conspiracy of Claudius Civilis is an oil painting by the Dutch painter Rembrandt, c. 1661–62, which was originally the largest he ever painted, at about five by five metres in the shape of a lunette.
Descent from the Cross (1634), by Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn, is one of his many religious scenes.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Hague (Den Haag,, short for 's-Gravenhage) is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland.
The Jewish Bride (Het Joodse bruidje) is a painting by Rembrandt, painted around 1667.
The Kitchen Maid (1651) is an oil on canvas painting by the Dutch painter Rembrandt.
The Mill is a painting by Dutch baroque artist Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn.
Militia Company of District II under the Command of Captain Frans Banninck Cocq, also known as The Shooting Company of Frans Banning Cocq and Willem van Ruytenburch, but commonly referred to as The Night Watch (De Nachtwacht), is a 1642 painting by Rembrandt van Rijn.
The Polish Rider is a seventeenth-century painting, usually dated to the 1650s, of a young man traveling on horseback through a murky landscape, now in The Frick Collection in New York.
The Prodigal Son in the Brothel is a painting by the Dutch master Rembrandt.
The Return of the Prodigal Son is an oil painting by Rembrandt.
The Stoning of Saint Stephen is the first signed painting by Dutch artist Rembrandt, painted in 1625 at the age of 19.
The Three Crosses is a drypoint by the Dutch artist Rembrandt van Rijn, which depicts the crucifixion of Jesus Christ.
Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio (1488/1490 – 27 August 1576), known in English as Titian, was an Italian painter, the most important member of the 16th-century Venetian school.
Titus van Rijn (22 September 1641 – 4 September 1668) was the fourth and only surviving child of Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn and Saskia van Uylenburgh.
A tronie (16/17th-century Dutch for "face") is a common type, or group of types, of works common in Dutch Golden Age painting and Flemish Baroque painting that shows an exaggerated facial expression or a stock character in costume.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
Ultramarine is a deep blue color and a pigment which was originally made by grinding lapis lazuli into a powder.
Utrecht Caravaggism (Utrechtse caravaggisten) refers to those Baroque artists, all distinctly influenced by the art of Caravaggio, who were active mostly in the Dutch city of Utrecht during the first part of the seventeenth century.
Vellum is prepared animal skin or "membrane" used as a material for writing on.
Vermilion (sometimes spelled vermillion) is both a brilliant red or scarlet pigment originally made from the powdered mineral cinnabar and the name of the resulting color.
Vincent Willem van Gogh (30 March 185329 July 1890) was a Dutch Post-Impressionist painter who is among the most famous and influential figures in the history of Western art.
The Dutch artist Rembrandt van Rijn (1606–69) occupies a unique a position in the history of prints as he does in the history of painting.
The visual arts are art forms such as ceramics, drawing, painting, sculpture, printmaking, design, crafts, photography, video, filmmaking, and architecture.
The Wallraf–Richartz Museum (full name in German: Wallraf-Richartz-Museum & Fondation Corboud) is one of the three major museums in Cologne, Germany.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
The Westerkerk (Western Church) is a Reformed church within Dutch Protestant church in central Amsterdam, Netherlands.
White lead is the basic lead carbonate, 2PbCO3·Pb(OH)2.
Willem de Poorter (1608–1668) was a Dutch Golden Age painter.
Willem Drost (baptized 19 April 1633 – buried 25 February 1659) was a Dutch Golden Age painter and printmaker of history paintings and portraits.
Willem van der Vliet (c. 1584 – 6 December 1642) was a Dutch Golden Age painter.
Woburn Abbey occupying the east of the village of Woburn, Bedfordshire, England, is a country house, the family seat of the Duke of Bedford.
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