152 relations: Absolute monarchy, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek literature, Ancient Rome, Anthony Grafton, Augustine of Hippo, Basilios Bessarion, Byzantine Empire, Cardinal (Catholic Church), Catholic Church, Catholic theology, Chancellor, Chancellor of Florence, Christian, Christian denomination, Christianity, Church Fathers, Citizenship, Civic engagement, Classical antiquity, Clément Marot, Coin, Collège de France, Coluccio Salutati, Corpus Juris Civilis, Council of Trent, Counter-Reformation, De rerum natura, Diplomat, Edgar Wind, England, Epicureanism, Epicurus, Erasmus, Ernst Cassirer, Erwin Panofsky, Ethics, Eugenio Garin, Fall of Constantinople, Ferrara, Florence, Fourth Crusade, François Rabelais, France, Frances Yates, Francis I of France, Gemistus Pletho, Genoa, George of Trebizond, Germany, ..., Giordano Bruno, Giorgio Vasari, Giovanni Boccaccio, Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, Grammar, Greek language, Greek Orthodox Church, Greek scholars in the Renaissance, Guillaume Budé, Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa, Hermeticism, History, Holy orders in the Catholic Church, Huldrych Zwingli, Humanism, Humanitas, Humanities, Incunable, Italian Renaissance, Jacob Burckhardt, Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples, Jesus, John Addington Symonds, John Argyropoulos, John Calvin, John H. Plumb, John Rigby Hale, Journal of the Oxford University History Society, Lactantius, Law of Moses, Lawyer, Legal history, Legal humanists, Leonardo Bruni, Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects, Lorenzo Valla, Low Countries, Lucretius, Mantua, Manuscript, Marguerite de Navarre, Marsilio Ficino, Middle Ages, Mysticism, Naples, Natural law, New Age, New Learning, Nicholas of Cusa, Novelist, Olaus Magnus, Paganism, Paul Oskar Kristeller, Petrarch, Philip Melanchthon, Philology, Pierre de Ronsard, Platonism, Platonism in the Renaissance, Poet, Poetry, Poggio Bracciolini, Pope, Pope Alexander VI, Pope Innocent VII, Pope Julius II, Pope Leo X, Pope Nicholas V, Pope Pius II, Pope Sixtus IV, Prudence, Quentin Skinner, Rationalism, Reformation, Religious conversion, Renaissance, Renaissance humanism in Northern Europe, Renaissance Latin, Republicanism, Rhetoric, Roberto Rossellini, Rome, Sack of Constantinople (1204), Satan, Scholasticism, Syncretism, Syntax, The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, Theodorus Gaza, Theosophy (Blavatskian), Thomas More, Tommaso Campanella, Trivium, Upper class, Urbino, Utilitarianism, Venice, Virtue, Western esotericism, Western Europe, William Grocyn, William Tyndale. Expand index (102 more) » « Shrink index
Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Ancient Greek literature refers to literature written in the Ancient Greek language from the earliest texts until the time of the Byzantine Empire.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Anthony Thomas Grafton (born May 21, 1950) is one of the foremost historians of early modern Europe and the current Henry Putnam University Professor at Princeton University.
Saint Augustine of Hippo (13 November 354 – 28 August 430) was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy.
Basilios (or Basilius) Bessarion (Greek: Βασίλειος Βησσαρίων; 2 January 1403 – 18 November 1472), a Roman Catholic Cardinal Bishop and the titular Latin Patriarch of Constantinople, was one of the illustrious Greek scholars who contributed to the great revival of letters in the 15th century.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
A cardinal (Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae cardinalis, literally Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church) is a senior ecclesiastical leader, considered a Prince of the Church, and usually an ordained bishop of the Roman Catholic Church.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Catholic theology is the understanding of Catholic doctrine or teachings, and results from the studies of theologians.
Chancellor (cancellarius) is a title of various official positions in the governments of many nations.
The Chancellor of Florence held the most important position in the bureaucracy of the Florentine Republic.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
A Christian denomination is a distinct religious body within Christianity, identified by traits such as a name, organisation, leadership and doctrine.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers, Christian Fathers, or Fathers of the Church are ancient and influential Christian theologians and writers.
Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or belonging to a nation.
Civic engagement or civic participation is any individual or group activity done with the intent to advocate on behalf of the public.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Clément Marot (23 November 1496 – 12 September 1544) was a French poet of the Renaissance period.
A coin is a small, flat, (usually) round piece of metal or plastic used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender.
The Collège de France, founded in 1530, is a higher education and research establishment (grand établissement) in France and an affiliate college of PSL University.
Coluccio Salutati (16 February 1331 – 4 May 1406) was an Italian humanist and man of letters, and one of the most important political and cultural leaders of Renaissance Florence; as chancellor of the Republic and its most prominent voice, he was effectively the permanent secretary of state in the generation before the rise of the Medici.
The Corpus Juris (or Iuris) Civilis ("Body of Civil Law") is the modern name for a collection of fundamental works in jurisprudence, issued from 529 to 534 by order of Justinian I, Eastern Roman Emperor.
The Council of Trent (Concilium Tridentinum), held between 1545 and 1563 in Trent (or Trento, in northern Italy), was an ecumenical council of the Catholic Church.
The Counter-Reformation, also called the Catholic Reformation or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic resurgence initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War (1648).
De rerum natura (On the Nature of Things) is a first-century BC didactic poem by the Roman poet and philosopher Lucretius (c. 99 BC – c. 55 BC) with the goal of explaining Epicurean philosophy to a Roman audience.
A diplomat is a person appointed by a state to conduct diplomacy with one or more other states or international organizations.
Edgar Wind (14 May 1900 – 12 September 1971) was a German-born British interdisciplinary art historian, specializing in iconology in the Renaissance era.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus, founded around 307 BC.
Epicurus (Ἐπίκουρος, Epíkouros, "ally, comrade"; 341–270 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher who founded a school of philosophy now called Epicureanism.
Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (28 October 1466Gleason, John B. "The Birth Dates of John Colet and Erasmus of Rotterdam: Fresh Documentary Evidence," Renaissance Quarterly, The University of Chicago Press on behalf of the Renaissance Society of America, Vol. 32, No. 1 (Spring, 1979), pp. 73–76; – 12 July 1536), known as Erasmus or Erasmus of Rotterdam,Erasmus was his baptismal name, given after St. Erasmus of Formiae.
Ernst Alfred Cassirer (July 28, 1874 – April 13, 1945) was a German philosopher.
Erwin Panofsky (March 30, 1892 in Hannover – March 14, 1968 in Princeton, New Jersey) was a German-Jewish art historian, whose academic career was pursued mostly in the U.S. after the rise of the Nazi regime.
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
Eugenio Garin (May 9, 1909 – December 29, 2004) was an Italian philosopher and Renaissance historian.
The Fall of Constantinople (Ἅλωσις τῆς Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Halōsis tēs Kōnstantinoupoleōs; İstanbul'un Fethi Conquest of Istanbul) was the capture of the capital of the Byzantine Empire by an invading Ottoman army on 29 May 1453.
Ferrara (Ferrarese: Fràra) is a town and comune in Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy, capital of the Province of Ferrara.
Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.
The Fourth Crusade (1202–1204) was a Latin Christian armed expedition called by Pope Innocent III.
François Rabelais (between 1483 and 1494 – 9 April 1553) was a French Renaissance writer, physician, Renaissance humanist, monk and Greek scholar.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Dame Frances Amelia Yates, (28 November 1899 – 29 September 1981) was an English historian who focused on the study of the Renaissance.
Francis I (François Ier) (12 September 1494 – 31 March 1547) was the first King of France from the Angoulême branch of the House of Valois, reigning from 1515 until his death.
Georgius Gemistus (Γεώργιος Γεμιστός; /1360 – 1452/1454), later called Plethon (Πλήθων), was one of the most renowned philosophers of the late Byzantine era.
Genoa (Genova,; Zêna; English, historically, and Genua) is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy.
George of Trebizond (Γεώργιος Τραπεζούντιος; 1395–1486) was a Greek philosopher, scholar and humanist.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Giordano Bruno (Iordanus Brunus Nolanus; 1548 – 17 February 1600), born Filippo Bruno, was an Italian Dominican friar, philosopher, mathematician, poet, and cosmological theorist.
Giorgio Vasari (30 July 1511 – 27 June 1574) was an Italian painter, architect, writer, and historian, most famous today for his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects, considered the ideological foundation of art-historical writing.
Giovanni Boccaccio (16 June 1313 – 21 December 1375) was an Italian writer, poet, correspondent of Petrarch, and an important Renaissance humanist.
Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (24 February 1463 – 17 November 1494) was an Italian Renaissance nobleman and philosopher.
In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The name Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: Ἑλληνορθόδοξη Ἑκκλησία, Ellinorthódoxi Ekklisía), or Greek Orthodoxy, is a term referring to the body of several Churches within the larger communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, whose liturgy is or was traditionally conducted in Koine Greek, the original language of the Septuagint and New Testament, and whose history, traditions, and theology are rooted in the early Church Fathers and the culture of the Byzantine Empire.
The migration waves of Byzantine scholars and émigrés in the period following the Crusader sacking of Constantinople and the end of the Byzantine Empire in 1453, is considered by many scholars key to the revival of Greek and Roman studies that led to the development of the Renaissance humanism and science.
Guillaume Budé (Guilielmus Budaeus; 26 January 146723 August 1540) was a French scholar.
Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa von Nettesheim (14 September 1486 – 18 February 1535) was a German polymath, physician, legal scholar, soldier, theologian, and occult writer.
Hermeticism, also called Hermetism, is a religious, philosophical, and esoteric tradition based primarily upon writings attributed to Hermes Trismegistus ("Thrice Great").
History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.
The Sacrament of Holy Orders in the Catholic Church includes three orders: bishop, priest, and deacon.
Huldrych Zwingli or Ulrich Zwingli (1 January 1484 – 11 October 1531) was a leader of the Reformation in Switzerland.
Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition.
Humanitas is a Latin noun meaning human nature, civilization, and kindness.
Humanities are academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture.
An incunable, or sometimes incunabulum (plural incunables or incunabula, respectively), is a book, pamphlet, or broadside printed in Europe before the year 1501.
The Italian Renaissance (Rinascimento) was the earliest manifestation of the general European Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement that began in Italy during the 14th century (Trecento) and lasted until the 17th century (Seicento), marking the transition between Medieval and Modern Europe.
Carl Jacob Christoph Burckhardt (May 25, 1818 – August 8, 1897) was a Swiss historian of art and culture and an influential figure in the historiography of both fields.
Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples or Jacobus Faber Stapulensis (c. 1455 – 1536) was a French theologian and humanist.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
John Addington Symonds (5 October 1840 – 19 April 1893) was an English poet and literary critic.
John Argyropoulos (Ἰωάννης Ἀργυρόπουλος Ioannis Argyropoulos; Giovanni Argiropulo; surname also spelt Argyropulus, or Argyropulos, or Argyropulo; c. 1415 – 26 June 1487) was a lecturer, philosopher and humanist, one of the émigré Greek scholars who pioneered the revival of Classical learning in 15th-century Italy.
John Calvin (Jean Calvin; born Jehan Cauvin; 10 July 150927 May 1564) was a French theologian, pastor and reformer in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation.
Sir John (Jack) Harold Plumb, (20 August 1911 – 21 October 2001) was a British historian, known for his books on British 18th century history.
Sir John Rigby Hale (17 September 1923 – 12 August 1999) was a British historian and translator, best known for his Renaissance studies.
The Journal of the Oxford University History Society is the online peer-reviewed journal associated with the Oxford University History Society.
Lucius Caecilius Firmianus Lactantius (c. 250 – c. 325) was an early Christian author who became an advisor to the first Christian Roman emperor, Constantine I, guiding his religious policy as it developed, and a tutor to his son Crispus.
The Law of Moses, also called the Mosaic Law or in תֹּורַת מֹשֶׁה, Torat Moshe, refers primarily to the Torah or first five books of the Hebrew Bible.
A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney, attorney at law, barrister, barrister-at-law, bar-at-law, counsel, counselor, counsellor, counselor at law, or solicitor, but not as a paralegal or charter executive secretary.
Legal history or the history of law is the study of how law has evolved and why it changed.
The legal humanists were a group of scholars of Roman law, which arose in Italy during the Renaissance with the works of Lorenzo Valla and Andrea Alciato as a reaction against the Commentators.
Leonardo Bruni (or Leonardo Aretino) (c. 1370 – March 9, 1444) was an Italian humanist, historian and statesman, often recognized as the most important humanist historian of the early Renaissance.
The Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects (Le Vite de' più eccellenti pittori, scultori, e architettori), also known as The Lives (Le Vite), is a series of artist biographies written by 16th-century Italian painter and architect Giorgio Vasari, which is considered "perhaps the most famous, and even today the most-read work of the older literature of art", "some of the Italian Renaissance's most influential writing on art", and "the first important book on art history".
Lorenzo (or Laurentius) Valla (14071 August 1457) was an Italian humanist, rhetorician, educator and Catholic priest.
The Low Countries or, in the geographic sense of the term, the Netherlands (de Lage Landen or de Nederlanden, les Pays Bas) is a coastal region in northwestern Europe, consisting especially of the Netherlands and Belgium, and the low-lying delta of the Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, and Ems rivers where much of the land is at or below sea level.
Titus Lucretius Carus (15 October 99 BC – c. 55 BC) was a Roman poet and philosopher.
Mantua (Mantova; Emilian and Latin: Mantua) is a city and comune in Lombardy, Italy, and capital of the province of the same name.
A manuscript (abbreviated MS for singular and MSS for plural) was, traditionally, any document written by hand -- or, once practical typewriters became available, typewritten -- as opposed to being mechanically printed or reproduced in some indirect or automated way.
Marguerite de Navarre (Marguerite d'Angoulême, Marguerite d'Alençon; 11 April 149221 December 1549), also known as Marguerite of Angoulême and Margaret of Navarre, was the princess of France, Queen of Navarre, and Duchess of Alençon and Berry.
Marsilio Ficino (Latin name: Marsilius Ficinus; 19 October 1433 – 1 October 1499) was an Italian scholar and Catholic priest who was one of the most influential humanist philosophers of the early Italian Renaissance.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Mysticism is the practice of religious ecstasies (religious experiences during alternate states of consciousness), together with whatever ideologies, ethics, rites, myths, legends, and magic may be related to them.
Naples (Napoli, Napule or; Neapolis; lit) is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan.
Natural law (ius naturale, lex naturalis) is a philosophy asserting that certain rights are inherent by virtue of human nature, endowed by nature—traditionally by God or a transcendent source—and that these can be understood universally through human reason.
New Age is a term applied to a range of spiritual or religious beliefs and practices that developed in Western nations during the 1970s.
In the history of ideas the New Learning in Europe is the Renaissance humanism, developed in the later fifteenth century.
Nicholas of Cusa (1401 – 11 August 1464), also referred to as Nicholas of Kues and Nicolaus Cusanus, was a German philosopher, theologian, jurist, and astronomer.
A novelist is an author or writer of novels, though often novelists also write in other genres of both fiction and non-fiction.
Olaus Magnus (October 1490 – 1 August 1557) was a Swedish writer and Catholic ecclesiastic.
Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).
Paul Oskar Kristeller (May 22, 1905 in Berlin – June 7, 1999 in New York, United States) was an important scholar of Renaissance humanism.
Francesco Petrarca (July 20, 1304 – July 18/19, 1374), commonly anglicized as Petrarch, was a scholar and poet of Renaissance Italy who was one of the earliest humanists.
Philip Melanchthon (born Philipp Schwartzerdt; 16 February 1497 – 19 April 1560) was a German Lutheran reformer, collaborator with Martin Luther, the first systematic theologian of the Protestant Reformation, intellectual leader of the Lutheran Reformation, and an influential designer of educational systems.
Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.
Pierre de Ronsard (11 September 1524 – 27 December 1585) was a French poet or, as his own generation in France called him, a "prince of poets".
Platonism, rendered as a proper noun, is the philosophy of Plato or the name of other philosophical systems considered closely derived from it.
Platonism, especially in its Neoplatonist form, underwent a revival in the Renaissance, as part of a general revival of interest in Classical antiquity.
A poet is a person who creates poetry.
Poetry (the term derives from a variant of the Greek term, poiesis, "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning.
Gian Francesco Poggio Bracciolini (11 February 1380 – 30 October 1459), best known simply as Poggio Bracciolini, was an Italian scholar and an early humanist.
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Pope Alexander VI, born Rodrigo de Borja (de Borja, Rodrigo Lanzol y de Borja; 1 January 1431 – 18 August 1503), was Pope from 11 August 1492 until his death.
Pope Innocent VII (Innocentius VII; 1339 – 6 November 1406), born Cosimo de' Migliorati, was Pope from 17 October 1404 to his death in 1406.
Pope Julius II (Papa Giulio II; Iulius II) (5 December 1443 – 21 February 1513), born Giuliano della Rovere, and nicknamed "The Fearsome Pope" and "The Warrior Pope".
Pope Leo X (11 December 1475 – 1 December 1521), born Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, was Pope from 9 March 1513 to his death in 1521.
Pope Nicholas V (Nicholaus V) (13 November 1397 – 24 March 1455), born Tommaso Parentucelli, was Pope from 6 March 1447 until his death.
Pope Pius II (Pius PP., Pio II), born Enea Silvio Bartolomeo Piccolomini (Aeneas Silvius Bartholomeus; 18 October 1405 – 14 August 1464) was Pope from 19 August 1458 to his death in 1464.
Pope Sixtus IV (21 July 1414 – 12 August 1484), born Francesco della Rovere, was Pope from 9 August 1471 to his death in 1484.
Prudence (prudentia, contracted from providentia meaning "seeing ahead, sagacity") is the ability to govern and discipline oneself by the use of reason.
Quentin Robert Duthie Skinner (born 26 November 1940, Oldham, Lancashire) is an intellectual historian.
In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification".
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
Religious conversion is the adoption of a set of beliefs identified with one particular religious denomination to the exclusion of others.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Renaissance Humanism came much later to Germany and Northern Europe in general than to Italy, and when it did, it encountered some resistance from the scholastic theology which reigned at the universities.
Renaissance Latin is a name given to the distinctive form of Latin style developed during the European Renaissance of the fourteenth to fifteenth centuries, particularly by the Renaissance humanism movement.
Republicanism is an ideology centered on citizenship in a state organized as a republic under which the people hold popular sovereignty.
Rhetoric is the art of discourse, wherein a writer or speaker strives to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations.
Roberto Gastone Zeffiro Rossellini (8 May 1906 – 3 June 1977) was an Italian film director and screenwriter.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
The siege and sack of Constantinople occurred in April 1204 and marked the culmination of the Fourth Crusade.
Satan is an entity in the Abrahamic religions that seduces humans into sin.
Scholasticism is a method of critical thought which dominated teaching by the academics ("scholastics", or "schoolmen") of medieval universities in Europe from about 1100 to 1700, and a program of employing that method in articulating and defending dogma in an increasingly pluralistic context.
Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.
The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy (1995; second edition 1999) is a dictionary of philosophy published by Cambridge University Press and edited by Robert Audi.
Theodorus Gaza or Theodore Gazis (Θεόδωρος Γαζῆς, Theodoros Gazis; Teodoro Gaza; Theodorus Gazes), also called by the epithet Thessalonicensis (in Latin) and Thessalonikeus (in Greek) (c. 1398 – c. 1475), was a Greek humanist and translator of Aristotle, one of the Greek scholars who were the leaders of the revival of learning in the 15th century (the Palaeologan Renaissance).
Theosophy is an esoteric religious movement established in the United States during the late nineteenth century.
Sir Thomas More (7 February 14786 July 1535), venerated in the Catholic Church as Saint Thomas More, was an English lawyer, social philosopher, author, statesman, and noted Renaissance humanist.
Tommaso Campanella OP (5 September 1568 – 21 May 1639), baptized Giovanni Domenico Campanella, was a Dominican friar, Italian philosopher, theologian, astrologer, and poet.
The trivium is the lower division of the seven liberal arts and comprises grammar, logic, and rhetoric (input, process, and output).
The upper class in modern societies is the social class composed of people who hold the highest social status, and usuall are also the wealthiest members of society, and also wield the greatest political power.
Urbino is a walled city in the Marche region of Italy, south-west of Pesaro, a World Heritage Site notable for a remarkable historical legacy of independent Renaissance culture, especially under the patronage of Federico da Montefeltro, duke of Urbino from 1444 to 1482.
Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that states that the best action is the one that maximizes utility.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
Virtue (virtus, ἀρετή "arete") is moral excellence.
Western esotericism (also called esotericism and esoterism), also known as the Western mystery tradition, is a term under which scholars have categorised a wide range of loosely related ideas and movements which have developed within Western society.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
William Grocyn (1446 – 1519) was an English scholar, a friend of Erasmus.
William Tyndale (sometimes spelled Tynsdale, Tindall, Tindill, Tyndall; &ndash) was an English scholar who became a leading figure in the Protestant Reformation in the years leading up to his execution.
European humanism, Humanism in Italy, Italian humanism, Italian humanist, Italian humanists, Renaissance Humanism, Renaissance Humanist, Renaissance Idea of the Dignity of Man, Renaissance humanist, Renaissance humanists.