199 relations: Abdomen, Abdominal pain, Ablation, Acquired cystic kidney disease-associated renal cell carcinoma, Adenocarcinoma, Adjuvant therapy, Adrenal gland, Alanine transaminase, Amyloidosis, Anemia, Angiography, Aspartate transaminase, Asymptomatic, Atezolizumab, Avelumab, Axitinib, Bacteria, Basement membrane, Benignity, Bevacizumab, Biochemistry, Biopsy, Birt–Hogg–Dubé syndrome, Bleeding, Blood vessel, Brain, C-Met, Cabozantinib, Calcification, Cancer, Cancer staging, Carcinoma, Cell membrane, Cell nucleus, Chemotherapy, Chemotherapy-induced acral erythema, Chromophobe cell, Chromosomal translocation, Chromosome 3, Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma, Clear-cell sarcoma of the kidney, Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, Clinical trial, Clinical urine tests, Collecting duct carcinoma, Collecting duct system, Comorbidity, Cryoablation, Cryotherapy, CT scan, ..., Cyst, Cystic nephroma, Cytoplasm, Daniel Sennert, Diabetes mellitus, Durvalumab, Dysuria, Electrolyte, Embolization, Endoglin, Enzyme, Eosin, Eosinophilic, Epithelium, Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, Erythropoietin, Everolimus, Fascia, Felix Victor Birch-Hirschfeld, Fever, Five-year survival rate, Gadolinium, Gallbladder, Glossary of gene expression terms, Glycogen, Gross examination, H&E stain, Haematoxylin, Hematuria, Hemoglobin, Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma, Heredity, Histology, Hybrid oncocytoma/chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, Hypercalcaemia, Hypertension, Hysterectomy, Immunotherapy, Inferior vena cava, Interferon, Interferon type I, Interleukin 2, Intravenous pyelogram, Intravenous therapy, Ipilimumab, Kidney, Kidney cancer, Knudson hypothesis, LAG525, Laparoscopy, Leiomyoma, Lenvatinib, Lesion, Liver, Locus (genetics), Lung, Lymph node, Macroscopic scale, Magnetic resonance imaging, Malaise, Malignancy, Mannitol, Medical history, Medical ultrasound, Metastasis, Micrograph, Microvillus, Mitochondrion, Mucin, Mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma, Multilocular cystic clear cell renal cell carcinoma, Mutation, Necrosis, Neoadjuvant therapy, Neoplasm, Nephrectomy, Nephron, Nivolumab, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Oncocytoma, Oncology, Organelle, Osmotic dehydration, Otto Lubarsch, Papilla, Papillary duct, Papillary thyroid cancer, Paraneoplastic syndrome, Partial thromboplastin time, Pathogenesis, Pathology, Paul Grawitz, Pazopanib, Pelvis, Percutaneous, Platelet, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, Polycystic kidney disease, Polycythemia, Positron emission tomography, Prognosis, Protein, Proximal tubule, Radiation, Radiation therapy, Radiofrequency ablation, Radiology, Red blood cell, Renal cell carcinoma with t(6;11) translocation, Renal cortex, Renal fascia, Renal vein, Renin, Savolitinib, Scar, Segmental resection, Sickle cell disease, Sirolimus, Sorafenib, Spinal cord, Spindle neuron, Stauffer syndrome, Sugar, Sunitinib, Surgery, Targeted therapy, Temsirolimus, Tetrasomy, TFE3, Thrombocythemia, Thyroid-like follicular renal cell carcinoma, TNM staging system, Trisomy, Tuberous sclerosis protein, Tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma, Ultrasound, Ultrastructure, Urinary system, Varicocele, Varlilumab, Venae cavae, Venography, Vinblastine, Virtual karyotype, Von Hippel–Lindau disease, Von Hippel–Lindau tumor suppressor, White blood cell, World Health Organization, X-ray. Expand index (149 more) » « Shrink index
The abdomen (less formally called the belly, stomach, tummy or midriff) constitutes the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates.
Abdominal pain, also known as a stomach ache, is a symptom associated with both non-serious and serious medical issues.
Ablation is removal of material from the surface of an object by vaporization, chipping, or other erosive processes.
Acquired cystic kidney disease-associated renal cell carcinoma is rare subtype of renal cell carcinoma.
Adenocarcinoma (plural adenocarcinomas or adenocarcinomata) is a type of cancerous tumor that can occur in several parts of the body.
Adjuvant therapy, also known as adjunct therapy, add-on therapy, and adjuvant care, is therapy that is given in addition to the primary or initial therapy to maximize its effectiveness.
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.
Alanine transaminase (ALT) is a transaminase enzyme.
Amyloidosis is a group of diseases in which abnormal protein, known as amyloid fibrils, builds up in tissue.
Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.
Angiography or arteriography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the inside, or lumen, of blood vessels and organs of the body, with particular interest in the arteries, veins and the heart chambers.
Aspartate transaminase (AST) or aspartate aminotransferase, also known as AspAT/ASAT/AAT or serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), is a pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent transaminase enzyme that was first described by Arthur Karmen and colleagues in 1954.
In medicine, a disease is considered asymptomatic if a patient is a carrier for a disease or infection but experiences no symptoms.
Atezolizumab (trade name Tecentriq) is a fully humanized, engineered monoclonal antibody of IgG1 isotype against the protein programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1).
Avelumab (trade name Bavencio) is a fully human monoclonal antibody developed by Merck KGaA and Pfizer and Eli Lilly and Company in Canada as a pharmaceutical drug for use in immunotherapy, originally for the treatment of non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC).
Axitinib (AG013736; trade name Inlyta) is a small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor developed by Pfizer.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
The basement membrane is a thin, fibrous, extracellular matrix of tissue that separates the lining of an internal or external body surface from underlying connective tissue in metazoans.
Benignity (from Latin benignus "kind, good", itself deriving from bonus "good" and genus "origin") is any condition that is harmless in the long run.
Bevacizumab, sold under the trade name Avastin, is medication used to treat a number of types of cancers and a specific eye disease.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
A biopsy is a medical test commonly performed by a surgeon, interventional radiologist, or an interventional cardiologist involving extraction of sample cells or tissues for examination to determine the presence or extent of a disease.
Birt–Hogg–Dubé syndrome (BHD), also Hornstein–Birt–Hogg–Dubé syndrome, Hornstein–Knickenberg syndrome, and fibrofolliculomas with trichodiscomas and acrochordons is a human autosomal dominant genetic disorder that can cause susceptibility to kidney cancer, renal and pulmonary cysts, and noncancerous tumors of the hair follicles, called fibrofolliculomas.
Bleeding, also known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging, is blood escaping from the circulatory system.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
c-Met, also called tyrosine-protein kinase Met or hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MET gene.
Cabozantinib, sold under the brand-name Cabometyx and Cometriq, is a medication used to treat medullary thyroid cancer and a second line treatment for renal cell carcinoma among others.
Calcification is the accumulation of calcium salts in a body tissue.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Cancer staging is the process of determining the extent to which a cancer has developed by growing and spreading.
Carcinoma is a type of cancer that develops from epithelial cells.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.
Chemotherapy-induced acral erythema (also known as palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia, palmoplantar erythrodysesthesia, or hand-foot syndrome) is reddening, swelling, numbness and desquamation (skin sloughing or peeling) on palms of the hands and soles of the feet (and, occasionally, on the knees, elbows, and elsewhere) that can occur after chemotherapy in patients with cancer.
A chromophobe is a histological structure that does not stain readily, and thus appears relatively pale under the microscope.
In genetics, a chromosome translocation is a chromosome abnormality caused by rearrangement of parts between nonhomologous chromosomes.
Chromosome 3 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.
Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma, abbreviated CCPRCC and also known as clear cell tubulopapillary renal cell carcinoma, is a rare subtype of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) that has microscopic morphologic features of papillary renal cell carcinoma and clear cell renal cell carcinoma, yet is pathologically distinct based on molecular changes and immunohistochemistry.
Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney (CCSK) is an extremely rare type of kidney cancer comprising 3% of all pediatric renal tumours.
The Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing is a bimonthly peer-reviewed nursing journal covering oncology nursing.
Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research.
Clinical urine tests are various tests of urine for diagnostic purposes.
Collecting duct carcinoma (CDC) (also known as Bellini duct carcinoma), is a type of kidney cancer that originates in the papillary duct of the kidney.
The collecting duct system of the kidney consists of a series of tubules and ducts that physically connect nephrons to a minor calyx or directly to the renal pelvis.
In medicine, comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional diseases or disorders co-occurring with (that is, concomitant or concurrent with) a primary disease or disorder; in the countable sense of the term, a comorbidity (plural comorbidities) is each additional disorder or disease.
Cryoablation is a process that uses extreme cold to destroy tissue.
Cryotherapy, sometimes known as cold therapy, is the local or general use of low temperatures in medical therapy.
A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.
A cyst is a closed sac, having a distinct membrane and division compared with the nearby tissue.
A cystic nephroma, also known as multilocular cystic nephroma, mixed epithelial stromal tumour (MEST) and renal epithelial stromal tumour (REST), is a type of rare benign kidney tumour.
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.
Daniel Sennert (November 25, 1572 – July 21, 1637) was a renowned German physician and a prolific academic writer, especially in the field of alchemy or chemistry.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Durvalumab is an FDA-approved immunotherapy for cancer, developed by Medimmune/AstraZeneca.
In medicine, specifically urology, dysuria refers to painful urination.
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
Embolization or embolisation refers to the passage and lodging of an embolus within the bloodstream.
Endoglin (ENG) is a type I membrane glycoprotein located on cell surfaces and is part of the TGF beta receptor complex.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Eosin is the name of several fluorescent acidic compounds which bind to and form salts with basic, or eosinophilic, compounds like proteins containing amino acid residues such as arginine and lysine, and stains them dark red or pink as a result of the actions of bromine on fluorescein.
Eosinophilic (Greek suffix -phil-, meaning loves eosin) refers to the staining of certain tissues, cells, or organelles after they have been washed with eosin, a dye.
Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR or sed rate) is the rate at which red blood cells sediment in a period of one hour.
Erythropoietin (EPO), also known as hematopoietin or hemopoietin, is a glycoprotein cytokine secreted by the kidney in response to cellular hypoxia; it stimulates red blood cell production (erythropoiesis) in the bone marrow.
A fascia (plural fasciae; adjective fascial; from Latin: "band") is a band or sheet of connective tissue, primarily collagen, beneath the skin that attaches, stabilizes, encloses, and separates muscles and other internal organs.
Felix Victor Birch-Hirschfeld (May 2, 1842 – November 19, 1899) was a German pathologist who was a native of Kluvensieck bei Rendsburg.
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.
The five-year survival rate is a type of survival rate for estimating the prognosis of a particular disease, normally calculated from the point of diagnosis.
Gadolinium is a chemical element with symbol Gd and atomic number 64.
In vertebrates, the gallbladder is a small hollow organ where bile is stored and concentrated before it is released into the small intestine.
Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in humans, animals, fungi, and bacteria.
Gross examination or "grossing" is the process by which pathology specimens are inspected with the bare eye to obtain diagnostic information, while being processed for further microscopic examination. Gross examination of surgical specimens is typically performed by a pathologist, or by a pathologists' assistant working within a pathology practice.
Hematoxylin and eosin stain or haematoxylin and eosin stain (H&E stain or HE stain) is one of the principal stains in histology.
Haematoxylin or hematoxylin, also called natural black 1 or C.I. 75290, is a compound extracted from the heartwood of the logwood tree (Haematoxylum campechianum).
Hematuria is the presence of red blood cells in the urine.
Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.
Hybrid oncocytoma/chromophobe renal cell carcinoma is rare subtype of renal cell carcinoma.
Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.
Histology, also microanatomy, is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy.
Hybrid oncocytoma/chromophobe renal cell carcinoma is rare subtype of renal cell carcinoma.
Hypercalcaemia, also spelled hypercalcemia, is a high calcium (Ca2+) level in the blood serum.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Hysterectomy is the surgical removal of the uterus.
Immunotherapy is the "treatment of disease by inducing, enhancing, or suppressing an immune response".
The inferior vena cava (or IVC) is a large vein that carries deoxygenated blood from the lower and middle body into the right atrium of the heart.
Interferons (IFNs) are a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of several pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, and also tumor cells.
Human type I interferons (IFNs) are a large subgroup of interferon proteins that help regulate the activity of the immune system.
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is an interleukin, a type of cytokine signaling molecule in the immune system.
An intravenous pyelogram (IVP), also called an intravenous urogram (IVU), is a radiological procedure used to visualize abnormalities of the urinary system, including the kidneys, ureters, and bladder.
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
Ipilimumab (trade name Yervoy) is a monoclonal antibody that works to activate the immune system by targeting CTLA-4, a protein receptor that downregulates the immune system.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Kidney cancer, also known as renal cancer, is a type of cancer that starts in the cells in the kidney.
The Knudson hypothesis, also known as the two-hit hypothesis or multiple-hit hypothesis, is the hypothesis that cancer is the result of accumulated mutations to a cell's DNA.
LAG525 is a monoclonal antibody being developed by Novartis for the treatment of cancer.
Laparoscopy is an operation performed in the abdomen or pelvis through small incisions (usually 0.5–1.5 cm) with the aid of a camera.
A leiomyoma, also known as fibroids, is a benign smooth muscle tumor that very rarely becomes cancer (0.1%).
Lenvatinib (trade name Lenvima) is an anti-cancer drug for the treatment of certain kinds of thyroid cancer, and potentially for other cancers as well.
A lesion is any abnormal damage or change in the tissue of an organism, usually caused by disease or trauma.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
A locus (plural loci) in genetics is a fixed position on a chromosome, like the position of a gene or a marker (genetic marker).
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
A lymph node or lymph gland is an ovoid or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, and of the adaptive immune system, that is widely present throughout the body.
The macroscopic scale is the length scale on which objects or phenomena are large enough to be visible almost practically with the naked eye, without magnifying optical instruments.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.
Malaise is a feeling of general discomfort, uneasiness or pain, often the first indication of an infection or other disease.
Malignancy is the tendency of a medical condition to become progressively worse.
Mannitol is a type of sugar alcohol which is also used as a medication.
The medical history or case history of a patient is information gained by a physician by asking specific questions, either of the patient or of other people who know the person and can give suitable information, with the aim of obtaining information useful in formulating a diagnosis and providing medical care to the patient.
Medical ultrasound (also known as diagnostic sonography or ultrasonography) is a diagnostic imaging technique based on the application of ultrasound.
Metastasis is a pathogenic agent's spread from an initial or primary site to a different or secondary site within the host's body; it is typically spoken of as such spread by a cancerous tumor.
A micrograph or photomicrograph is a photograph or digital image taken through a microscope or similar device to show a magnified image of an item.
Microvilli (singular: microvillus) are microscopic cellular membrane protrusions that increase the surface area for diffusion and minimize any increase in volume, and are involved in a wide variety of functions, including absorption, secretion, cellular adhesion, and mechanotransduction.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
Mucins are a family of high molecular weight, heavily glycosylated proteins (glycoconjugates) produced by epithelial tissues in most animals.
Mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma (MTSCC) is a rare subtype of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), that is included in the 2004 WHO classification of RCC.
Multilocular cystic clear cell renal cell carcinoma is rare subtype of renal cell carcinoma.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
Necrosis (from the Greek νέκρωσις "death, the stage of dying, the act of killing" from νεκρός "dead") is a form of cell injury which results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by autolysis.
Neoadjuvant therapy is the administration of therapeutic agents before a main treatment.
Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.
Nephrectomy is the surgical removal of a kidney.
The nephron (from Greek νεφρός – nephros, meaning "kidney") is the microscopic structural and functional unit of the kidney.
Nivolumab, marketed as Opdivo, is a medication used to treat cancer.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a drug class that reduce pain, decrease fever, prevent blood clots and, in higher doses, decrease inflammation.
An oncocytoma is a tumor made up of oncocytes, epithelial cells characterized by an excessive amount of mitochondria, resulting in an abundant acidophilic, granular cytoplasm.
Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer.
In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, in which their function is vital for the cell to live.
Osmotic dehydration is an operation used for the partial removal of water from plant tissues by immersion in a hyper-tonic (osmotic) solution.example resin,date.
Otto Lubarsch (4 January 1860 – 1 April 1933) was a German pathologist and academic who was a native of Berlin.
papilla (plural: papillae) generally means a nipple-like structure, may refer to.
Papillary (collecting) ducts are anatomical structures of the kidneys, previously known as the ducts of Bellini.
Papillary thyroid cancer or papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common type of thyroid cancer, representing 75 percent to 85 percent of all thyroid cancer cases.
A paraneoplastic syndrome is a syndrome (a set of signs and symptoms) that is the consequence of cancer in the body, but unlike mass effect, is not due to the local presence of cancer cells.
The partial thromboplastin time (PTT) or activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT or APTT) is a medical test that characterizes blood coagulation, also known as clotting.
The pathogenesis of a disease is the biological mechanism (or mechanisms) that leads to the diseased state.
Pathology (from the Ancient Greek roots of pathos (πάθος), meaning "experience" or "suffering" and -logia (-λογία), "study of") is a significant field in modern medical diagnosis and medical research, concerned mainly with the causal study of disease, whether caused by pathogens or non-infectious physiological disorder.
Paul Albert Grawitz (born October 1, 1850 in Zerrin/Sierzno, Kreis Bütow (cf.Bütow/Bytów), Pommern (now Poland) – June 27, 1932 in Greifswald) was a German pathologist.
Pazopanib (trade name Votrient) is a potent and selective multi-targeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor that blocks tumour growth and inhibits angiogenesis. It has been approved for renal cell carcinoma and soft tissue sarcoma by numerous regulatory administrations worldwide.
The pelvis (plural pelves or pelvises) is either the lower part of the trunk of the human body between the abdomen and the thighs (sometimes also called pelvic region of the trunk) or the skeleton embedded in it (sometimes also called bony pelvis, or pelvic skeleton).
In surgery, a percutaneous procedure is any medical procedure or method where access to inner organs or other tissue is done via needle-puncture of the skin, rather than by using an "open" approach where inner organs or tissue are exposed (typically with the use of a scalpel).
Platelets, also called thrombocytes (from Greek θρόμβος, "clot" and κύτος, "cell"), are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to react to bleeding from blood vessel injury by clumping, thereby initiating a blood clot.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, also polyaromatic hydrocarbons or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons) are hydrocarbons—organic compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen—that are composed of multiple aromatic rings (organic rings in which the electrons are delocalized).
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD or PCKD, also known as polycystic kidney syndrome) is a genetic disorder in which the renal tubules become structurally abnormal, resulting in the development and growth of multiple cysts within the kidney.
Polycythemia (also known as polycythaemia or polyglobulia) is a disease state in which the hematocrit (the volume percentage of red blood cells in the blood) is elevated.
Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.
Prognosis (Greek: πρόγνωσις "fore-knowing, foreseeing") is a medical term for predicting the likely or expected development of a disease, including whether the signs and symptoms will improve or worsen (and how quickly) or remain stable over time; expectations of quality of life, such as the ability to carry out daily activities; the potential for complications and associated health issues; and the likelihood of survival (including life expectancy).
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
The proximal tubule is the portion of the duct system of the nephron of the kidney which leads from Bowman's capsule to the loop of Henle.
In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.
Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.
Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a medical procedure in which part of the electrical conduction system of the heart, tumor or other dysfunctional tissue is ablated using the heat generated from medium frequency alternating current (in the range of 350–500 kHz).
Radiology is the science that uses medical imaging to diagnose and sometimes also treat diseases within the body.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
Renal cell carcinoma with t(6;11) translocation or TFEB-amplified Renal Cell Carcinomas is rare subtype of renal cell carcinoma.
The renal cortex is the outer portion of the kidney between the renal capsule and the renal medulla.
The renal fascia or Gerota's fascia is a layer of connective tissue encapsulating the kidneys and the adrenal glands.
The renal veins are veins that drain the kidney.
Renin (etymology and pronunciation), also known as an angiotensinogenase, is an aspartic protease protein and enzyme secreted by the kidneys that participates in the body's renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS)—also known as the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone axis—that mediates the volume of extracellular fluid (blood plasma, lymph and interstitial fluid), and arterial vasoconstriction.
Savolitinib is an experimental small molecule inhibitor of c-Met.
A scar is an area of fibrous tissue that replaces normal skin after an injury.
Segmental resection (or segmentectomy) is a surgical procedure to remove part of an organ or gland, as a sub-type of a resection, which might involve removing the whole body part.
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of blood disorders typically inherited from a person's parents.
Sirolimus, also known as rapamycin, is a macrolide compound that is used to coat coronary stents, prevent organ transplant rejection and to treat a rare lung disease called lymphangioleiomyomatosis.
Sorafenib (co-developed and co-marketed by Bayer and Onyx Pharmaceuticals as Nexavar), is a kinase inhibitor drug approved for the treatment of primary kidney cancer (advanced renal cell carcinoma), advanced primary liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma), and radioactive iodine resistant advanced thyroid carcinoma.
The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.
Spindle neurons, also called von Economo neurons (VENs), are a specific class of neurons that are characterized by a large spindle-shaped soma (or body), gradually tapering into a single apical axon in one direction, with only a single dendrite facing opposite.
Stauffer syndrome is a constellation of signs and symptoms of liver dysfunction that arises due to presence of renal cell carcinoma, and, more rarely, in connection with other malignant neoplasms, though the specific pathogenesis is currently unknown.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
Sunitinib (marketed as Sutent by Pfizer, and previously known as SU11248) is an oral, small-molecule, multi-targeted receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor that was approved by the FDA for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and imatinib-resistant gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) on January 26, 2006.
Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
Targeted therapy or molecularly targeted therapy is one of the major modalities of medical treatment (pharmacotherapy) for cancer, others being hormonal therapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy.
Temsirolimus (codenamed CCI-779) is an intravenous drug for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), developed by Wyeth Pharmaceuticals and approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in late May 2007, and was also approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) on November 2007.
A tetrasomy is a form of aneuploidy with the presence of four copies, instead of the normal two, of a particular chromosome.
Transcription factor E3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TFE3 gene.
Thrombocythemia (also thrombocytosis) is the presence of high platelet (thrombocyte) counts in the blood, and can be either primary (also termed essential thrombocythemia, and caused by a myeloproliferative disease) or secondary (also termed reactive).
Thyroid-like follicular renal cell carcinoma is rare subtype of renal cell carcinoma.
The TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours (TNM) is a notation system that describes the stage of a cancer which originates from a solid tumour with alphanumeric codes.
A trisomy is a type of polysomy in which there are three instances of a particular chromosome, instead of the normal two.
Tuberous sclerosis proteins 1 and 2, also known as TSC1 (hamartin) and TSC2 (tuberin), form a protein-complex.
Tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma is rare subtype of renal cell carcinoma.
Ultrasound is sound waves with frequencies higher than the upper audible limit of human hearing.
Ultrastructure (or ultra-structure) is the architecture of cells that is visible at higher magnifications than found on a standard optical light microscope.
The urinary system, also known as the renal system or urinary tract, consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and the urethra.
A varicocele is an abnormal enlargement of the pampiniform venous plexus in the scrotum.
Varlilumab (CDX-1127) (INN) is a monoclonal antibody designed for immunotherapy for solid tumors and hematologic malignancies.
The venae cavae (from the Latin for "hollow veins", singular "vena cava") are two large veins (venous trunks) that return deoxygenated blood from the body into the heart.
Venography (also called phlebography or ascending phlebography) is a procedure in which an x-ray of the veins, a venogram, is taken after a special dye is injected into the bone marrow or veins.
Vinblastine is a chemotherapy medication, typically used with other medications, to treat a number of types of cancer.
Virtual karyotype is the digital information reflecting a karyotype, resulting from the analysis of short sequences of DNA from specific loci all over the genome, which are isolated and enumerated.
von Hippel–Lindau disease (VHL), also known as Familial cerebello retinal angiomatosis, is a rare genetic disorder with multisystem involvement.
The von Hippel–Lindau tumor suppressor also known as pVHL is a protein that in humans is encoded by the VHL gene.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
Carcinoma, renal cell, Chromophobe renal carcinoma, Fuhrman grade, Grawitz tumor, Grawitz tumour, Grawitzsche Geschwulst, Hereditary papillary renal cancer, Hypernephroma, Kidney renal papillary cell carcinoma, Nephrocellular carcinoma, Renal Carcinoma, Renal carcinoma, Renal cell cancer, Renal cell carcinomas, Treatment and prognosis of renal cell carcinoma, Treatment of renal cell carcinoma.