415 relations: Action directe (armed group), ADAC, Agence des participations de l'État, Agricultural machinery, Air France, Aircraft engine, Airmail, Alain J. P. Belda, Alpine (automobile), Alpine A110, Amédée Gordini, AMC straight-6 engine, American Motors Corporation, Ammunition, Armistice of 22 June 1940, Auguste and Louis Lumière, Australian Football League, Auto Express, Automation, Automobile Dacia, Automobile layout, Automotive Industries (magazine), Automotive industry, Automotive industry in Mexico, Automotive News, Autorail, AvtoVAZ, Électricité de France, Île Seguin, B-segment, Bajaj Auto, Battery electric vehicle, Bézier curve, BBC, BBC News, BBC Sport, Benetton Formula, Berliet, Better Place (company), BFI London Film Festival, Biofuel, Bloomberg Businessweek, Bolloré, Boulogne-Billancourt, Bramalea, Ontario, Buggy (automobile), Bus, C-segment, CAC 40, Cadillac V-12, ..., Cadillac V-16, Cannes Film Festival, Capitalism, Carlos Ghosn, Carrozzeria Ghia, Caudron, Centre commun d'études de télévision et télécommunications, Cerberus Capital Management, Chairman, Champs-Élysées, Char D1, Charging station, Charles de Croisset, Charles de Gaulle, Chennai, Chevrolet Corvair, Chief executive officer, Christie's, Chrysler, Chrysler 300M, Chrysler LH platform, Citroën, Citroën 2CV, Claas, CNN, Coachbuilder, Comau, Commercial vehicle, Communism, Computer graphics, Computer-aided design, Computer-aided manufacturing, Concept car, Cornell University Press, Corporate Art Awards, Coupé, Dacia Dokker, Dacia Duster, Dacia Lodgy, Dacia Logan, Dacia Sandero, Daimler AG, Dakar Rally, De Dion-Bouton, Derby Telegraph, Dieter Zetsche, Dongfeng Motor Corporation, Dongfeng Renault, Douai Renault Factory, Eagle Medallion, Eagle Premier, Eagle Vision, Eastern Europe, Edward Elgar Publishing, Electric car, Electric vehicle network, Elf Aquitaine, ESB Group, European Car of the Year, European emission standards, European Rally Championship, Evo (magazine), Farmers Weekly, Ferenc Szisz, Fernand Renault, Fernando Alonso, Fiat Automobiles, Flins Renault Factory, Ford Cortina, Ford of Europe, Formula One, Formula Renault, Four-wheel drive, Franc, France, France Bleu, Franck Riboud, Free-trade area, French Communist Party, French Resistance, Fresnes Prison, Full-size car, Gale (publisher), Gaston Juchet, General Motors, General Motors Europe, Genii Capital, Georges Besse, Gitane, Gizmodo Media Group, GJG, Gordini, Grand Prix motor racing, Great Depression, Great Recession, Gross vehicle weight rating, Harvard University Press, Hatchback, Haymarket Media Group, Helvetica, Hood (car), Hybrid electric vehicle, IKA-Renault Torino, Individual mobility, Industrias Kaiser Argentina, IndyCar, Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques, Iveco, Iveco Bus, Jean François Porchez, Jean-Louis Schlesser, Jeep, Jeep Cherokee (XJ), Jeep Grand Cherokee, Jeep-Eagle, Johnny and Mary, Judiciary of France, Kenosha, Wisconsin, Kimi Räikkönen, Kirk Kerkorian, Knock-down kit, Labor unrest, Lada, Latil, Laurens van den Acker, Léon Blum, Le Figaro, Lean manufacturing, Legion of Honour, Lewis Hamilton, Liberation of Paris, Light commercial vehicle, Loan, Logistics, Louis Renault (industrialist), Louis Schweitzer (businessman), Lozenge, Luxury vehicle, Mack Trucks, Macmillan Publishers, Magna International, Mahindra & Mahindra, Mahindra Renault, Marc Ladreit de Lacharrière, Marcel Renault, Martin Taylor (guitarist), Maubeuge Construction Automobile, Mégane Renault Sport, McFarland & Company, Mercedes-Benz A-Class, Mercedes-Benz B-Class, Mercedes-Benz Citan, Mercedes-Benz Fintail, Microsoft, Mille Miglia, Milton Keynes, Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism (Italy), Minivan, Monte Carlo Rally, Morocco, Morris Minor, Motor Trend, Motor Trend Car of the Year, Motorsport, Motrio, Multinational corporation, Nash Motors, Nash Rambler, Nazi Germany, New York City, Nissan, Nissan Latio, Nissan Micra, Nissan Navara, Norman Foster, Baron Foster of Thames Bank, Off-roading, Oran, Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d'Automobiles, Oyak-Renault, Papa and Nicole, Paris, Paris Motor Show, Paris–Madrid race, Pascale Sourisse, Patrick Le Quément, Paul-Marie Pons, Paule Marrot, Peugeot, Peugeot 604, Philippe Charbonneaux, Philippe Klein, Pierre Bézier, Pierre Lefaucheux, Plug-in electric vehicle, Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Research Center, Polity (publisher), Popular Front (France), Port Adelaide Football Club, Pratt & Whitney, Privatization, Provisional Government of the French Republic, Radiator (engine cooling), Rallying, Rambler American, Rambler Classic, RCI Banque, Rear-engine design, Red Bull Racing, Renault, Renault 12, Renault 14, Renault 16, Renault 18, Renault 20/30, Renault 21, Renault 25, Renault 4, Renault 40CV, Renault 4CV, Renault 5, Renault 5 Turbo, Renault 6, Renault 8 and 10, Renault 9 and 11, Renault Agriculture, Renault Alliance, Renault Alpine A442, Renault Argentina, Renault Avantime, Renault Captur, Renault Caravelle, Renault Centre, Renault Clio, Renault Dauphine, Renault do Brasil, Renault Duster Oroch, Renault Eolab, Renault España, Renault Espace, Renault Fluence, Renault Fluence Z.E., Renault Frégate, Renault FT, Renault Fuego, Renault Grand Prix, Renault in Formula One, Renault India Private Limited, Renault Kadjar, Renault Kangoo, Renault Koleos, Renault Kwid, Renault Laguna, Renault Latitude, Renault Master, Renault Mégane, Renault Modus, Renault Monasix, Renault Pars, Renault R35, Renault Reinastella, Renault RS01, Renault Russia, Renault Safrane, Renault Samsung Motors, Renault Samsung SM5, Renault Samsung SM7, Renault Scénic, Renault Sport, Renault Sport Series, Renault Suprastella, Renault Symbol, Renault Talisman, Renault Taxi de la Marne, Renault Trafic, Renault Trucks, Renault Twingo, Renault Twizy, Renault Vel Satis, Renault Vivasix, Renault Vivastella, Renault Voiturette, Renault Z.E., Renault Zoe, Renault–Nissan–Mitsubishi Alliance, Renix, Research and development, Reuters, Revoz, Rick Wagoner, Robert Opron, Robert Palmer (singer), Rolls-Royce Limited, Rosoboronexport, Royal Air Force, S.A. (corporation), Saint-Bruno-de-Montarville, Samsung, Sandouville Renault Factory, Saviem, Scientific management, Sebastian Vettel, Silverstone Circuit, Smart (marque), SNVI, Société de Véhicules Automobiles de Batilly, Sofasa, Somaca, Somua, Southeast Asia, Stereoscopy, Tangier, Tank, Tata Nano, Taxicab, Terrorism, Textile, The Morning Call, The New York Times, The Quarto Group, The Wall Street Journal, Thierry Desmarest, Time (magazine), TomTom, Tonne, Truck classification, Turbocharger, Two-wheel drive, Typeface, UNISURF, V6 engine, V6 PRV engine, Vauxhall Motors, Vehicular automation, Venice Film Festival, Victor Vasarely, Vilvoorde Renault Factory, Volkswagen, Volkswagen Beetle, Volkswagen emissions scandal, Volvo, Volvo 200 Series, WannaCry ransomware attack, What Car?, Will Power, Williams Grand Prix Engineering, Wolff Olins, World Rally Championship, World War I, World War II, Yanase (car dealership), Yokohama, Yuriko Koike, Zero emission, 1,000,000,000, 1906 French Grand Prix, 1973 oil crisis, 1979 energy crisis, 1982 Paris–Dakar Rally, 2001 Formula One World Championship, 2002 Formula One World Championship, 2005 Formula One World Championship, 2005 French Grand Prix, 2006 Formula One World Championship, 24 Hours of Le Mans, 3D modeling. 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Action directe (AD) was a French far-left terrorist group which committed a series of assassinations and violent attacks in France between 1979 and 1987.
The ADAC (Allgemeiner Deutscher Automobil-Club e.V.) (General German Automobile Club) is an automobile club in Germany, founded on May 24, 1903, as German Motorbiker Association ("Deutsche Motorradfahrer-Vereinigung"), and was renamed to its present name in 1911.
Agence des participations de l'État (APE) is a special agency of the French Republic managing the state's holdings in about 70 firms, including France Telecom, Renault and Air France.
Agricultural machinery is machinery used in farming or other agriculture.
Air France (formally Société Air France, S.A.), stylized as AIRFRANCE, is the French flag carrier headquartered in Tremblay-en-France.
An aircraft engine is the component of the propulsion system for an aircraft that generates mechanical power.
Airmail (or air mail) is a mail transport service branded and sold on the basis of at least one leg of its journey being by air.
Alain J. P. Belda is an American businessman that has been a Managing Director of Warburg Pincus since 2009.
The Société des Automobiles Alpine SAS, commonly known as Alpine, is a French manufacturer of racing and sports cars established in 1955.
The Alpine A110 was a sports car produced by the French manufacturer Alpine from 1961 to 1977.
Amedeo "Amédée" Gordini (June 23, 1899 – May 25, 1979) was an Italian-born race car driver and sports car manufacturer in France.
The American Motors Corporation (AMC) straight-6 family of engines was used in AMC passenger cars and Jeep vehicles from 1964 through 2006.
American Motors Corporation (AMC) was an American automobile company formed by the 1954 merger of Nash-Kelvinator Corporation and Hudson Motor Car Company.
Ammunition (informally ammo) is the material fired, scattered, dropped or detonated from any weapon.
The Armistice of 22 June 1940 was signed at 18:36.
The Lumière brothers, Auguste Marie Louis Nicolas; 19 October 1862 – 10 April 1954) and Louis Jean; 5 October 1864 – 7 June 1948), were among the first filmmakers in history. They patented an improved cinematograph, which in contrast to Thomas Edison's "peepshow" kinetoscope allowed simultaneous viewing by multiple parties.
The Australian Football League (AFL) is the pre-eminent professional competition in the sport of Australian rules football in Australia and features only Australian teams.
Auto Express is a weekly motoring magazine sold in the United Kingdom published by Dennis Publishing.
Automation is the technology by which a process or procedure is performed without human assistance.
Automobile Dacia S.A. is a Romanian car manufacturer that takes its name from the historic region that constitutes the present-day Romania.
In automotive design, the automobile layout describes where on the vehicle the engine and drive wheels are found.
Automotive Industries (AI) is one of the world's oldest continually published trade publication and the oldest specialising in the automaking business.
The automotive industry is a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design, development, manufacturing, marketing, and selling of motor vehicles, some of them are called automakers.
This is an article about the automotive industry in Mexico.
Automotive News is a weekly print newspaper written for the automotive industry, primarily individuals associated with automobile manufacturers and suppliers.
The French word Autorail describes a single powered railcar capable of carrying passengers.
AvtoVAZ (АвтоВАЗ), formerly known as VAZ (Volzhsky Avtomobilny Zavod) (ВАЗ, Во́лжский автомоби́льный заво́д, or Volga Automobile Plant), is a Russian automobile manufacturer.
Électricité de France S.A. (EDF; Electricity of France) is a French electric utility company, largely owned by the French state.
Île Seguin (Seguin Island) is an island on the Seine river between Boulogne-Billancourt and Sèvres, in the west suburbs of Paris, France.
B-segment (or small cars) is a car classification defined by the European Commission as larger than cars in the A-segment and smaller than those in the C-segment.
Bajaj Auto Limited is a global two-wheeler and three-wheeler Indian manufacturing company.
A battery electric vehicle (BEV), or all-electric vehicle is a type of electric vehicle (EV) that uses chemical energy stored in rechargeable battery packs.
A Bézier curve (pronounced in French) is a parametric curve frequently used in computer graphics and related fields.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
BBC Sport is a department of the BBC North division providing national sports coverage for BBC Television, radio and online.
Benetton Formula Ltd., commonly referred to simply as Benetton, was a Formula One constructor that participated from to.
Berliet was a French manufacturer of automobiles, buses, trucks and military vehicles among other vehicles based in Vénissieux, outside of Lyon, France.
Better Place was a venture-backed international company that developed and sold battery-charging and battery-switching services for electric cars.
The BFI London Film Festival is an annual film festival held in the United Kingdom, running in the second half of October with cooperation from the British Film Institute.
A biofuel is a fuel that is produced through contemporary biological processes, such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion, rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum, from prehistoric biological matter.
Bloomberg Businessweek is an American weekly business magazine published by Bloomberg L.P. Businessweek was founded in 1929.
Bolloré is a French transportation company headquartered in Puteaux, on the western outskirts of Paris, France.
Boulogne-Billancourt (often colloquially called simply Boulogne, until 1924 Boulogne-sur-Seine) is a commune in the western suburbs of Paris, France.
Bramalea (Bram-uh-lee) is a neighbourhood in the City of Brampton, Ontario, Canada.
Buggy is generally used to refer to any lightweight automobile with off road capabilities and sparse bodywork.
A bus (archaically also omnibus, multibus, motorbus, autobus) is a road vehicle designed to carry many passengers.
C-segment (or medium cars) is a Euro Car Segment; a car classification loosely defined by the European Commission as the third-smallest segment (above the A-segment and B-segment) in the European market—in a system that comprises nine overall classes.
The CAC 40 (CAC quarante) (Cotation Assistée en Continu) is a benchmark French stock market index.
The Cadillac V-12 is a top-of-the-line car that was manufactured by Cadillac from the 1931 through the 1937 model years.
The Cadillac V-16 (also known as the Cadillac Sixteen) was Cadillac's top-of-the-line model from its January 1930 launch until 1940.
The Cannes Festival (Festival de Cannes), named until 2002 as the International Film Festival (Festival international du film) and known in English as the Cannes Film Festival, is an annual film festival held in Cannes, France, which previews new films of all genres, including documentaries from all around the world.
Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.
Carlos Ghosn, KBE (born March 9, 1954) is a Brazilian-Lebanese-French businessman born in Porto Velho, Brazil, who is currently the chairman and CEO of France-based Renault, chairman and former CEO of Japan-based Nissan, and chairman of Mitsubishi Motors.
Carrozzeria Ghia SpA (established 1916 in Turin) is an Italian automobile design and coachbuilding firm, established by Giacinto Ghia and Gariglio as Carrozzeria Ghia & Gariglio.
The Société des Avions Caudron was a French aircraft company founded in 1909 by brothers Gaston Caudron (1882-1915) and René Caudron (1884-1959).
CCETT or Centre commun d'études de télévision et télécommunications (Centre for the Study of Television broadcasting and Telecommunication or Common Study Center of Telediffusion and Telecommunication) was a research centre created in Rennes (France) in 1972 jointly by the Office de Radiodiffusion Télévision Française (ORTF) (later Télédiffusion de France) and Centre National d'Etudes des Telecommunications (CNET) (Direction Générale des Télécommunications, part of the French Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications) for development of new techniques for processing, transmission and distribution of audiovisual signals.
Cerberus Capital Management, L.P. is an American private equity firm,Leaders Magazine.
The chairman (also chairperson, chairwoman or chair) is the highest officer of an organized group such as a board, a committee, or a deliberative assembly.
The Avenue des Champs-Élysées is an avenue in the 8th arrondissement of Paris, long and wide, running between the Place de la Concorde and the Place Charles de Gaulle, where the Arc de Triomphe is located.
The Char D1 was a pre-World War II French medium tank.
An electric vehicle charging station, also called EV charging station, electric recharging point, charging point, charge point, ECS (Electronic Charging Station) and EVSE (electric vehicle supply equipment), is an element in an infrastructure that supplies electric energy for the recharging of electric vehicles, such as plug-in electric vehicles, including electric cars, neighborhood electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids.
Charles Wiener de Croisset (born September 28, 1943 in New York City) is a French banker.
Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France.
Chennai (formerly known as Madras or) is the capital of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
The Chevrolet Corvair is a compact car manufactured by Chevrolet for model years 1960–1969.
Chief executive officer (CEO) is the position of the most senior corporate officer, executive, administrator, or other leader in charge of managing an organization especially an independent legal entity such as a company or nonprofit institution.
Christie's is a British auction house.
Fiat Chrysler Automobiles US LLC (commonly known as Chrysler) is the American subsidiary of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N.V., an Italian-American automobile manufacturer registered in the Netherlands with headquarters in London, U.K., for tax purposes.
The Chrysler 300M is a full-size luxury sedan that was produced by DaimlerChrysler from 1999 to 2004.
The LH platform served as the basis for the Chrysler Concorde, Chrysler LHS, Chrysler 300M, Dodge Intrepid, Eagle Vision, and the final Chrysler New Yorker.
Citroën is a French automobile manufacturer, part of the PSA Peugeot Citroën group since 1976, founded in 1919 by French industrialist André-Gustave Citroën (1878–1935).
The Citroën 2CV ("deux chevaux" i.e. "deux chevaux-vapeur" (lit. "two steam horses", "two tax horsepower") is an air-cooled front-engine, front-wheel-drive economy car introduced at the 1948 Paris Mondial de l'Automobile and manufactured by Citroën for model years 1948–1990. Conceived by Citroën Vice-President Pierre Boulanger to help motorise the large number of farmers still using horses and carts in 1930s France, the 2CV has a combination of innovative engineering and utilitarian, straightforward metal bodywork — initially corrugated for added strength without added weight. The 2CV featured low cost; simplicity of overall maintenance; an easily serviced air-cooled engine (originally offering 9 hp); low fuel consumption; and an extremely long-travel suspension offering a soft ride and light off-road capability. Often called "an umbrella on wheels", the fixed-profile convertible bodywork featured a full-width, canvas, roll-back sunroof, which accommodated oversized loads and until 1955 reached almost to the car's rear bumper. Notably, Michelin introduced and first commercialized the radial tyre with the introduction of the 2CV. Manufactured in France between 1948 and 1988 (and in Portugal from 1988 to 1990), more than 3.8 million 2CVs were produced, along with over 1.2 million small 2CV-based delivery vans known as fourgonnettes. Citroën ultimately offered several mechanically identical variants including the Ami (over 1.8 million); the Dyane (over 1.4 million); the Acadiane (over 250,000); and the Mehari (over 140,000). In total, Citroën manufactured almost 9 million 2CVs and variants. The purchase price of the 2CV was low relative to its competition. In West Germany during the 1960s, for example, it cost about half as much as a Volkswagen Beetle. From the mid-1950s economy car competition had increased – internationally in the form of the 1957 Fiat 500 and 1955 Fiat 600, and 1959 Austin Mini. By 1952, Germany produced a price competitive car – the Messerschmitt KR175, followed in 1955 by the Isetta – these were microcars, not complete four-door cars like the 2CV. On the French home market, from 1961, the small Simca 1000 using licensed Fiat technology, and the larger Renault 4 hatchback had become available. The R4 was the biggest threat to the 2CV, eventually outselling it. A 1953 technical review in Autocar described "the extraordinary ingenuity of this design, which is undoubtedly the most original since the Model T Ford". In 2011, The Globe and Mail called it a "car like no other". The motoring writer L. J. K. Setright described the 2CV as "the most intelligent application of minimalism ever to succeed as a car", and a car of "remorseless rationality".
Claas is an agricultural machinery manufacturer founded in 1913, based in Harsewinkel, Ostwestfalen-Lippe, Germany, in the state of North Rhine Westphalia.
Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
A coachbuilder is a manufacturer of bodies for passenger-carrying vehicles.
Comau (COnsorzio MAcchine Utensili) is an Italian multinational company based in Turin, Italy and is part of the FCA Group.
A commercial vehicle is any type of motor vehicle used for transporting goods or paying passengers.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
Computer graphics are pictures and films created using computers.
Computer-aided design (CAD) is the use of computer systems to aid in the creation, modification, analysis, or optimization of a design.
Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) is the use of software to control machine tools and related ones in the manufacturing of workpieces.
A concept car (also known for as concept vehicle, show vehicle or prototype) is a car made to showcase new styling and/or new technology.
The Cornell University Press is a division of Cornell University housed in Sage House, the former residence of Henry William Sage.
The Corporate Art Awards are the international awards for the best art projects developed by the business world.
A coupé — also known as coupe — is a car with a fixed-roof body style usually with two doors, however some four-door cars have been marketed as four door coupés or quad coupés due to their coupé-like roofline at the rear.
The Dacia Dokker is a panel van and leisure activity vehicle (LAV) built at the Renault factory in Tangier, Morocco.
The Dacia Duster is a compact sport utility vehicle (SUV) produced jointly by the French manufacturer Renault and its Romanian subsidiary Dacia since 2010.
The Dacia Lodgy is a compact multi-purpose vehicle (MPV) developed by the Romanian manufacturer Dacia, officially launched at the 2012 Geneva Motor Show.
The Dacia Logan is a small family car produced jointly by the French manufacturer Renault and its Romanian subsidiary Dacia since 2004.
The Dacia Sandero is a subcompact car produced jointly by the French manufacturer Renault and its Romanian subsidiary Dacia since 2007, currently at its second generation.
Daimler AG is a German multinational automotive corporation.
The Dakar Rally (or simply "The Dakar"; formerly known as the "Paris–Dakar Rally") is an annual rally raid organised by the Amaury Sport Organisation.
De Dion-Bouton was a French automobile manufacturer and railcar manufacturer operating from 1883 to 1953.
The Derby Telegraph, formerly the Derby Evening Telegraph, is a daily tabloid-sized newspaper distributed in the Derby area of England.
Dieter Zetsche (born on 5 May 1953 in Istanbul, Turkey) is a German engineer and the Chairman of the Board of Management of Daimler AG and Head of Mercedes-Benz Cars since 2006 as well as member of the company's Board since 1998.
Dongfeng Motor Corporation is a Chinese state-owned automobile manufacturer headquartered in Wuhan, China.
Dongfeng Renault Automobile Company (DRAC) or Dongfeng Renault is an equally owned Chinese joint venture between car manufacturers Dongfeng Motor Group and Renault aimed to produce and sell Renault-badged vehicles, established in 2013.
The Douai Renault factory is a car plant belonging to the Renault Group, opened in 1970 at Douai in the industrial basin of the Pas-de-Calais department, not far from Lille (Rijsel).
The Eagle Medallion, also marketed as the Renault Medallion, was a rebadged and mildly re-engineered North American version of the French Renault 21 marketed by Eagle.
The Eagle Premier is a full-size Executive car that was developed by American Motors Corporation (AMC) during the 1980s through its partnership with Renault.
The Eagle Vision was a full-sized, front-wheel drive four-door sports sedan that was produced from 1992 to 1997.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
Edward Elgar Publishing is a global publisher of academic books, journals and online resources in the social sciences and law.
An electric car is a plug-in electric automobile that is propelled by one or more electric motors, using energy typically stored in rechargeable batteries.
An electric vehicle network is an infrastructure system of publicly accessible charging stations and possibly battery swap stations to recharge electric vehicles.
Elf Aquitaine was a French oil company which merged with TotalFina to form TotalFinaElf.
The Electricity Supply Board (ESB; Bord Soláthair an Leictreachais) is a state owned (95%) electricity company operating in the Republic of Ireland.
The European Car of the Year award is an international award established in 1964, by a collective of automobile magazines from different countries in Europe.
European emission standards define the acceptable limits for exhaust emissions of new vehicles sold in EU and EEA member states.
The European Rally Championship (officially FIA European Rally Championship) is an automobile rally competition held annually on the European continent and organized by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA).
Evo is a British automobile magazine dedicated to performance cars, from hot hatches to supercars.
Farmers Weekly is a magazine aimed at the British farming industry.
Ferenc Szisz (September 20, 1873 – February 21, 1944), was a Hungarian race car driver and the winner of the first Grand Prix motor racing event on a Renault Grand Prix 90CV on 26 June, 1906.
Fernand Renault (28 November 1864, Paris – 22 March 1909, Paris) was one of the brothers that founded Renault, the French automobile manufacturer, in 1899.
Fernando Alonso Díaz (born 29 July 1981) is a Spanish Formula One racing driver and two-time world champion who is currently racing for McLaren F1 team.
Fiat Automobiles S.p.A. (originally FIAT, lit) is the largest automobile manufacturer in Italy, a subsidiary of FCA Italy S.p.A., which is part of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (previously Fiat S.p.A.). Fiat Automobiles was formed in January 2007 when Fiat reorganized its automobile business, and traces its history back to 1899 when the first Fiat automobile, the Fiat 4 HP, was produced.
The Flins Renault Factory (also known internally as the Pierre Lefaucheux Factory in memory of Pierre Lefaucheux, Renault's first CEO following nationalisation) is a car factory in France, straddling the towns of Flins and Aubergenville in Yvelines, approximately 40 km from Paris.
The Ford Cortina is a car that was built by Ford of Britain in various guises from 1962 to 1982, and was the United Kingdom's best-selling car of the 1970s.
Ford of Europe AG is a subsidiary company of Ford Motor Company founded in 1967 in Cork, Ireland with headquarters in Cologne, Germany.
Formula One (also Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of single-seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) and owned by the Formula One Group.
Formula Renault is a class of formula racing founded in 1971, popular in Europe and elsewhere.
Four-wheel drive, also called 4×4 ("four by four") or 4WD, refers to a two-axled vehicle drivetrain capable of providing torque to all of its wheels simultaneously.
The franc (₣) is the name of several currency units.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
France Bleu is a network of local and regional radio stations in France, and a part of the national public broadcasting group Radio France.
Franck Riboud (born 7 November 1955) is a French businessman.
A free-trade area is the region encompassing a trade bloc whose member countries have signed a free-trade agreement (FTA).
The French Communist Party (Parti communiste français, PCF) is a communist party in France.
The French Resistance (La Résistance) was the collection of French movements that fought against the Nazi German occupation of France and against the collaborationist Vichy régime during the Second World War.
Fresnes Prison (Centre pénitentiaire de Fresnes) is the second largest prison in France, located in the town of Fresnes, Val-de-Marne South of Paris.
"Full-size car" is a marketing term used in North America for an automobile larger than a mid-size car.
Gale is an educational publishing company based in Farmington Hills, Michigan, in the western suburbs of Detroit.
Gaston Juchet was a French engineer, known for being the chief designer of Renault between 1963 and 1975 and again between 1984 and 1987.
General Motors Company, commonly referred to as General Motors (GM), is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Detroit that designs, manufactures, markets, and distributes vehicles and vehicle parts, and sells financial services.
General Motors Europehttp://www.moneyhouse.ch/u/general_motors_europe_ag_CH-020.3.910.286-3.htm (often abbreviated to GM Europe) was responsible for the operation of General Motors ("GM") businesses in Europe.
Genii Capital (simply known as Genii and stylized as GƎИII) is an international financial advisory and investment firm, which specialises in brand management, promising technologies, motorsport and a wide spectrum of venture capitalism activities.
Georges Besse (25 December 1927, in Clermont-Ferrand, France – 17 November 1986, in Paris) was a French businessman who led several large state-controlled French companies during his lifetime.
Gitane is a French manufacturer of bicycles based in Machecoul, France; the name "Gitane" means gypsy woman.
Gizmodo Media Group is an online media company and blog network operated by Univision Communications in its Fusion Media Group division.
The GJG was an American automobile manufactured from 1909 until 1914 by George John Grossman in White Plains, New York.
Gordini is a division of Renault Sport Technologies (Renault Sport).
Grand Prix motor racing has its roots in organised automobile racing that began in France as far back as 1894.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
The Great Recession was a period of general economic decline observed in world markets during the late 2000s and early 2010s.
The gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR), or gross vehicle mass (GVM) is the maximum operating weight/mass of a vehicle as specified by the manufacturer including the vehicle's chassis, body, engine, engine fluids, fuel, accessories, driver, passengers and cargo but excluding that of any trailers.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
A hatchback is a car with a hatch-type rear door that opens upwards and often a shared volume for the passenger and cargo areas.
Haymarket Media Group is a privately held media company headquartered in London.
Helvetica or Neue Haas Grotesk is a widely used sans-serif typeface developed in 1957 by Swiss typeface designer Max Miedinger with input from Eduard Hoffmann.
The hood (North American English) or bonnet (Commonwealth English excluding Canada) is the hinged cover over the engine of motor vehicles that allows access to the engine compartment (or trunk on rear-engine and some mid-engine vehicles) for maintenance and repair.
A hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is a type of hybrid vehicle that combines a conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) system with an electric propulsion system (hybrid vehicle drivetrain).
The IKA Torino, later Renault Torino, is a mid-sized automobile made by Industrias Kaiser Argentina (IKA) under an agreement with American Motors Corporation (AMC) in 1966.
Individual human mobility is the study that describes how individual humans move within a network or system.
Industrias Kaiser Argentina S.A. or IKA was an Argentine motor car company established in 1956 in Córdoba Province as a joint venture with Kaiser Motors of the United States.
Indy Racing League, LLC, doing business as IndyCar (stylized INDYCAR), is an American-based auto racing sanctioning body for Indy car racing and other disciplines of open wheel car racing.
The National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies (Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques), abbreviated INSEE, is the national statistics bureau of France.
Iveco, an acronym for Industrial Vehicles Corporation, is an Italian industrial vehicle manufacturing company based in Turin, Italy, and entirely controlled by CNH Industrial Group.
Iveco Bus (formerly Irisbus) is a bus manufacturer, with headquarters in Lyon, that belongs to the industrial group CNH Global through its subsidiary Iveco, based in Turin (Italy).
Jean François Porchez (born in 1964) is a French type designer.
Jean-Louis Schlesser (born 12 September 1948) is a French racing driver with experience in circuit racing and cross-country rallying.
Jeep is a brand of American automobiles that is a division of FCA US LLC (formerly Chrysler Group, LLC), a wholly owned subsidiary of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles.
The Jeep Cherokee (XJ) is a compact sport utility vehicle that was manufactured and marketed by Jeep in the USA from 1983 to 2001, as well as in other countries, and sometimes under other names, until 2014, with Jeep selling almost 3 million units between 1984 and 2001. Sharing the name of the original full-size Cherokee SJ model, the 1984 Cherokee XJ was Jeep's first all-new vehicle design since the 1963 SJ ''Wagoneer'', from which the '74 SJ Cherokee had been derived. Instead of the traditional separate body and chassis, the XJ featured a light-weight, compact and space-efficient, integrated body and frame design, The models were originally marketed as Sportwagons and became the precursor to the modern sport utility vehicle (SUV) as that term was not yet in use. The XJ spawned competitors as other automakers began to notice that this Jeep design began replacing regular cars. It also began to supplant the role of the station wagon and "transformed from truck to limousine in the eyes of countless suburban owners." The XJ is a "significant link in the evolution of the 4x4." Built in Toledo, Ohio, USA; Beijing, China; Ferreyra, Argentina; Cairo, Egypt; and in Valencia, Venezuela, the XJ provided the mechanical basis for the MJ-series Jeep Comanche pickup truck. Many of the XJ models had an eight-slot or a ten-slot grille design. Automotive journalist Robert Cumberford, writing for ''Automobile'', called the Jeep XJ one of the 20 greatest cars of all time — for its design, and "possibly the best SUV shape of all time, it is the paradigmatic model to which other designers have since aspired". The XJ was also selected in 2011 as one of "10 cars that refuse to die" by Kiplinger.
The Jeep Grand Cherokee is a range of Mid-size SUVs produced by the American manufacturer Jeep.
Jeep-Eagle was the name of the automobile sales division created by the Chrysler Corporation after the US$2 billion takeover of American Motors Corporation (AMC) in 1987.
"Johnny and Mary" is a song written and originally performed by Robert Palmer.
In France, career judges are considered civil servants exercising one of the sovereign powers of the state, and, accordingly, only French citizens are eligible for judgeship.
Kenosha is a city in and the county seat of Kenosha County, Wisconsin, United States.
Kimi-Matias Räikkönen (born 17 October 1979), nicknamed "Iceman", is a Finnish racing driver currently driving in Formula One for Scuderia Ferrari.
Kerkor "Kirk" Kerkorian (June 6, 1917 – June 15, 2015) was an American businessman, investor, and philanthropist.
A knock-down kit is a kit containing the parts needed to assemble a product.
Labor unrest is strike action or industrial action undertaken by labor unions, especially where labor disputes become violent.
LADA is a brand of cars manufactured by AvtoVAZ in Russia, which is today majority owned by Renault-Nissan-Mitsubishi Alliance.
Latil was a French automaker specializing in heavy duty vehicles, such as trucks, tractors and buses, from 1898 to 1955.
Laurens van den Acker (born 5 September 1965, Deurne, North Brabant) is an automobile designer from the Netherlands.
André Léon Blum (9 April 1872 – 30 March 1950) was a French politician, identified with the moderate left, and three times Prime Minister of France.
Le Figaro is a French daily morning newspaper founded in 1826 and published in Paris.
Lean manufacturing or lean production, often simply "lean", is a systematic method for waste minimization ("Muda") within a manufacturing system without sacrificing productivity.
The Legion of Honour, with its full name National Order of the Legion of Honour (Ordre national de la Légion d'honneur), is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits, established in 1802 by Napoléon Bonaparte and retained by all the divergent governments and regimes later holding power in France, up to the present.
Lewis Carl Davidson Hamilton MBE (born 7 January 1985) is a British racing driver who races in Formula One for Mercedes AMG Petronas.
The Liberation of Paris (also known as the Battle for Paris and Belgium; Libération de Paris) was a military action that took place during World War II from 19 August 1944 until the German garrison surrendered the French capital on 25 August 1944.
A light commercial vehicle is the official term used within the European Union, Australia, New Zealand, and occasionally in both Canada and Ireland (where Commercial Van is more commonly used), for a commercial carrier vehicle with a gross vehicle weight of no more than 3.5 metric tons (tonnes).
In finance, a loan is the lending of money by one or more individuals, organizations, and/or other entities to other individuals, organizations etc.
Logistics is generally the detailed organization and implementation of a complex operation.
Louis Renault (12 February 1877 – 24 October 1944) was a French industrialist, one of the founders of Renault and a pioneer of the automobile industry.
Louis Schweitzer (born 8 July 1942 in Geneva, Switzerland) is a former Chairman of Renault, first taking that post on 27 May 1992 in succession to Raymond Lévy: he was also CEO from 1992 to 2005.
A lozenge (◊), often referred to as a diamond, is a form of rhombus.
Luxury vehicle is a marketing term for a vehicle that provides luxury—pleasant or desirable features beyond strict necessity—at increased expense.
Mack Trucks, Inc., is an American truck–manufacturing company and a former manufacturer of buses and trolley buses.
Macmillan Publishers Ltd (occasionally known as the Macmillan Group) is an international publishing company owned by Holtzbrinck Publishing Group.
Magna International Inc. is a Canadian global automotive supplier headquartered in Aurora, Ontario, Canada.
Mahindra and Mahindra Limited (M&M) is an Indian multinational car manufacturing corporation headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
Mahindra Renault Limited was a joint venture between India's largest utility vehicle manufacturer Mahindra & Mahindra Limited & Renault S.A. of France (51% & 49% respectively).
Marc Eugène Charles Ladreit de Lacharrière (born November 6, 1940) is the CEO of FIMALAC (a.k.a. Financière Marc de Lacharrière), once majority owner of Fitch Group which now retains only 20% of it since the divestment to Hearst Corporation in March 2015.
Marcel Renault (14 May 1872 – 26 May 1903) was a French racing driver and industrialist, co-founder of the car maker Renault.
Martin Taylor, MBE (born 20 October 1956) is a British jazz guitarist who has performed in groups, guitar ensembles and as an accompanist.
Maubeuge Construction Automobile (MCA) is a subsidiary of the French car manufacturer Renault created in 1980 to operate the light commercial vehicle plant located at Maubeuge.
The Renault Mégane Renault Sport is a series of hot hatch models based on the Renault Mégane, designed and built by French automaker Renault since 2004.
McFarland & Company, Inc. is an independent book publisher based in Jefferson, North Carolina that specializes in academic and reference works, as well as general interest adult nonfiction.
The Mercedes-Benz A-Class is a subcompact executive car (subcompact in its first two generations) produced by the German automobile manufacturer Mercedes-Benz.
The Mercedes-Benz B-Class is a subcompact executive MPV produced by German automaker Mercedes-Benz since 2005.
The Mercedes-Benz Citan is a panel van and leisure activity vehicle and badge-engineered variant of the Renault Kangoo introduced in 2012 and made by the German automaker Mercedes-Benz as a replacement for the Vaneo compact MPV.
Mercedes Benz Fintail (Heckflosse) is a nickname given to the W110, W111, and W112 series of Mercedes sedans produced from 1959 to 1968.
Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.
The Mille Miglia (Thousand Miles) was an open-road endurance race which took place in Italy twenty-four times from 1927 to 1957 (thirteen before the war, eleven from 1947).
Milton Keynes, locally abbreviated to MK, is a large townAlthough Milton Keynes was specified to be a city in scale and the term "city" is used locally (inter alia to avoid confusion with its constituent towns), formally this title cannot be used.
The Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism (Ministero dei Beni e delle Attività Culturali e del Turismo - MiBACT) is the culture ministry of the Italian Republic.
A minivan (American English), people carrier (British English),, MPV (multi-purpose vehicle) or MUV (multi-utility vehicle) is a vehicle size classification describing a high-roof vehicle with a flexible interior layout.
The Monte Carlo Rally or Rallye Monte Carlo (officially Rallye Automobile Monte Carlo) is a rallying event organised each year by the Automobile Club de Monaco which also organises the Formula One Monaco Grand Prix and the Rallye Monte-Carlo Historique.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
The Morris Minor is a British car that debuted at the Earls Court Motor Show, London, on 20 September 1948.
Motor Trend is an American automobile magazine.
The Motor Trend Car of the Year (COTY) is an annual award given by Motor Trend magazine to recognize the best new or significantly refreshed car in a given model year.
Motorsport or motor sport is a global term used to encompass the group of competitive sporting events which primarily involve the use of motorised vehicles, whether for racing or non-racing competition.
Motrio is Renault's brand for original equipment manufacturing of spare parts and components established in 1998.
A multinational corporation (MNC) or worldwide enterprise is a corporate organization that owns or controls production of goods or services in at least one country other than its home country.
Nash Motors Company was an American automobile manufacturer based in Kenosha, Wisconsin, in the United States from 1916 to 1937.
The Nash Rambler is a North American automobile that was produced by the Nash Motors division of Nash-Kelvinator Corporation from 1950 to 1954.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
, usually shortened to Nissan (or; Japanese), is a Japanese multinational automobile manufacturer headquartered in Nishi-ku, Yokohama.
The Nissan Latio is an automotive nameplate which is used by the Japanese automobile manufacturer Nissan since 2004 for two unrelated subcompact four-door sedans.
The Nissan Micra, known in Latin America and in most of Asia as the Nissan, is a supermini produced by the Japanese manufacturer Nissan since 1982.
The Nissan Navara is the name for the D22, D40 and D23 generations of Nissan pickup trucks sold in Asia, Europe and Australia.
Norman Robert Foster, Baron Foster of Thames Bank, (born 1 June 1935) is a British architect whose company, Foster + Partners, maintains an international design practice famous for high-tech architecture.
Off-roading is the activity of driving or riding a vehicle on unsurfaced roads or tracks, made of materials such as sand, gravel, riverbeds, mud, snow, rocks, and other natural terrain.
Oran (وَهران, Wahrān; Berber language: ⵡⴻⵂⵔⴰⵏ, Wehran) is a major coastal city located in the north-west of Algeria.
The Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d'Automobiles, commonly abbreviated OICA (International Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers), founded 1919 in Paris, is an international trade association whose members are 39 national automotive industry trade associations.
Oyak Renault Otomobil Fabrikaları or Oyak-Renault is a Turkish automotive manufacturer located in Bursa.
"Papa" and "Nicole" were fictional characters created to advertise the Renault Clio in the United Kingdom between 1991 and 1998.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
The Paris Motor Show (Mondial de l'Automobile) is a biennial auto show in Paris.
The Paris–Madrid race of May 1903 was an early experiment in auto racing, organized by the Automobile Club de France (ACF) and the Spanish Automobile Club, Automóvil Club Español.
Pascale Sourisse (born 1962) is a French businesswoman.
Patrick G. M. Le Quément (born 4 February 1945 in Marseille) is a retired French car designer, formerly chief designer of Renault.
Paul-Marie Pons (Born 24 June 1904 Longwy: died 24 October 1966 Paris) was a French naval engineer who became a senior civil servant.
Paule Marrot (17 April 1902–22 December 1987) was a Parisian textile designer widely known for her textile prints with a flat, two-dimensional, upbeat style — often with a floral pattern.
Peugeot is a French automotive manufacturer, part of Groupe PSA.
The Peugeot 604 is an executive car produced by the French manufacturer Peugeot from 1975 to 1985.
Philippe Charbonneaux (1917–1998) was a French industrial designer, best known for automobile and truck design, but also known for other products such as television sets.
Philippe Klein is a French born engineer and businessman.
Pierre Étienne Bézier (September 1, 1910 – November 25, 1999) was a French engineer and one of the founders of the fields of solid, geometric and physical modelling as well as in the field of representing curves, especially in CAD/CAM systems.
Pierre-André Lefaucheux (30 June 1898 – 11 February 1955) was a leading French industrialist and recipient of the Order of Liberation, awarded to heroes of France's Liberation during World War II.
A plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) is any motor vehicle that can be recharged from an external source of electricity, such as wall sockets, and the electricity stored in the rechargeable battery packs drives or contributes to drive the wheels.
The Plug-In Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Research Center at the University of California, Davis, United States, provides technology and policy guidance to the state, helps solve research questions and addresses commercialization issues for PHEVs.
Polity is a publisher in the social sciences and humanities.
The Popular Front (Front populaire) was an alliance of left-wing movements, including the French Communist Party (PCF), the French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO) and the Radical and Socialist Party, during the interwar period.
The Port Adelaide Football Club is a professional Australian rules football club based in Alberton, Port Adelaide, South Australia.
Pratt & Whitney is an American aerospace manufacturer with global service operations.
Privatization (also spelled privatisation) is the purchase of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by private investors, or the sale of a state-owned enterprise to private investors.
The Provisional Government of the French Republic (gouvernement provisoire de la République française or GPRF) was an interim government of Free France between 1944 and 1946 following the liberation of continental France after Operations ''Overlord'' and ''Dragoon'', and lasted until the establishment of the French Fourth Republic.
Radiators are heat exchangers used for cooling internal combustion engines, mainly in automobiles but also in piston-engined aircraft, railway locomotives, motorcycles, stationary generating plant or any similar use of such an engine.
Rally is a form of motorsport that takes place on public or private roads with modified production or specially built road-legal cars.
The Rambler American is an automobile manufactured by the American Motors Corporation (AMC) between 1958 and 1969.
The Rambler Classic is an intermediate sized automobile that was built and sold by American Motors Corporation (AMC) from the 1961 to 1966 model years.
RCI Banque SA, trading as RCI Bank and Services and formerly known as Renault Crédit International, is a France-based international company that specialises in automotive financing, insurance and related activities for the Renault group brands (Renault, Renault Samsung Motors, Dacia, Lada) globally; for the Nissan group brands (Nissan, Infiniti, Datsun) in Europe, Russia, Asia and South America; for Mitsubishi Motors in the Netherlands.
In automobile design, a rear-engine design layout places the engine at the rear of the vehicle.
Red Bull Racing (also known as Red Bull or RBR and competing as Aston Martin Red Bull Racing) is a Formula One racing team, racing under an Austrian licence and based in the United Kingdom.
Groupe Renault is a French multinational automobile manufacturer established in 1899.
The Renault 12 is a large family car introduced by French automaker Renault at the Paris Motor Show in October 1969 and produced in France till 1980.
The Renault 14 is a compact car produced by the French manufacturer Renault between 1976 and 1983.
The Renault 16 (R16) is a family hatchback produced by French automaker Renault between 1965 and 1980 in Le Havre, France.
The Renault 18 is a large family car produced by French manufacturer Renault between 1978 and 1989, with South American production continuing until 1994.
The Renault 20 (R20) and Renault 30 (R30) are two executive cars produced by the French automaker Renault between 1975 and 1984.
The Renault 21 is a large family car produced by French automaker Renault between 1986 and 1994.
The Renault 25 is an executive car produced by the French automaker Renault from 1983 to 1992.
The Renault 4, also known as the 4L (pronounced "Quatrelle"), is a hatchback economy car produced by the French automaker Renault between 1961 and 1994.
The Renault 40CV was a large car produced by the French vehicle manufacturer Renault from 1911 to 1928.
The Renault 4CV (quatre chevaux, as if spelled quat'chevaux) is a rear-engined, rear-wheel-drive, 4-door economy supermini manufactured and marketed by the French manufacturer Renault from August 1947 through July 1961.
The Renault 5 is a supermini produced by French automaker Renault.
The Renault 5 Turbo or R5 Turbo is a high-performance hatchback automobile launched by the French manufacturer Renault at the Brussels Motor Show in January 1980.
The Renault 6 is a small family car produced by the French automaker Renault between 1968 and 1986.
The Renault 8 (Renault R8 until 1964) and Renault 10 are two rear-engined, rear-wheel drive small family cars produced by the French manufacturer Renault in the 1960s and early 1970s.
The Renault 9 and Renault 11 are small family cars produced by the French manufacturer Renault for model years 1981–1988 in saloon (Renault 9) and hatchback (Renault 11) configurations — both were styled by the French automobile designer, Robert Opron.
Renault Agriculture S.A.S. was the agricultural machinery division of the French car manufacturer Renault established in 1918 from its armored military vehicles division.
The Renault Alliance is a front-wheel drive, front-engine subcompact automobile manufactured and marketed in North America by American Motors Corporation (AMC) for model years 1983–1987 — The Alliance and its subsequent hatchback variant, the Encore, were re-engineered Renault 9 & 11 for the U.S. and Canadian markets.
The Renault Alpine A442 is a sports prototype racing car, designed and built by Alpine, but funded and powered by Alpine's owners Renault, specifically to contest the 24 Hours of Le Mans race.
Renault Argentina is the subsidiary of Renault in Argentina.
The Renault Avantime is a grand tourer marketed by the French manufacturer Renault, designed and manufactured by Matra, between 2001 and 2003.
Renault Captur is the name of two different subcompact crossovershttp://www.autoexpress.co.uk/renault/captur manufactured by the French automaker Renault.
The Renault Caravelle is a sports car which was produced by the French manufacturer Renault between 1958 and 1968.
The Renault Centre (or the Renault Distribution Centre) is a high tech building in Swindon commissioned by the French car company Renault for their UK operations.
The Renault Clio is a supermini car (B-segment), produced by the French automobile manufacturer Renault.
Renault Dauphine is a rear-engined economy car manufactured by Renault in a single body style – a three-box, 4-door saloon – as the successor to the Renault 4CV; more than two million were manufactured during its 1956-1967 production.
Renault do Brasil, formerly Renault do Brasil Automoveis, is the Brazilian subsidiary of the French car manufacturer Renault.
The Renault Duster Oroch is a double cab pickup truck produced by the French manufacturer Renault for the South American market since September 2015.
The Renault Eolab is a concept car plug-in hybrid designed by the French car manufacturer Renault.
Renault España Sociedad Anónima, also known by its acronym RESA, is one of the largest manufacturing subsidiaries of Renault.
The Renault Espace is a mid-size luxury crossover manufactured by Renault currently in its fifth generation.
The Renault Fluence is a small family car produced by the French automaker Renault.
The Renault Fluence Z.E. is an electric version of the Renault Fluence compact sedan, part of the Renault Z.E. program of battery electric vehicles.
The Renault Frégate is an executive saloon car produced by the French automaker Renault between 1951 and 1960.
The Renault FT (frequently referred to in post-World War I literature as the FT-17, FT17, or similar) was a French light tank that was among the most revolutionary and influential tank designs in history.
The Renault Fuego (fire in Spanish) is a sport compact car that was produced by French automaker Renault from 1980 to 1992, replacing the Renault 15 and 17 coupés of the 1970s.
The Renault Grand Prix was a race car manufactured between 1906 and 1908 by French car maker Renault.
Renault are currently involved in Formula One as a constructor, under the name of Renault Sport Formula One Team.
Renault India Pvt Ltd is a wholly owned subsidiary of Renault S.A., France and currently offers five models in the Indian market: the premium sedan Scala, the SUV Duster, the compact MPV Lodgy, the premium compact car, Pulse and the latest budget car, Kwid.
The Renault Kadjar is a compact SUV (J) from French car manufacturer Renault, offered with a choice of two wheel drive with an Extended Grip system or full four wheel drive.
The Renault Kangoo and the Renault Kangoo Express are a range of leisure activity vehicles and light commercial vehicles manufactured and marketed by Renault across two generations since 1997.
The Renault Koleos is a compact SUV (J) which was first presented as a concept car at the Geneva Motor Show in 2000, and then again in 2006 at the Mondial de l'Automobile in Paris.
The Renault Kwid is an entry-level crossover produced by the French car manufacturer Renault, initially intended for the Indian market.
The Renault Laguna is a large family car by European standards, and was produced by the French manufacturer Renault from 1993 to 2015.
The Renault Latitude is an executive car produced by the French automaker Renault, and announced in June 2010.
The Renault Master is an upper medium size van produced by the French manufacturer Renault since 1980, now in its third generation.
The Renault Mégane is a small family car produced by the French manufacturer Renault since 1995, and was the successor to the Renault 19.
The Renault Modus was a mini MPV produced by the French manufacturer Renault from August 2004 to December 2012, in Valladolid, Spain.
The Renault Monasix (Type RY) was a compact car or small family car manufactured between 1927 and 1932 by Renault.
Renault Pars (رنو پارس) is an Iranian joint venture established in 2004 and owned by Renault and Iran's Industrial Development Renovation Organisation (IDRO).
The Renault R35, an abbreviation of Char léger Modèle 1935 R or R 35, was a French light infantry tank of the Second World War.
The Renault Reinastella is an automobile created by the French car maker Renault.
The Renault RS01 was the first Formula One car to be powered by a turbocharged engine.
Renault Russia (rʲɪˈno rɐˈsʲijə), known until 2014 as Avtoframos (Avtoframos), is a Russian automotive company established in 1998, currently a wholly owned subsidiary of Renault.
The Renault Safrane was an executive car (E-segment in Europe) designed and built by the French manufacturer Renault from 1992 to 2000.
Renault Samsung Motors (르노삼성자동차), also known by the acronym RSM, is a South Korean car manufacturer headquartered in Busan where its single assembly site is also located, with additional facilities at Seoul (administration) and Giheung (research and development).
The Renault Samsung SM5 is a mid-size car or large family car (D-segment in Europe) produced by the Korean manufacturer Renault Samsung Motors.
The Renault Samsung SM7 is an executive car or full-size car (E-segment in Europe) produced by the Korean manufacturer Renault Samsung Motors since 2004.
The Renault Scénic is a compact multi-purpose vehicle (MPV) produced by French automaker Renault, the first to be labelled as such in Europe.
Renault Sport Racing and Renault Sport Cars, both commonly known as Renault Sport or Renaultsport, are the motorsport, performance and special vehicles divisions of Renault.
The Renault Sport Series (formerly known as World Series by Renault) is a motor racing series.
The Renault Suprastella was a large car presented by Renault in the Spring of 1938 as a replacement for the Renault Nervastella from which it inherited its mechanical elements and many other essential characteristics.
The Renault Symbol, or Thalia in some markets, is a Compact car produced by the French automobile manufacturer Renault.
The Renault Talisman is a large family car manufactured by the French car manufacturer Renault.
The Renault Taxi de la Marne (Marne Taxi) is an automobile manufactured between 1905 and 1910 by Renault and used as a taxicab.
The Renault Trafic is a light commercial van produced by the French automaker Renault since 1981.
Renault Trucks is a French commercial truck and military vehicle manufacturer with corporate headquarters at Saint-Priest near Lyon.
The Renault Twingo is a city car manufactured and marketed by the French automaker Renault, currently in its third generation.
The Renault Twizy is a two-seat electric car designed and marketed by Renault and manufactured in Valladolid, Spain.
The Renault Vel Satis is an executive car that was produced by the French manufacturer Renault, launched at the 2001 Geneva Motor Show to replace the already discontinued Safrane.
The Renault Vivasix was a full-size car manufactured by the French car company Renault between 1926 and 1930.
The Renault Vivastella was an executive car introduced by Renault in October 1928 and produced for the model years 1929 - 1939.
The Renault Voiturette (Renault Little Car) was Renault's first ever produced automobile, and was manufactured between 1898 and 1903.
The Renault Z.E. (Z.E. stands for Zero Emission) is a line of all-electric cars from Renault.
Renault Zoe (sometimes stylized as ZOE and pronounced as "Zoe") is a five-door supermini electric car produced by the French manufacturer Renault.
The Renault–Nissan–Mitsubishi Alliance is a Franco-Japanese strategic partnership between the automobile manufacturers Renault, based in Paris, France, Nissan, based in Yokohama, Japan, and Mitsubishi Motors, based in Tokyo, Japan, which together sell more than 1 in 10 cars worldwide.
Renix (Renix Electronique) was a joint venture by Renault and Bendix that designed and manufactured automobile electronic ignitions, fuel injection systems, electronic automatic transmission controls, and various engine sensors.
Research and development (R&D, R+D, or R'n'D), also known in Europe as research and technological development (RTD), refers to innovative activities undertaken by corporations or governments in developing new services or products, or improving existing services or products.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
Revoz is a manufacturing subsidiary of Renault in Novo Mesto, Slovenia.
George Richard "Rick" Wagoner Jr. (born February 9, 1953) is an American businessman and former Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of General Motors.
Robert Opron (born 22 February 1932) is a French automotive designer, trained as an architect, and noted for designs from the 1960s through the 1980s for Simca, Fiat, Alfa Romeo, Ligier, Renault – and Citroën, where he became Responsable de Style, head of the design department, in 1962.
Robert Allen Palmer (19 January 1949 – 26 September 2003) was an English singer-songwriter, musician, and record producer.
Rolls-Royce was a British luxury car and later an aero engine manufacturing business established in 1904 by the partnership of Charles Rolls and Henry Royce.
JSC Rosoboronexport (AO Рособоронэкспорт, Rosoboroneksport) is the sole state intermediary agency for Russia's exports/imports of defense-related and dual use products, technologies and services.
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
S.A. (and variants) designates a type of corporation in countries that mostly employ civil law.
Saint-Bruno-de-Montarville is an off-island suburb of Montreal, in southwestern Quebec, Canada, on the south bank of the Saint Lawrence River just east of Montreal.
Samsung is a South Korean multinational conglomerate headquartered in Samsung Town, Seoul.
The Sandouville Renault Factory is a car plant belonging to the Renault Group, established in 1964 at Sandouville in the Seine-Maritime department, not far from the port of Le Havre.
The Société Anonyme de Véhicules Industriels et d'Equipements Mécaniques, commonly known by the acronym Saviem, was a French manufacturer of trucks and buses/coaches part of the Renault group, headquartered in Suresnes.
Scientific management is a theory of management that analyzes and synthesizes workflows.
Sebastian Vettel (born 3 July 1987) is a German racing driver currently driving in Formula One for Scuderia Ferrari.
Silverstone Circuit is a motor racing circuit in England next to the Northamptonshire villages of Silverstone and Whittlebury.
smart is a German automotive marque and division of Daimler AG, based in Böblingen, Germany.
SNVI (Société Nationale des Véhicules Industriels, or National Company of Industrial Vehicles in English), is an Algerian company produces trucks and buses since 1967.
The Société de Véhicules Automobiles de Batilly (SOVAB) is a subsidiary of the French car manufacturer Renault, created in 1980 to operate the light commercial vehicle plant located at Batilly.
Sociedad de Fabricación de Automotores (SOFASA) is a Colombian company that assembles imported Renault and, in the past, Toyota and Daihatsu Delta vehicles.
SOMACA (Société Marocaine de Constructions Automobiles) is a Moroccan car manufacturer founded in 1959 and currently owned by the French company Renault.
Somua, an acronym for Société d'outillage mécanique et d'usinage d'artillerie, was a French company that manufactured machinery and vehicles.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
Stereoscopy (also called stereoscopics, or stereo imaging) is a technique for creating or enhancing the illusion of depth in an image by means of stereopsis for binocular vision.
Tangier (طَنجة Ṭanjah; Berber: ⵟⴰⵏⴵⴰ Ṭanja; old Berber name: ⵜⵉⵏⴳⵉ Tingi; adapted to Latin: Tingis; Tanger; Tánger; also called Tangiers in English) is a major city in northwestern Morocco.
A tank is an armoured fighting vehicle designed for front-line combat, with heavy firepower, strong armour, tracks and a powerful engine providing good battlefield maneuverability.
The Tata Nano is a compact sized city car manufactured by Tata Motors made and sold primarily in India.
A taxicab, also known as a taxi or a cab, is a type of vehicle for hire with a driver, used by a single passenger or small group of passengers, often for a non-shared ride.
Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people; or fear to achieve a financial, political, religious or ideological aim.
A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread).
The Morning Call is a daily newspaper based in Allentown, Pennsylvania, in the United States.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Quarto Group is a global illustrated book publishing group founded in 1976.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
Thierry Desmarest (born 18 December 1945 in Paris) is a French businessman.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
TomTom NV is a Dutch company that produces traffic, navigation and mapping products.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
Truck Classifications are typically based upon the maximum loaded weight of the truck (typically using the gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) and sometimes also the gross trailer weight rating (GTWR)), and can vary among jurisdictions.
A turbocharger, or colloquially turbo, is a turbine-driven forced induction device that increases an internal combustion engine's efficiency and power output by forcing extra air into the combustion chamber.
Two-wheel drive (2WD) describes vehicles with a drivetrain that allows two wheels to receive power from the engine simultaneously.
In typography, a typeface (also known as font family) is a set of one or more fonts each composed of glyphs that share common design features.
UNISURF was a pioneering surface CAD/CAM system, designed to assist with car body design and tooling.
A V6 engine is a V engine with six cylinders mounted on the crankshaft in two banks of three cylinders, usually set at either a 60 or 90 degree angle to each other.
The V6 PRV engine is an automobile petrol V6 engine that was developed jointly by Peugeot, Renault and Volvo Cars – and sold from 1974 to 1998.
Vauxhall Motors LimitedCompany No.
Vehicular automation involves the use of mechatronics, artificial intelligence, and multi-agent system to assist a vehicle's operator.
The Venice Film Festival or Venice International Film Festival (Mostra Internazionale d'Arte Cinematografica della Biennale di Venezia, "International Exhibition of Cinematographic Art of the Venice Biennale") is the oldest film festival in the world and one of the "Big Three" film festivals, alongside the Cannes Film Festival and Berlin International Film Festival.
Victor Vasarely (born Győző Vásárhelyi,; –), was a Hungarian-French artist, who is widely accepted as a "grandfather" and leaderThe New York Times obituary https://www.nytimes.com/1997/03/18/arts/victor-vasarely-op-art-patriarch-dies-at-90.html of the op art movement.
Renault Industrie Belgique S.A. / Renault Industrie België N.V., officially shortened with the acronym RIB, opened in 1931 as an auto-assembly plant owned and operated by Renault in Vilvoorde on the northern edge of Brussels in Belgium.
Volkswagen, shortened to VW, is a German automaker founded on 28 May 1937 by the German Labour Front under Adolf Hitler and headquartered in Wolfsburg.
The Volkswagen Beetle – officially the Volkswagen Type 1, informally in German the Käfer (literally "beetle"), in parts of the English-speaking world the Bug, and known by many other nicknames in other languages – is a two-door, rear-engine economy car, intended for five passengers, that was manufactured and marketed by German automaker Volkswagen (VW) from 1938 until 2003.
The Volkswagen emissions scandal (also called "emissionsgate" or "dieselgate") began in September 2015, when the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a notice of violation of the Clean Air Act to German automaker Volkswagen Group.
The Volvo Group (Volvokoncernen; legally Aktiebolaget Volvo, shortened to AB Volvo) (stylized as VOLVO) is a Swedish multinational manufacturing company headquartered in Gothenburg.
The Volvo 200 series was a range of mid-size cars produced by Volvo Cars from 1974 to 1993, with more than 2.8 million units sold worldwide.
The WannaCry ransomware attack was a May 2017 worldwide cyberattack by the WannaCry ransomware cryptoworm, which targeted computers running the Microsoft Windows operating system by encrypting data and demanding ransom payments in the Bitcoin cryptocurrency.
What Car? is a long running United Kingdom monthly automobile magazine and website, currently edited by Steve Huntingford and published by Haymarket Consumer Media.
William Steven Power (born 1 March 1981) is an Australian champion motorsports driver who currently competes in the IndyCar Series, driving for Team Penske. He was the 2014 IndyCar Series champion, and as of 2015 the most successful road and street course race winner in the series' history with 19 wins tied with Scott Dixon. Power won the 2018 Indianapolis 500.
Williams Grand Prix Engineering Limited, currently racing in Formula One as Williams Martini Racing, is a British Formula One motor racing team and constructor.
Wolff Olins is a brand consultancy, based in London, New York City and San Francisco.
The World Rally Championship (WRC) is a rallying series organised by the FIA, culminating with a champion driver and manufacturer.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
is a retailer of new European and North American vehicles and used cars in Japan.
, literally "Port to the side" or "Beside the port", is the second largest city in Japan by population, after Tokyo, and the most populous municipality of Japan.
is a Japanese politician who currently serves as the governor of Tokyo.
Zero emission refers to an engine, motor, process, or other energy source, that emits no waste products that pollute the environment or disrupt the climate.
1,000,000,000 (one billion, short scale; one thousand million or milliard, yard, long scale) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001.
The 1906 Grand Prix de l'Automobile Club de France, commonly known as the 1906 French Grand Prix, was a motor race held on 26 and 27 June 1906, on closed public roads outside the city of Le Mans.
The 1973 oil crisis began in October 1973 when the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries proclaimed an oil embargo.
The 1979 (or second) oil crisis or oil shock occurred in the world due to decreased oil output in the wake of the Iranian Revolution.
1982 Dakar Rally also known as the 1982 Paris–Dakar Rally was the 4th running of the Dakar Rally event.
The 2001 FIA Formula One World Championship was the 55th season of FIA Formula One racing.
The 2002 FIA Formula One World Championship was the 56th season of FIA Formula One motor racing.
The 2005 FIA Formula One World Championship was the 59th season of FIA Formula One motor racing.
The 2005 French Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 3 July 2005 at the Circuit de Nevers Magny-Cours near Magny-Cours in France.
The 2006 FIA Formula One World Championship was the 60th season of FIA Formula One motor racing.
The 24 Hours of Le Mans (24 Heures du Mans) is the world's oldest active sports car race in endurance racing, held annually since near the town of Le Mans, France.
In 3D computer graphics, 3D modeling (or three-dimensional modeling) is the process of developing a mathematical representation of any surface of an object (either inanimate or living) in three dimensions via specialized software.