246 relations: Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, Abdullah of Saudi Arabia, Abidjan, Afghanistan, Agence France-Presse, Al-Nusra Front, Al-Shabaab (militant group), Alberto Korda, Alexander Lukashenko, Ali Farzat, Ali Khamenei, Ali Lmrabet, Alternative media, Amira Hass, Andorra, André Sibomana, Anna Politkovskaya, Ansarullah Bangla Team, Arab American Institute, Arabic, Arc de Triomphe, Avocats Sans Frontières, Óscar Elías Biscet, Baghdad, Bahrain, Balochistan Liberation Army, Bashar al-Assad, Belarusian Association of Journalists, Benetton Group, Blue Coat Systems, Boko Haram, Bonn, Cannes Lions International Festival of Creativity, Carrefour, Catherine Deneuve, Censorship, Censorship in Algeria, Center for a Free Cuba, Central Intelligence Agency, Champs-Élysées, Che Guevara, Chelsea Manning, Chilling effect, China, Chinese language, Choummaly Sayasone, Chris Anyanwu, Committee to Protect Journalists, Compagnies Républicaines de Sécurité, Copyright, ..., CounterPunch, Cuba, Cuban dissident movement, Cubans, Cumhuriyet, Cyber-dissident, Davao City, Delyan Peevski, Democratic Voice of Burma, Dosh (musician), Electronic Frontier Foundation, English language, European Commission, European Parliament, European Union, Fondation de France, François Pinault, France, France 3, Freedom of information, Freedom of speech, Freedom of the press, Freedom of the Press (report), Freedom of the Press Foundation, French Development Agency, French language, Frontline (magazine), Gamma Group, Gazeta Wyborcza, Gérard Latortue, George Soros, Glasnost Defense Foundation, Globovisión, Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, Gotabhaya Rajapaksa, Granma (newspaper), Grigory Pasko, Groupe Bull, Guillermo Fariñas, Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow, Guy-André Kieffer, Hacking Team, Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, Hauwa Ibrahim, Houthis, Hu Jia (activist), Hu Jintao, Huang Qi, Hugo Chávez, IFEX (organization), Ilham Aliyev, India, International Academy of Television Arts and Sciences, International Association of Press Clubs, International Republican Institute, Internet censorship, Internet censorship and surveillance by country, Iran, Iraq, Isaias Afwerki, Islam Karimov, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Israel Defense Forces, Italy, ITunes Store, Ivory Coast, Jean-Bertrand Aristide, José Couso, Joseph Kabila, Journalists for Democracy in Sri Lanka, Kareem Amer, Kevin Pina, Kim Jong-un, La Coubre explosion, Ladies in White, Law of France, Le Figaro, Le Monde diplomatique, Lee Hsien Loong, Libération, List of freedom indices, List of Nobel Peace Prize laureates, List of sovereign states in Europe by Press Freedom Index, Liu Xiaobo, Lorenzo Natali Journalism Prize, Los Zetas, Mahinda Rajapaksa, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, Maldives, Massoud Hamid, Mazen Darwish, Media transparency, Michel Chossudovsky, Miguel Facussé Barjum, Montpellier, Mswati III, Muslim Brotherhood, National Endowment for Democracy, Nay Phone Latt, New media, Nguyễn Phú Trọng, Nicolás Maduro, Non-governmental organization, Nonprofit organization, Novaya Gazeta, Nursultan Nazarbayev, Ocak Işık Yurtçu, Office of Public Diplomacy, Olympic flame, Omar al-Bashir, Open Society Foundations, Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe statistics, Organized crime, Orly Airport, Otto Reich, Pacifica Foundation, Pakistani intelligence community, Palawan, Palestine Hotel, Paris, Paul Kagame, Persian language, Philippines, Pierre Nkurunziza, Political repression of cyber-dissidents, Prayut Chan-o-cha, Press Freedom Index, Presstalis, Raúl Castro, Raúl Rivero, Raif Badawi, Ramzan Kadyrov, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, Reuters, Reza Alijani, Ricardo González Alfonso, Right of reply, Robert Ménard, Robert Mugabe, Roland Berger, Ronald Reagan, Russians, Rwanda, Saatchi & Saatchi, Sakharov Prize, Salman of Saudi Arabia, Salva Kiir Mayardit, San San Nweh, Sanofi, Seyoum Tsehaye, Shirin Ebadi, Sigrid Rausing, Soheil Arabi, Spain, Spanish language, Stephen Shanabrook, Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, Swedish Publicists' Association, Syria, Taipei, Taiwan, Taiwan Foundation for Democracy, Taiwan Journal, Taliban, Technology adoption life cycle, Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, The Black Eagles, TOLO (TV channel), Totalitarianism, UNESCO, United Nations, United States Department of State, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Uthayan, Vasif Talibov, Venezuela, Vietnam, Vladimir Putin, Wang Juntao, War correspondent, Win Tin, World Day Against Cyber Censorship, World Press Freedom Day, Xi Jinping, Yahya Jammeh, Zarganar, Zeng Jinyan, Zhao Yan (journalist), Zone 9 bloggers, Zouhair Yahyaoui, 2002 Venezuelan coup d'état attempt, 2008 Summer Olympics, 2014 Winter Olympics, 2nd arrondissement of Paris. Expand index (196 more) » « Shrink index
Abdel Fattah Saeed Hussein Khalil el-Sisi (عبد الفتاح سعيد حسين خليل السيسي,; born 19 November 1954) is an Egyptian politician who is the current sixth President of Egypt, in office since 2014.
Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Al Saud (عبدالله بن عبدالعزيز آل سعود,, Najdi Arabic pronunciation:; 1 August 1924 – 23 January 2015) was King of Saudi Arabia and Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques from 2005 to his death in 2015.
Abidjan is the economic capital of Côte d'Ivoire and is one of the most populous French-speaking cities in Africa.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France.
Al-Nusra Front or Jabhat al-Nusra (جبهة النصرة.), known as Jabhat Fateh al-Sham (جبهة فتح الشام, transliteration: Jabhat Fataḥ al-Šām) after July 2016, and also described as al-Qaeda in Syria or al-Qaeda in the Levant, was a Salafist jihadist organization fighting against Syrian government forces in the Syrian Civil War.
Harakat al-Shabaab al-Mujahideen (HSM; حركة الشباب المجاهدين,; Xarakada Mujaahidiinta Alshabaab, lit. "Mujahideen Youth Movement" or "Movement of Striving Youth"), more commonly known as al-Shabaab (lit), is a jihadist fundamentalist group based in East Africa.
Alberto Díaz Gutiérrez, better known as Alberto Korda or simply Korda (September 14, 1928 – May 25, 2001), was a Cuban photographer, remembered for his famous image Guerrillero Heroico of Argentine Marxist revolutionary Che Guevara.
Aleksandr Grigoryevich Lukashenko (translit,; ɐlʲɪˈksandr ɡrʲɪˈɡorʲjɪvʲɪtɕ ɫʊkɐˈʂɛnkə; born 30 August 1954) is a Belarusian politician serving as President of Belarus since the office was created on 20 July 1994.
Ali Farzat or Ali Ferzat (علي فرزات; born 22 June 1951) is a Syrian political cartoonist.
Sayyid Ali Hosseini Khamenei (سید علی حسینی خامنهای,; born 17 July 1939) is a ''marja'' and the second and current Supreme Leader of Iran, in office since 1989.
Ali Lmrabet (born 1959) is a Moroccan journalist and a member of the Moroccan Association for Human Rights.
Alternative media are media that differ from established or dominant types of media in terms of their content, production, or distribution.
Amira Hass (עמירה הס; born 28 June 1956) is an Israeli journalist and author, mostly known for her columns in the daily newspaper Haaretz.
Andorra, officially the Principality of Andorra (Principat d'Andorra), also called the Principality of the Valleys of Andorra (Principat de les Valls d'Andorra), is a sovereign landlocked microstate on the Iberian Peninsula, in the eastern Pyrenees, bordered by France in the north and Spain in the south.
André Sibomana (1954–1998) was a Rwandan priest and journalist and an exemplary figure in the Rwandan genocide.
Anna Stepanovna Politkovskaya (p; Га́нна Степа́нівна Політко́вська; née Mazepa; 30 August 1958 – 7 October 2006) was a Russian journalist, writer, and human rights activist who reported on political events in Russia, in particular, the Second Chechen War (1999–2005).
The Ansarullah Bangla Team (ABT), also called Ansar Bangla is an Islamic extremist organization in Bangladesh, implicated in crimes including some brutal attacks and murders of atheist bloggers from 2013 to 2015 and a bank heist in April 2015.
Founded in 1985, the Arab American Institute is a non-profit membership organization based in Washington D.C. that focuses on the issues and interests of Arab-Americans nationwide.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Arc de Triomphe de l'Étoile (Triumphal Arch of the Star) is one of the most famous monuments in Paris, standing at the western end of the Champs-Élysées at the center of Place Charles de Gaulle, formerly named Place de l'Étoile — the étoile or "star" of the juncture formed by its twelve radiating avenues.
Avocats Sans Frontières (ASF), also known as Advocaten Zonder Grenzen, is an international NGO, active in the human rights and development sector.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
Bahrain (البحرين), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain (مملكة البحرين), is an Arab constitutional monarchy in the Persian Gulf.
The Balochistan Liberation Army (بلوچستان لبریشن آرمی; abbreviated BLA), also known as the Baloch Liberation Army is a Baloch militant organization based in Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Bashar Hafez al-Assad (بشار حافظ الأسد, Levantine pronunciation:;; born 11 September 1965) is a Syrian politician who has been the 19th and current President of Syria since 17 July 2000.
The Belarusian Association of Journalists (BAJ) (Беларуская асацыяцыя журналістаў Biełaruskaja Asacyjacyja Žurnalistaǔ) is a Belarusian non-governmental organisation aimed at ensuring freedom of speech and rights of receiving and distributing information and promoting professional standards of journalism".
Benetton Group S.r.l. (correct; often mispronounced or) is a global fashion brand based in Ponzano Veneto, Italy.
Blue Coat Systems was a company that provided hardware, software, and services designed for cybersecurity and network management.
The Islamic State in West Africa (abbreviated as ISWA or ISWAP), formerly known as Jamā'at Ahl as-Sunnah lid-Da'wah wa'l-Jihād (جماعة أهل السنة للدعوة والجهاد, "Group of the People of Sunnah for Preaching and Jihad") and commonly known as Boko Haram until March 2015, is a jihadist militant organization based in northeastern Nigeria, also active in Chad, Niger and northern Cameroon.
The Federal City of Bonn is a city on the banks of the Rhine in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, with a population of over 300,000.
The Cannes Lions International Festival of Creativity (formerly the International Advertising Festival) is a global event for those working in creative communications, advertising, and related fields.
Carrefour S.A. is a French multinational retailer headquartered in Boulogne Billancourt, France, in the Hauts-de-Seine Department near Paris.
Catherine Deneuve (born 22 October 1943) is a French actress as well as an occasional singer, model and producer.
Censorship is the suppression of speech, public communication, or other information, on the basis that such material is considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, or "inconvenient" as determined by government authorities.
The working conditions of journalists in Algeria have evolved since the 1962 independence.
The Center for a Free Cuba is a Washington, DC-based Cuban democracy movement organization.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
The Avenue des Champs-Élysées is an avenue in the 8th arrondissement of Paris, long and wide, running between the Place de la Concorde and the Place Charles de Gaulle, where the Arc de Triomphe is located.
Ernesto "Che" Guevara (June 14, 1928 – October 9, 1967)The date of birth recorded on was June 14, 1928, although one tertiary source, (Julia Constenla, quoted by Jon Lee Anderson), asserts that he was actually born on May 14 of that year.
Chelsea Elizabeth Manning (born Bradley Edward Manning, December 17, 1987) is an American activist, whistleblower, politician, and former United States Army soldier.
In a legal context, a chilling effect is the inhibition or discouragement of the legitimate exercise of natural and legal rights by the threat of legal sanction.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
Lieutenant General Choummaly Sayasone (Lao: ຈູມມະລີ ໄຊຍະສອນ; born 6 March 1936) is a Laotian politician who was General Secretary (de facto leader) of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party (LPRP) and President of Laos (de jure head of state) from 2006 to 2016.
Christiana "Chris" Anyanwu MFR (born 28 October 1951) is a Nigerian journalist, publisher, author, and politician.
The Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) is an American independent non-profit, non-governmental organization, based in New York City, New York with correspondents around the world.
The Compagnies Républicaines de Sécurité (Republican Security Companies), abbreviated CRS, are the general reserve of the French National Police.
Copyright is a legal right, existing globally in many countries, that basically grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights to determine and decide whether, and under what conditions, this original work may be used by others.
CounterPunch is a magazine published six times per year in the United States that covers politics in a manner its editors describe as "muckraking with a radical attitude".
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
The Cuban dissident movement is a political movement in Cuba whose aim is "to replace the current regime with a more democratic form of government".
Cubans or Cuban people (Cubanos) are the inhabitants or citizens of Cuba.
Cumhuriyet (The Republic) is the oldest up-market Turkish daily newspaper.
A cyber-dissident is a professional journalist, an activist or citizen journalist who posts news, information, or commentary on the internet that implies criticism of a government or regime.
, officially the (Dakbayan sa Dabaw, Lungsod ng Dabaw), is a highly urbanized city in the island of Mindanao,.
Delyan Slavchev Peevski (Делян Славчев Пеевски) (born 27 July 1980) is a Bulgarian politician, lawyer, entrepreneur and media mogul.
The Democratic Voice of Burma (ဒီမိုကရေတစ်မြန်မာ့အသံ, abbreviated DVB) is a non-profit media organization based in Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Martin Chavez Dosh (born September 6, 1972), better known mononymously as Dosh, is a multi-instrumentalist based in Minneapolis, Minnesota.
The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) is an international non-profit digital rights group based in San Francisco, California.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The Fondation de France ("Foundation of France") is an independent administrative agency which was established by the French government in an effort to stimulate and foster the growth of private philanthropy and private foundations in France.
François Pinault (born 21 August 1936) is a French billionaire businessman, the majority shareholder and honorary chairman of the retail conglomerate Kering, and art collector.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
France 3 is the second largest French public television channel and part of the France Télévisions group, which also includes France 2, France 4, France 5, and France Ô. It is made up of a network of regional television services providing daily news programming and around ten hours of entertainment and cultural programming produced for and about the regions each week.
Freedom of information is an extension of freedom of speech, a fundamental human right recognized in international law, which is today understood more generally as freedom of expression in any medium, be it orally, in writing, print, through the Internet or through art forms.
Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.
Freedom of the press or freedom of the media is the principle that communication and expression through various media, including printed and electronic media, especially published materials, should be considered a right to be exercised freely.
Freedom of the Press is a yearly report by US-based non-governmental organization Freedom House, measuring the level of freedom and editorial independence enjoyed by the press in nations and significant disputed territories around the world.
Freedom of the Press Foundation (FPF) is a non-profit organization founded in 2012 to fund and support free speech and freedom of the press.
French Development Agency (Agence française de développement, AFD) is a public financial institution that implements the policy defined by the French Government.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Frontline is a fortnightly English language magazine published by The Hindu Group of publications from Chennai, India.
Gamma Group is an Anglo-German technology company that sells surveillance software to governments and police forces around the world.
Gazeta Wyborcza (meaning Electoral Newspaper in English) is a newspaper published in Warsaw, Poland.
Gérard Latortue (born June 19, 1934 at Gonaïves) was the Prime Minister of Haïti from March 12, 2004 to June 9, 2006.
George Soros, Hon (Soros György,; born György Schwartz; August 12, 1930) is a Hungarian-American investor, business magnate, philanthropist, political activist and author.
Glasnost Defense Foundation is a non-profit organization with the stated goals of the defense of journalists, journalism, and freedom of expression in Russia.
Globovisión is a 24-hour television news network in Venezuela and Latin America.
Maria Gloria Macaraeg Macapagal Arroyo (born April 5, 1947) is a Filipino professor and politician who served as the 14th President of the Philippines from 2001 until 2010, as the 10th Vice President of the Philippines from 1998 to 2001, as the deputy speaker of the 17th Congress and a member of the House of Representatives representing the 2nd District of Pampanga since 2010.
Lieutenant Colonel Nandasena Gotabaya Rajapaksa, RWP, RSP, psc, GR (ගෝඨාභය රාජපක්ෂ) (born 20 June 1949) is a retired officer of the Sri Lanka Army, a former Secretary to Ministry of Defence and Urban Development of Sri Lanka.
Granma is the official newspaper of the Central Committee of the Cuban Communist Party.
Grigory Mikhailovich Pasko (Григо́рий Миха́йлович Пасько, born 1962, Kreshchenovka, Ukraine) is a Russian journalist, former officer of the Russian Navy, Amnesty International-designated prisoner of conscience, and founding editor of Ecology and Law, an environmental and citizens' rights magazine.
Bull SAS (also known as Groupe Bull, Bull Information Systems, or simply Bull) is a French-owned computer company headquartered in Les Clayes-sous-Bois, in the western suburbs of Paris.
Guillermo Fariñas Hernández (born 3 January 1962) ("El Coco") is a Cuban doctor of psychology, independent journalist and political dissident in Cuba.
Gurbanguly Mälikgulyýewiç Berdimuhamedow (born June 29, 1957) IPA:, is a Turkmen politician who has served as the President of Turkmenistan since February 2007.
Guy-André Kieffer (born 25 May 1949) is a journalist of dual French and Canadian nationality who worked in West Africa generally, and in Côte d'Ivoire specifically.
Hamad bin Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa (حمد بن عيسى بن سلمان آل خليفة; born 28 January 1950) is the first King of Bahrain (since 14 February 2002), having previously been its second Emir (from 6 March 1999).
Hauwa Ibrahim (born 1968) is a Nigerian human rights lawyer who won the European Parliament's Sakharov Prize in 2005.
The Houthis (الحوثيون al-Ḥūthiyyūn), officially called Ansar Allah (أنصار الله "Supporters of God"), are members of an Islamic religious-political-armed movement that emerged from Sa'dah in northern Yemen in the 1990s.
Hu Jia (born July 25, 1973, in Beijing) is a Chinese civil rights activist and noted critic of Communist Party of China.
---- Hu Jintao (born 21 December 1942) is a Chinese politician who was the paramount leader of China from 2002 to 2012.
Huang Qi (born 1963) is a Chinese webmaster and human rights activist.
Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (28 July 1954 – 5 March 2013) was a Venezuelan politician who was President of Venezuela from 1999 to 2013.
IFEX, formerly the International Freedom of Expression Exchange, is a global network of over 119 independent non-governmental organisations working at the local, national, regional and international level to defend and promote freedom of expression as a fundamental human right.
Ilham Aliyev (İlham Heydər oğlu Əliyev; born 24 December 1961) is the fourth and current President of Azerbaijan, in office since 2003.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The International Academy of Television Arts & Sciences is an American organisation founded in 1969 to promote excellence in international television and is the organization that awards international Emmys to the best television programs produced outside the United States.
The International Association of Press Clubs (IAPC) is an international collaborative chain of national organisations (Press Clubs and FCCs) which claims to support the professional endeavours of its members and the principle of a free press.
The International Republican Institute (IRI) describes itself as "a nonprofit, nonpartisan organization committed to advancing freedom and democracy worldwide by helping political parties to become more issue-based and responsive, assisting citizens to participate in government planning, and working to increase the role of marginalized groups in the political process – including women and youth.", loaded on October 10, 2015.
Internet censorship is the control or suppression of what can be accessed, published, or viewed on the Internet enacted by regulators, or on their own initiative.
This list of Internet censorship and surveillance by country provides information on the types and levels of Internet censorship and surveillance that is occurring in countries around the world.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Isaias Afwerki (ኢሳይያስ ኣፍወርቂ; born 2 February 1946) is the President of Eritrea, a position he has held since its independence in 1993.
Islam Abduganiyevich Karimov (Islom Abdugʻaniyevich Karimov; Ислам Абдуганиевич Каримов; 30 January 1938 – 2 September 2016) was the leader of Uzbekistan and its predecessor state, the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic, from 1989 until his death in 2016.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.
The Israel Defense Forces (IDF; צְבָא הַהֲגָנָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, lit. "The Army of Defense for Israel"; جيش الدفاع الإسرائيلي), commonly known in Israel by the Hebrew acronym Tzahal, are the military forces of the State of Israel.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
The iTunes Store is a software-based online digital media store operated by Apple Inc. It opened on April 28, 2003, and has been the largest music vendor in the United States since April 2008, and the largest music vendor in the world since February 2010.
Ivory Coast, also known as Côte d'Ivoire and officially as the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a sovereign state located in West Africa.
Jean-Bertrand Aristide (born 15 July 1953) is a former Haitian priest and politician who became Haiti's first democratically elected president.
José Couso Permuy (5 October 1965 – 8 April 2003) was a Galician cameraman who was one of the April 8, 2003 journalist deaths by U.S. fire after a U.S. tank fired at the Palestine Hotel in Baghdad, Iraq during the 2003 Iraq invasion.
Joseph Kabila Kabange (born 4 June 1971) is a Congolese politician who has been President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo since January 2001.
Journalists for Democracy in Sri Lanka (JDS) is a group of journalists, human rights workers and other activists exiled from Sri Lanka based in Germany.
Abdul Kareem Nabeel Suleiman Amer (عبد الكريم نبيل سليمان عامر) (born c. 1984) is an Egyptian blogger and former law student.
Kevin Pina is an American journalist, filmmaker and educator.
Kim Jong-un (born 8 January 1983) is a North Korean politician serving as leader of North Korea since 2011 and Leader of the Workers' Party of Korea since 2012.
The French freighter La Coubre exploded in the harbor of Havana, Cuba, on 4 March 1960 while it was unloading 76 tons of munitions.
Ladies in White (Damas de Blanco) is an opposition movement in Cuba founded in 2003 by wives and other female relatives of jailed dissidents.
In academic terms, French law can be divided into two main categories: private law ("droit privé") and public law ("droit public").
Le Figaro is a French daily morning newspaper founded in 1826 and published in Paris.
Le Monde diplomatique (nicknamed Le Diplo by its French readers) is a monthly newspaper offering analysis and opinion on politics, culture, and current affairs.
Lee Hsien Loong (Tamil: லீ சியன் லூங்; born 10 February 1952) is a Singaporean politician serving as the third and current Prime Minister of Singapore since 2004.
Libération (popularly known as Libé), is a daily newspaper in France, founded in Paris by Jean-Paul Sartre and Serge July in 1973 in the wake of the protest movements of May 1968.
This article contains a list of freedom indices produced by several non-governmental organizations that publish and maintain assessments of the state of freedom in the world, according to their own various definitions of the term, and rank countries as being free, partly free, or using various measures of freedom, including civil liberties, political rights and economic rights.
The Norwegian Nobel Committee each year awards the Nobel Peace Prize (Norwegian and Nobels fredspris) "to the person who shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses." It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel (who died in 1896), awarded for outstanding contributions in chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.
This is list and map of European countries by Press Freedom Index for year 2008.
Liu Xiaobo (刘晓波, 28 December 1955 – 13 July 2017) was a Chinese writer, literary critic, human rights activist, philosopher and Nobel Peace Prize laureate who called for political reforms and was involved in campaigns to end communist one-party rule in China.
The European Commission is organizing the Lorenzo Natali Prize as part of its efforts to promote development, human rights and democracy and help lift developing countries out of poverty.
Los Zetas (Spanish for "The Zs") is a Mexican criminal syndicate, regarded as the most dangerous of the country's drug cartels.
Percy Mahendra Rajapaksa, MP (පර්සි මහේන්ද්ර රාජපක්ෂ; born 18 November 1945), more commonly known as Mahinda Rajapaksa (මහින්ද රාජපක්ෂ, மஹிந்த ராஜபக்ஷ) is a Sri Lankan politician who served as the sixth President of Sri Lanka from 19 November 2005 to 9 January 2015.
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (Mahmūd Ahmadinezhād, born Mahmoud Sabbaghian (Sabbāghyān) on 28 October 1956) is an Iranian politician who was the sixth President of Iran from 2005 to 2013.
The Maldives (or; ދިވެހިރާއްޖެ Dhivehi Raa'jey), officially the Republic of Maldives, is a South Asian sovereign state, located in the Indian Ocean, situated in the Arabian Sea.
Massoud Hamid is a Kurdish Syrian journalism student.
Mazen Darwish (مازن درويش) is a Syrian lawyer and free speech advocate.
Media transparency (or transparent media) is the concept of determining how and why information is conveyed through various means.
Michel Chossudovsky (born 1946) is a Canadian economist, author and conspiracy theorist.
Miguel Facussé Barjum (August 14, 1924 – June 23, 2015) was a Honduran businessman and landowner.
Montpellier (Montpelhièr) is a city in southern France.
Mswati III (born as Prince Makhosetive on 19 April 1968) is the King (Swazi language: Ngwenyama or Ingwenyama) of Swaziland and head of the Swazi Royal Family.
The Society of the Muslim Brothers (جماعة الإخوان المسلمين), better known as the Muslim Brotherhood (الإخوان المسلمون), is a transnational Sunni Islamist organization founded in Egypt by Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassan al-Banna in 1928.
The National Endowment for Democracy (NED) is a U.S. non-profit soft power organization that was founded in 1983 with the stated goal of promoting democracy abroad.
Nay Phone Latt (နေဘုန်းလတ်; born Nay Myo Kyaw in 1980) is a Burmese blogger and activist, currently serving as a Yangon Region Hluttaw MP for Thingangyun Township.
New media are forms of media that are native to computers, computational and relying on computers for re-distribution.
Nguyễn Phú Trọng (born 14 April 1944) is a Vietnamese politician currently serving as General Secretary of the Communist Party of Vietnam, the most powerful position in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
Nicolás Maduro Moros (born 23 November 1962) is a Venezuelan politician who has served as the 63rd President of Venezuela since 2013 and previously served under President Hugo Chávez as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2006 to 2013 and as Vice President of Venezuela from 2012 to 2013.
Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations, commonly referred to as NGOs, are usually non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations (though often funded by governments) that are active in humanitarian, educational, health care, public policy, social, human rights, environmental, and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives.
A non-profit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity or non-profit institution, is dedicated to furthering a particular social cause or advocating for a shared point of view.
Novaya Gazeta (p) is a Russian newspaper well known in its country for its critical and investigative coverage of Russian political and social affairs.
Nursultan Ábishuly Nazarbayev (born 6 July 1940) is a Kazakh statesman serving as President of Kazakhstan since the office was created on April 24, 1990.
(1945–8 September 2012) was a Turkish reporter detained for thirty-two months between 1993-1997 by the Turkish government for his reporting on the Kurdish–Turkish conflict, a case The New York Times called "emblematic" of the Turkish press's struggle for press freedom in the 1990s.
The Office of Public Diplomacy for Latin America and the Caribbean (S/LPD or ARA/LPD) was an intra-agency propaganda organization established in the United States during the administration of Ronald Reagan.
The Olympic flame is a symbol used in the Olympic movement.
Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir (عمر حسن أحمد البشير; pronunciation:; born 1944) is a Sudanese politician who is currently the seventh president of Sudan and head of the National Congress Party.
Open Society Foundations (OSF), formerly the Open Society Institute, is an international grantmaking network founded by business magnate George Soros.
Flag of the Francophonie The Organisation internationale de la Francophonie (OIF), generally known as the Francophonie (La Francophonie), but also called International Organisation of La Francophonie in English language context, is an international organization representing countries and regions where French is a lingua franca or customary language, where a significant proportion of the population are francophones (French speakers), or where there is a notable affiliation with French culture.
The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization.
1 These countries are currently not participating in the EU's single market (EEA), but the EU has common external Customs Union agreements with Turkey (EU-Turkey Customs Union in force since 1995), Andorra (since 1991) and San Marino (since 2002).
Organized crime is a category of transnational, national, or local groupings of highly centralized enterprises run by criminals who intend to engage in illegal activity, most commonly for money and profit.
Paris Orly Airport (Aéroport de Paris-Orly), commonly referred to as Orly, is an international airport located partially in Orly and partially in Villeneuve-le-Roi, south of Paris, France.
Otto Juan Reich (born October 16, 1945), is an American former senior official in the administrations of Presidents Ronald Reagan, George H. W. Bush, and George W. Bush.
Pacifica Foundation is an American non-profit organization which owns five independently operated, non-commercial, listener-supported radio stations known for their progressive/liberal political orientation.
The Pakistani intelligence community comprises the various intelligence agencies of Pakistan that work internally and externally to manage, research and collect intelligence necessary for national security.
Palawan (pron.), officially the Province of Palawan (Cuyonon: Probinsya i'ang Palawan / Paragua; Kapuoran sang Palawan; Lalawigan ng Palawan) is an archipelagic province of the Philippines that is located in the region of MIMAROPA.
The Palestine Hotel (Arabic: فندق فلسطين), often referred to simply as The Palestine, is an 18-story hotel in Baghdad, Iraq located on Firdos Square, across from the Sheraton Ishtar.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
Paul Kagame (born 23 October 1957) is a Rwandan politician and former military leader.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Pierre Nkurunziza (born 18 December 1963) is a Burundian politician who has been President of Burundi since 2005.
Political repression of cyber-dissidents is the oppression or persecution of people for expressing their political views on the Internet.
Prayut Chan-o-cha (previously spelt "Prayuth Chan-ocha"); (ประยุทธ์ จันทร์โอชา,,; born 21 March 1954) is a Thai politician, retired Royal Thai Army officer and the head of the National Council for Peace and Order (NCPO), a military junta, and concurrently serves as the Prime Minister of Thailand.
The Press Freedom Index is an annual ranking of countries compiled and published by Reporters Without Borders based upon the organisation's own assessment of the countries' press freedom records in the previous year.
Presstalis, known until December 2009 as Nouvelles Messageries de la Presse Parisienne (NMPP), is a French media distribution corporation.
Raúl Modesto Castro Ruz (born 3 June 1931) is a Cuban politician and leader who is currently serving as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba, the most senior position in the Communist state, succeeding his brother Fidel Castro in April 2011.
Raúl Rivero Castañeda is a Cuban poet, journalist, and dissident.
Raif Badawi (رائف بدوي, also transcribed Raef Badawi; born 13 January 1984) is a Saudi writer, dissident and activist, as well as the creator of the website Free Saudi Liberals.
Ramzan Akhmadovich Kadyrov (p, Къадар Ахьмат-кIант Рамзан Q̇adar Aẋmat-khant Ramzan; born 5 October 1976) is the Head of the Chechen Republic and a former member of the Chechen independence movement.
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (born 26 February 1954) is a Turkish politician serving as President of Turkey since 2014.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
Reza Alijani (رضا علیجانی) is an Iranian journalist, writer and nationalist-religious activist.
Ricardo González Alfonso (born 1950) is a Cuban journalist.
The right of reply generally means the right to defend oneself against public criticism in the same venue where it was published.
Robert Ménard (born 6 July 1953) is a French politician and former journalist.
Robert Gabriel Mugabe (born 21 February 1924) is a former Zimbabwean politician and revolutionary who served as Prime Minister of Zimbabwe from 1980 to 1987 and then as President from 1987 to 2017.
Roland Berger (born November 22, 1937) is a German entrepreneur, consultant and philanthropist.
Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.
Rwanda (U Rwanda), officially the Republic of Rwanda (Repubulika y'u Rwanda; République du Rwanda), is a sovereign state in Central and East Africa and one of the smallest countries on the African mainland.
Saatchi & Saatchi is a global communications and advertising agency network with 140 offices in 76 countries and over 6,500 staff.
The Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought, commonly known as the Sakharov Prize, honours individuals and groups of people who have dedicated their lives to the defense of human rights and freedom of thought.
Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud (سلمان بن عبد العزیز آل سعود; born 31 December 1935) is the King of Saudi Arabia, Prime Minister, Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques and head of the House of Saud.
Salva Kiir Mayardit (born 13 September 1951) is a Dinka South Sudanese politician who has been President of South Sudan since its independence in 2011.
San San Nweh (စန်းစန်းနွယ်,; or San San Nwe) is a noted Burmese writer and journalist.
Sanofi S.A. is a French multinational pharmaceutical company headquartered in Gentilly, France, as of 2013 the world's fifth-largest by prescription sales.
Seyoum Tsehaye (born 1952) is a jailed Eritrean journalist.
Shirin Ebadi (Širin Ebādi; born 21 June 1947) is an Iranian lawyer, a former judge and human rights activist and founder of Defenders of Human Rights Center in Iran.
Sigrid Maria Elisabet Rausing (born 29 January 1962) is a Swedish philanthropist, anthropologist and publisher.
Soheil Arabi (سهیل عربی) born August 21, 1985, is an Iranian blogger who has been sentenced to death in Iran on charges of insulting the Prophet Mohammad in his postings on Facebook.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Stephen J Shanabrook (born 1965 in Cleveland, United States) is an American conceptual artist, who lives and works in New York City and Moscow, Russia.
The Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Styrelsen för Internationellt Utvecklingssamarbete, Sida) is a government agency of the Swedish Ministry for Foreign Affairs.
The Swedish Publicists' Association (Swedish: Publicistklubben) is a Swedish organisation devoted to promoting freedom of the press and free speech in journalism.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Taipei, officially known as Taipei City, is the capital and a special municipality of Taiwan (officially known as the Republic of China, "ROC").
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
The Taiwan Foundation for Democracy (TFD) is a non-profit organisation headquartered in Taipei.
Taiwan Journal is an English-language weekly newspaper published by the Government Information Office of the Republic of China (Taiwan).
The Taliban (طالبان "students"), alternatively spelled Taleban, which refers to itself as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (IEA), is a Sunni Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan currently waging war (an insurgency, or jihad) within that country.
The technology adoption lifecycle is a sociological model that describes the adoption or acceptance of a new product or innovation, according to the demographic and psychological characteristics of defined adopter groups.
Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo (born 5 June 1942) is an Equatoguinean politician who has been President of Equatorial Guinea since 1979.
Black Eagles (Águilas Negras) was a term describing a series of Colombian drug trafficking, right-wing, counter-revolutionary, paramilitary organizations made up of new and preexisting paramilitary forces, who emerged from the failures of the demobilization process between 2004 and 2006, which aimed to disarm the United Self-Defense Units of Colombia (AUC).
TOLO (طلوع) is a commercial television station operated by MOBY Group in Afghanistan. Launched in 2004, it became one of the first commercial stations in the country and laid the foundation for an accessible media outlet by offering a large library of shows. It is a Persian-language channel and is currently Afghanistan's most popular television channel. TOLO was first launched in Kabul but as of November 2007, has broadcasts in 14 cities in Afghanistan on free-to-air and throughout the region by terrestrial and satellite. Its sister channels are TOLOnews, which broadcasts news all day, and Lemar TV, which is a Pashto-language channel. TOLO was the subject of documentary film in 2012 called The Network, by Eva Orner. The film saw limited international release in 2013.
Benito Mussolini Totalitarianism is a political concept where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to control every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a historic document that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly at its third session on 10 December 1948 as Resolution 217 at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris, France.
Uthayan (உதயன் Utayaṉ, Morning) is a Tamil language Sri Lankan daily newspaper published by New Uthayan Publication (Private) Limited, part of the Uthayan Group of Newspapers.
Vasif Talibov (also Talybov; Talıbov Vasif Yusif oğlu, born 14 January 1960, Aralig, Nakhchivan ASSR, Azerbaijan SSR) is the current chairman of the Supreme Assembly of Nakhchivan, and regarded as the de facto authoritarian ruler of the Nakhichivan Autonomous Republic, on the Portal of the National Assembly of Azerbaijan.
Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (a; born 7 October 1952) is a Russian statesman and former intelligence officer serving as President of Russia since 2012, previously holding the position from 2000 until 2008.
Wang Juntao (born 1958) is a Chinese dissident and democracy activist accused by the Chinese government for being one of the “black hands” behind the Tiananmen Student Movement.
A war correspondent is a journalist who covers stories firsthand from a war zone.
Win Tin (ဝင်းတင်,, 12 March 1930 – 21 April 2014) was a Burmese journalist, politician and political prisoner.
World Day Against Cyber Censorship is an online event held each year on March 12 to rally support for a single, unrestricted Internet that is accessible to all and to draw attention to the ways that governments around the world are deterring and censoring free speech online.
The United Nations General Assembly declared May 3 to be World Press Freedom Day or just World Press Day to raise awareness of the importance of freedom of the press and remind governments of their duty to respect and uphold the right to freedom of expression enshrined under Article 19 of the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights and marking the anniversary of the Windhoek Declaration, a statement of free press principles put together by African newspaper journalists in Windhoek in 1991.
Xi Jinping (born 15 June 1953) is a Chinese politician currently serving as General Secretary of the Communist Party of China (CPC), President of the People's Republic of China, and Chairman of the Central Military Commission.
Yahya Abdul-Aziz Jemus Junkung Jammeh (born 25 May 1965) is a Gambian politician and former military officer who was the leader of the Gambia from 1994 to 2017, firstly as chair of the Armed Forces Provisional Ruling Council (AFPRC) (1994–96) and then as President of the Gambia (1996-2017).
Maung Thura "Zarganar" (also called Zaganar (ဇာဂနာ; also Zargana); born 27 January 1961) is a popular Burmese comedian, film actor, and a film director as well as a fierce critic and often political prisoner of the Burmese military government.
Zeng Jinyan (Chinese: 曾金燕; born October 9, 1983), is a Chinese blogger and human rights activist.
Zhao Yan (pinyin: Zhào Yán; Simplified Chinese: 赵岩, born 14 March 1962) is a Chinese researcher employed by the Beijing bureau of the New York Times.
The Zone 9 bloggers are a blogging group from Ethiopia, who maintain a blog in Amharic.
Zouhair Yahyaoui (December 8, 1967 – March 13, 2005) was the first cyber-dissident to be pursued and condemned in Tunisia, a country that is often rated at the top of lists of Internet policing by independent third-party sources such as the OpenNet Initiative.
The Venezuelan coup d'état attempt of 2002 was a failed coup d'état on 11 April 2002 that saw President Hugo Chávez ousted from office for 47 hours before being restored to power.
The 2008 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad and commonly known as Beijing 2008, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 8 to 24 August 2008 in Beijing, China.
The 2014 Winter Olympics, officially called the XXII Olympic Winter Games (Les XXIIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver) (r) and commonly known as Sochi 2014, was an international winter multi-sport event that was held from 7 to 23 February 2014 in Sochi, Krasnodar Krai, Russia, with opening rounds in certain events held on the eve of the opening ceremony, 6 February 2014.
The 2nd arrondissement of Paris (IIe arrondissement) is one of the 20 arrondissements of the capital city of France.
Enemies of the Internet, Predators of Press Freedom, Reporteros Sin Fronteras, Reporters Sans Frontieres, Reporters Sans Frontières, Reporters Without Borders Prize, Reporters Without Frontiers, Reporters sans Frontieres, Reporters sans Frontières, Reporters sans frontieres, Reporters sans frontières, Reporters without Borders, Reporters without borders.