114 relations: Abiogenesis, Adult, Allele, Allogamy, Analogy, Animal, Annual plant, Aphid, Apomixis, Asexual reproduction, Bacteria, Bacterial conjugation, Bee, Biological process, Bird, Birth, Bryophyte, Budding, Carl Zimmer, Cell (biology), Cell division, Chromosome, Ciliate, Cladocera, Cloning, Dr Tatiana's Sex Advice to All Creation, Drosophila melanogaster, Egg cell, Embryo, Evolution, Evolution of sexual reproduction, Female, Female sperm, Female sperm storage, Fertilisation, Fish, Fission (biology), Flowering plant, Foraminifera, Fragmentation (reproduction), Fungus, Gamete, Geitonogamy, Gene, Genetic recombination, Genetics, Genetics (journal), George C. Williams (biologist), Gymnosperm, Hermaphrodite, ..., Human, Hydra (genus), Invertebrate, Isogamy, Jellyfish, John Maynard Smith, Last universal common ancestor, Life, Lottery, Male, Male egg, Mast (botany), Mating of yeast, Mating system, Meiosis, Metabolism, Mitosis, Modes of reproduction, Mycocepurus smithii, Mycoplasma mycoides, Northern gannet, Offspring, Order (biology), Organism, Parasite Rex, Parasitoid wasp, Parthenogenesis, Perennial plant, Plant, Plant reproduction, Plant reproductive morphology, Ploidy, Polyploid, Population, R/K selection theory, Rabbit, Reproduction, Reproductive system, Reptile, Sea anemone, Seasonal breeder, Seed, Self-pollination, Self-replication, Sexual maturity, Sexual reproduction, Shark, Slime mold, Somatic cell, Species, Sperm, Spermatozoon, Sporangium, Sporogenesis, Starfish, Synthetic Genomics (company), Timeline of the evolutionary history of life, Unicellular organism, Vascular plant, Vegetative reproduction, Vertebrate, Virus, Yeast, Zygote. Expand index (64 more) » « Shrink index
Abiogenesis, or informally the origin of life,Compare: Also occasionally called biopoiesis.
Biologically, an adult is a human or other organism that has reached sexual maturity.
An allele is a variant form of a given gene.
"Allogamy" (cross-fertilization) is a term used in the field of biological reproduction describing the fertilization of an ovum from one individual with the spermatozoa of another.
Analogy (from Greek ἀναλογία, analogia, "proportion", from ana- "upon, according to" + logos "ratio") is a cognitive process of transferring information or meaning from a particular subject (the analog, or source) to another (the target), or a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
An annual plant is a plant that completes its life cycle, from germination to the production of seeds, within one year, and then dies.
Aphids are small sap-sucking insects and members of the superfamily Aphidoidea.
In botany, apomixis was defined by Hans Winkler as replacement of the normal sexual reproduction by asexual reproduction, without fertilization.
Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes, and almost never changes the number of chromosomes.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Bacterial conjugation is the transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells by direct cell-to-cell contact or by a bridge-like connection between two cells.
Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, known for their role in pollination and, in the case of the best-known bee species, the European honey bee, for producing honey and beeswax.
Biological processes are the processes vital for a living organism to live.
Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
Birth is the act or process of bearing or bringing forth offspring.
Bryophytes are an informal group consisting of three divisions of non-vascular land plants (embryophytes): the liverworts, hornworts and mosses.
Budding is a type of asexual reproduction in which a new organism develops from an outgrowth or bud due to cell division at one particular site.
Carl Zimmer (born 1966) is a popular science writer and blogger who has specialized in the topics of evolution and parasites.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
The ciliates are a group of protozoans characterized by the presence of hair-like organelles called cilia, which are identical in structure to eukaryotic flagella, but are in general shorter and present in much larger numbers, with a different undulating pattern than flagella.
The Cladocera are an order of small crustaceans commonly called water fleas.
Cloning is the process of producing genetically identical individuals of an organism either naturally or artificially.
Dr Tatiana's Sex Advice to All Creation: The Definitive Guide to the Evolutionary Biology of Sex is a 2002 popular science book by the British evolutionary biologist Olivia Judson written in the role of her alter ego, agony aunt Dr Tatiana.
Drosophila melanogaster is a species of fly (the taxonomic order Diptera) in the family Drosophilidae.
The egg cell, or ovum (plural ova), is the female reproductive cell (gamete) in oogamous organisms.
An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
The evolution of sexual reproduction describes how sexually reproducing animals, plants, fungi and protists evolved from a common ancestor that was a single celled eukaryotic species.
Female (♀) is the sex of an organism, or a part of an organism, that produces non-mobile ova (egg cells).
Female sperm can be either.
Female sperm storage is a biological process and often a type of sexual selection in which sperm cells transferred to a female during mating are temporarily retained within a specific part of the reproductive tract before the oocyte, or egg, is fertilized.
Fertilisation or fertilization (see spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, conception, fecundation, syngamy and impregnation, is the fusion of gametes to initiate the development of a new individual organism.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
Fission, in biology, is the division of a single entity into two or more parts and the regeneration of those parts into separate entities resembling the original.
The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.
Foraminifera (Latin for "hole bearers"; informally called "forams") are members of a phylum or class of amoeboid protists characterized by streaming granular ectoplasm for catching food and other uses; and commonly an external shell (called a "test") of diverse forms and materials.
Fragmentation or clonal fragmentation in multi cellular or colonial organisms is a form of asexual reproduction or cloning in which an organism is split into fragments.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete from gamein "to marry") is a haploid cell that fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce.
Geitonogamy (from Greek geiton (γείτων).
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Genetic recombination (aka genetic reshuffling) is the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
Genetics is a monthly scientific journal publishing investigations bearing on heredity, genetics, biochemistry and molecular biology.
George Christopher Williams (May 12, 1926 – September 8, 2010) was an American evolutionary biologist.
The gymnosperms are a group of seed-producing plants that includes conifers, cycads, Ginkgo, and gnetophytes.
In biology, a hermaphrodite is an organism that has complete or partial reproductive organs and produces gametes normally associated with both male and female sexes.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
Hydra is a genus of small, fresh-water organisms of the phylum Cnidaria and class Hydrozoa.
Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.
Isogamy is a form of sexual reproduction that involves gametes of similar morphology (similar shape and size), differing in general only in allele expression in one or more mating-type regions. Because both gametes look alike, they cannot be classified as "male" or "female". Instead, organisms undergoing isogamy are said to have different mating types, most commonly noted as "+" and "−" strains, although in some species of Basidiomycota there are more than two mating types (designated by numbers or letters). In all cases, fertilization occurs when gametes of two different mating types fuse to form a zygote.
Jellyfish or sea jelly is the informal common name given to the medusa-phase of certain gelatinous members of the subphylum Medusozoa, a major part of the phylum Cnidaria.
John Maynard Smith (6 January 1920 – 19 April 2004) was a British theoretical and mathematical evolutionary biologist and geneticist.
The last universal common ancestor (LUCA), also called the last universal ancestor (LUA), cenancestor, or (incorrectlyThere is a common misconception that definitions of LUCA and progenote are the same; however, progenote is defined as an organism “still in the process of evolving the relationship between genotype and phenotype”, and it is only hypothesed that LUCA is a progenote.) progenote, is the most recent population of organisms from which all organisms now living on Earth have a common descent.
Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.
A lottery is a form of gambling that involves the drawing of numbers for a prize.
A male (♂) organism is the physiological sex that produces sperm.
Male eggs are the result of a process in which the eggs of a female would be emptied of their genetic contents (a technique similar to that used in the cloning process), and those contents would be replaced with male DNA.
Mast is the "fruit of forest trees like acorns and other nuts".
The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a simple single-celled eukaryote with both a diploid and haploid mode of existence.
A mating system is a way in which a group is structured in relation to sexual behaviour.
Meiosis (from Greek μείωσις, meiosis, which means lessening) is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating four haploid cells, each genetically distinct from the parent cell that gave rise to them.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei.
Animals make use of a variety of modes of reproduction to produce their young.
Mycocepurus smithii is a species of fungus-growing ants from Latin America.
Mycoplasma mycoides is a bacterial species of the genus Mycoplasma in the class Mollicutes.
The northern gannet (Morus bassanus) is a seabird, the largest species of the gannet family, Sulidae.
In biology, offspring are the young born of living organisms, produced either by a single organism or, in the case of sexual reproduction, two organisms.
In biological classification, the order (ordo) is.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
Parasite Rex: Inside the Bizarre World of Nature's Most Dangerous Creatures is a nonfiction book by Carl Zimmer that was published by Atria Books on November 9, 2001.
Parasitoid wasps are a large group of hymenopteran superfamilies, all but the wood wasps (Orussoidea) being in the wasp-waisted Apocrita.
Parthenogenesis (from the Greek label + label) is a natural form of asexual reproduction in which growth and development of embryos occur without fertilization.
A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant that lives more than two years.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
Reproduction means producing offspring for the survival of the species.
Plant reproductive morphology is the study of the physical form and structure (the morphology) of those parts of plants directly or indirectly concerned with sexual reproduction.
Ploidy is the number of complete sets of chromosomes in a cell, and hence the number of possible alleles for autosomal and pseudoautosomal genes.
Polyploid cells and organisms are those containing more than two paired (homologous) sets of chromosomes.
In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding.
In ecology, r/K selection theory relates to the selection of combinations of traits in an organism that trade off between quantity and quality of offspring.
Rabbits are small mammals in the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorpha (along with the hare and the pika).
Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents".
The reproductive system or genital system is a system of sex organs within an organism which work together for the purpose of sexual reproduction.
Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.
Sea anemones are a group of marine, predatory animals of the order Actiniaria.
Seasonal breeders are animal species that successfully mate only during certain times of the year.
A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering.
Self-pollination is when pollen from the same plant arrives at the stigma of a flower (in flowering plants) or at the ovule (in gymnosperms).
Self-replication is any behavior of a dynamical system that yields construction of an identical copy of itself.
Sexual maturity is the capability of an organism to reproduce.
Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.
Sharks are a group of elasmobranch fish characterized by a cartilaginous skeleton, five to seven gill slits on the sides of the head, and pectoral fins that are not fused to the head.
Slime mold or slime mould is an informal name given to several kinds of unrelated eukaryotic organisms that can live freely as single cells, but can aggregate together to form multicellular reproductive structures.
A somatic cell (from the Greek σῶμα sôma, meaning "body") or vegetal cell is any biological cell forming the body of an organism; that is, in a multicellular organism, any cell other than a gamete, germ cell, gametocyte or undifferentiated stem cell.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
Sperm is the male reproductive cell and is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα) sperma (meaning "seed").
A spermatozoon (pronounced, alternate spelling spermatozoön; plural spermatozoa; from σπέρμα "seed" and ζῷον "living being") is a motile sperm cell, or moving form of the haploid cell that is the male gamete.
A sporangium (pl., sporangia) (modern Latin, from Greek σπόρος (sporos) ‘spore’ + αγγείον (angeion) ‘vessel’) is an enclosure in which spores are formed.
Sporogenesis is the production of spores in biology.
Starfish or sea stars are star-shaped echinoderms belonging to the class Asteroidea.
Synthetic Genomics Inc. (SGI), is a private company located in La Jolla, California that is focused on the field of synthetic biology.
This timeline of the evolutionary history of life represents the current scientific theory outlining the major events during the development of life on planet Earth.
A unicellular organism, also known as a single-celled organism, is an organism that consists of only one cell, unlike a multicellular organism that consists of more than one cell.
Vascular plants (from Latin vasculum: duct), also known as tracheophytes (from the equivalent Greek term trachea) and also higher plants, form a large group of plants (c. 308,312 accepted known species) that are defined as those land plants that have lignified tissues (the xylem) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant.
Vegetative reproduction (also known as vegetative propagation, vegetative multiplication or vegetative cloning) is any form of asexual reproduction occurring in plants in which a new plant grows from a fragment of the parent plant or grows from a specialized reproductive structure.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.
A zygote (from Greek ζυγωτός zygōtos "joined" or "yoked", from ζυγοῦν zygoun "to join" or "to yoke") is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes.
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