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Index Reptile

Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives. [1]

367 relations: Abelisauridae, Adam and Eve, Aegis, Agamidae, Alfred Romer, Allantois, Alligator, Amnion, Amniote, Amphibia in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Amphibian, Amphisbaenia, Anamniotes, Anapsid, Antarctica, Antediluvian, Antivenom, Aortic arches, Apparent death, Araeoscelidia, Archosaur, Archosauriformes, Archosauromorpha, Armour (anatomy), Articular bone, Asexual reproduction, Athena, Atrium (heart), Australia, Autotomy, Avemetatarsalia, Ball python, Basal (phylogenetics), Batesian mimicry, Biology Letters, Bird, Bleak House, Blue-tongued skink, Boidae, Bolosauridae, Bradymetabolism, Brain-to-body mass ratio, Breathing, Bronchus, Brown rat, Buccal pumping, Caiman, California, Calorie, Camouflage, ..., Canine tooth, Captorhinidae, Carboniferous, Carboniferous rainforest collapse, Cardiac cycle, Carl Linnaeus, Casineria, Cerebellum, Cerebrum, Chameleon, Charles Dickens, Chewing, Chichen Itza, Chlamydosaurus, Chorion, Choristodera, Chthonic, Circulatory system, Clade, Cladistics, Class (biology), Claudiosaurus, Cleopatra, Cloaca, Coatlicue, Cochleosaurus, Conflict avoidance, Coral snake, Corn snake, Cranial nerves, Creation myth, Cretaceous, Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, Crocodile, Crocodile farm, Crocodile oil, Crocodilia, Crocodyliformes, Crocodylomorpha, Crown group, Crypsis, Crystal Palace Dinosaurs, Cytotoxicity, D. M. S. Watson, Dermis, Desert iguana, Diapsid, Dicynodon, Digestion, Dimetrodon, Dinosaur, Diurnality, Documentary film, Dromaeosauridae, Ecdysis, Ecography, Ectotherm, Edaphosaurus, Edwin H. Colbert, Edwin Stephen Goodrich, Eggshell, Electrical tuning, Embryo, Encephalization quotient, Enzyme, Eosuchia, Epidermis (zoology), Ernst Haeckel, Eublepharis, Eunotosaurus, Eureptilia, Euryapsida, Evolution of reptiles, Evolution of the Vertebrates, Excretion, Extinction, Extinction event, Fetus, Fitness (biology), Forbidden fruit, Gaia, Gas exchange, Gastrolith, Gavialidae, Gecko, Giant tortoise, Gigantothermy, Gila monster, Gorgon, Grass snake, Greek mythology, Green sea turtle, Hallucicrania, Handbag, Heart, Heart valve, Hemipenis, Henry Fairfield Osborn, Hercules, Herpetology, Herpetophobia, History of Egypt, Hognose, Holocene, Homo sapiens, Hylonomus, Ichthyopterygia, Ichthyosaur, Iguana, Iguanidae, Incertae sedis, Infrared, International Union for Conservation of Nature, IUCN Red List, Jacques Gauthier, Jaguar, John Wiley & Sons, Josephus Nicolaus Laurenti, Journal of the Geological Society, Kidney, Komodo dragon, Kuehneosauridae, Lacerta (genus), Lacertidae, Lanthanosuchidae, Lanthanosuchoidea, Large intestine, Larva, Leather, Leatherback sea turtle, Lepidosauria, Lepidosauromorpha, Lernaean Hydra, Lion, List of domesticated animals, List of reptiles, List of threatened reptiles and amphibians of the United States, Lists of reptiles by region, Liver, Lizard, Loop of Henle, Lung, Mammal, Medusa, Megafauna, Megalosaurus, Mesoamerica, Mesosaur, Mesosaurus, Mesozoic, Metabolism, Mexican beaded lizard, Millerettidae, Miocene, Mixcoatl, Molecular Biology and Evolution, Molecular phylogenetics, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, Monitor lizard, Monophyly, Monster movie, Mosasaur, Naga Panchami, Nahuatl, Nature (journal), Neodiapsida, Neontology, Nephron, New Scientist, New Zealand, Night lizard, Nile crocodile, Nitrogen, Nova Scotia, Nycteroleteridae, Occipital condyles, Odontochelys, Ophidiophobia, Order (biology), Ornithischia, Ornithopod, Ovoviviparity, Oxygen, Pachypleurosaur, Paleothyris, Paleozoic, Pantestudines, Paraphyly, Parareptilia, Pareiasaur, Pareiasauromorpha, Parietal eye, Parthenogenesis, Pelycosaur, Penis, Pennsylvanian (geology), Permian, Permian–Triassic extinction event, Perseus, Pharaoh, PhyloCode, Phylogenetic nomenclature, Phylogenetics, Phytosaur, Pierre André Latreille, Piston, Pit viper, Placenta, Placodont, Plesiosauria, PLOS One, Poikilotherm, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Procolophonia, Procolophonoidea, Proganochelys, Protorosauria, Pterosaur, Pulmonary circulation, Pulmonary vein, Pythonidae, Quadrate bone, Quetzalcoatl, Rattlesnake, Rauisuchia, Reabsorption, Regeneration (biology), Reptile Database, Reptile scale, Reptiliomorpha, Rhynchocephalia, Rhynchosaur, Richard Lydekker, Richard Owen, Romeriida, Royal College of Surgeons of England, Sailing ballast, Salt gland, Saltwater crocodile, Sand lizard, Sauria, Saurischia, Sauropoda, Sauropsida, Sauropterygia, Science (journal), Scientific American, Scolecophidia, Scute, Sea turtle, Secondary palate, Serpent (symbolism), Sex organ, Sexual reproduction, Shiva, Sinai agama, Sinosaurosphargis, Sinus venosus, Sister group, Skink, Skull roof, Sledgehammer, Snake, Snake venom, Snake worship, Snakebite, Sphaerodactylus ariasae, Squamata, Sweden, Synapomorphy and apomorphy, Synapsid, Systema Naturae, Systole, Teiidae, Temnospondyli, Temperature-dependent sex determination, Tenochtitlan, Testudinata, Tetrapod, Thalattosaur, Thecodontia, Therapsid, Thermoregulation, Theropoda, Thomas Henry Huxley, Thoracic diaphragm, Tiliqua rugosa, Titan (mythology), Tortoise, Tree of the knowledge of good and evil, Triassic, Trilophosaurus, Troodontidae, Tuatara, Tupinambis, Turtle, Typhlopidae, Tyrannosauridae, Urea, Uric acid, Urinary bladder, Ventricle (heart), Vertebral column, Vertebrate, Vertebrate Palaeontology (Benton), Vertebrate Paleontology (Romer), Vincent of Beauvais, Vipera berus, Vishnu, Viviparity, Warm-blooded, Westlothiana, Wiley-Blackwell, Wood turtle, World Turtle, Younginiformes, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. Expand index (317 more) »


Abelisauridae (meaning "Abel's lizards") is a family (or clade) of ceratosaurian theropod dinosaurs.

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Adam and Eve

Adam and Eve, according to the creation myth of the Abrahamic religions, were the first man and woman.

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The aegis (αἰγίς aigis), as stated in the Iliad, is carried by Athena and Zeus, but its nature is uncertain.

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Agamidae is a family of over 300 species of iguanian lizards indigenous to Africa, Asia, Australia, and a few in Southern Europe.

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Alfred Romer

Alfred Sherwood Romer (December 28, 1894 – November 5, 1973) was an American paleontologist and biologist and a specialist in vertebrate evolution.

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The allantois (plural allantoides or allantoises) is a hollow sac-like structure filled with clear fluid that forms part of a developing amniote's conceptus (which consists of all embryonic and extra-embryonic tissues).

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An alligator is a crocodilian in the genus Alligator of the family Alligatoridae.

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The amnion is a membrane that closely covers the embryo when first formed.

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Amniotes (from Greek ἀμνίον amnion, "membrane surrounding the fetus", earlier "bowl in which the blood of sacrificed animals was caught", from ἀμνός amnos, "lamb") are a clade of tetrapod vertebrates comprising the reptiles, birds, and mammals.

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Amphibia in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae

In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus described the Amphibia as: Animals that are distinguished by a body cold and generally naked; stern and expressive countenance; harsh voice; mostly lurid color; filthy odor; a few are furnished with a horrid poison; all have cartilaginous bones, slow circulation, exquisite sight and hearing, large pulmonary vessels, lobate liver, oblong thick stomach, and cystic, hepatic, and pancreatic ducts: they are deficient in diaphragm, do not transpire (sweat), can live a long time without food, are tenatious of life, and have the power of reproducing parts which have been destroyed or lost; some undergo a metamorphosis; some cast (shed) their skin; some appear to live promiscuously on land or in the water, and some are torpid during the winter.

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Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.

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Amphisbaenia (called amphisbaenians or worm lizards) is a group of usually legless squamates, comprising over 180 extant species.

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The anamniotes are an informal group comprising the fishes and the amphibians, the so-called "lower vertebrates", which lay their eggs in water.

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An anapsid is an amniote whose skull does not have openings near the temples.

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Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.

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The Antediluvian (alternatively Pre-Diluvian or Pre-Flood, or even Tertiary) period (meaning "before the deluge") is the time period referred to in the Bible between the fall of humans and the Noachian Deluge (the Genesis Flood) in the biblical cosmology.

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Antivenom, also known as antivenin, venom antiserum and antivenom immunoglobulin, is a medication made from antibodies which is used to treat certain venomous bites and stings.

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Aortic arches

The aortic arches or pharyngeal arch arteries (previously referred to as branchial arches in human embryos) are a series of six paired embryological vascular structures which give rise to the great arteries of the neck and head.

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Apparent death

Apparent death, colloquially known as playing dead, feigning death, or playing possum, is a behavior in which animals take on the appearance of being dead.

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Araeoscelidia or Araeoscelida is a clade of extinct diapsid reptiles superficially resembling lizards, extending from the Late Carboniferous to the Early Permian.

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Archosaurs are a group of diapsid amniotes whose living representatives consist of birds and crocodilians.

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Archosauriformes (Greek for 'ruling lizards', and Latin for 'form') is a clade of diapsid reptiles that developed from archosauromorph ancestors some time in the Late Permian (roughly 250 million years ago).

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Archosauromorpha (Greek for "ruling lizard forms") is a clade (or infraclass) of diapsid reptiles that first appeared during the middle Permian and became more common during the Triassic.

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Armour (anatomy)

Armour or armor in animals is external or superficial protection against attack by predators, formed as part of the body (rather than the behavioural use of protective external objects), usually through the hardening of body tissues, outgrowths or secretions.

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Articular bone

The articular bone is part of the lower jaw of most vertebrates, including most jawed fish, amphibians, birds and various kinds of reptiles, as well as Stem-mammal.

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Asexual reproduction

Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes, and almost never changes the number of chromosomes.

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Athena; Attic Greek: Ἀθηνᾶ, Athēnā, or Ἀθηναία, Athēnaia; Epic: Ἀθηναίη, Athēnaiē; Doric: Ἀθάνα, Athānā or Athene,; Ionic: Ἀθήνη, Athēnē often given the epithet Pallas,; Παλλὰς is the ancient Greek goddess of wisdom, handicraft, and warfare, who was later syncretized with the Roman goddess Minerva.

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Atrium (heart)

The atrium is the upper chamber in which blood enters the heart.

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Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Autotomy (from the Greek auto- "self-" and tome "severing", αὐτονομία) or self-amputation is the behaviour whereby an animal sheds or discards one or more of its own appendages, usually as a self-defense mechanism to elude a predator's grasp or to distract the predator and thereby allow escape.

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Avemetatarsalia (meaning "bird metatarsals") is a clade name established by British palaeontologist Michael Benton in 1999 for all crown group archosaurs that are closer to birds than to crocodiles.

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Ball python

The ball python (Python regius), also known as the royal python,Mehrtens JM.

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Basal (phylogenetics)

In phylogenetics, basal is the direction of the base (or root) of a rooted phylogenetic tree or cladogram.

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Batesian mimicry

Batesian mimicry is a form of mimicry where a harmless species has evolved to imitate the warning signals of a harmful species directed at a predator of them both.

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Biology Letters

Biology Letters is a peer-reviewed, biological, scientific journal published by the Royal Society.

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Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.

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Bleak House

Bleak House is a novel by English author Charles Dickens, first published as a serial between March 1852 and September 1853.

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Blue-tongued skink

Blue-tongued skinks comprise the Australasian genus Tiliqua, which contains some of the largest members of the skink family (Scincidae).

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The Boidae (Common names: boas, boids) are a family of nonvenomous snakes primarily found in the Americas, although also existing in Africa, Madagascar, Europe, Asia, and some Pacific Islands.

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Bolosauridae is an extinct family of ankyramorph parareptiles known from the latest Carboniferous (Gzhelian) or earliest Permian (Asselian) to the early Guadalupian epoch (latest Roadian stage) of North America, China, Germany, Russia and France.

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Bradymetabolism refers to organisms with a high active metabolism and a considerably slower resting metabolism.

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Brain-to-body mass ratio

Brain-to-body mass ratio, also known as the brain-to-body weight ratio, is the ratio of brain mass to body mass, which is hypothesized to be a rough estimate of the intelligence of an animal, although fairly inaccurate in many cases.

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Breathing (or respiration, or ventilation) is the process of moving air into and out of the lungs to facilitate gas exchange with the internal environment, mostly by bringing in oxygen and flushing out carbon dioxide.

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A bronchus, is a passage of airway in the respiratory system that conducts air into the lungs.

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Brown rat

The brown rat (Rattus norvegicus), also known as the common rat, street rat, sewer rat, Hanover rat, Norway rat, Norwegian rat, Parisian rat or wharf rat, is one of the best known and most common rats.

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Buccal pumping

Buccal pumping is "breathing with one's cheeks": a method of ventilation used in respiration in which the animal moves the floor of its mouth in a rhythmic manner that is externally apparent.

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A caiman is an alligatorid crocodilian belonging to the subfamily Caimaninae, one of two primary lineages within Alligatoridae, the other being alligators.

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California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.

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A calorie is a unit of energy.

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Camouflage is the use of any combination of materials, coloration, or illumination for concealment, either by making animals or objects hard to see (crypsis), or by disguising them as something else (mimesis).

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Canine tooth

In mammalian oral anatomy, the canine teeth, also called cuspids, dog teeth, fangs, or (in the case of those of the upper jaw) eye teeth, are relatively long, pointed teeth.

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Captorhinidae (also known as cotylosaurs) is one of the earliest and most basal reptile families, all members of which are extinct.

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The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Permian Period, Mya.

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Carboniferous rainforest collapse

The Carboniferous rainforest collapse (CRC) was a minor extinction event that occurred around 305 million years ago in the Carboniferous period.

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Cardiac cycle

The cardiac cycle is the performance of the human heart from the beginning of one heartbeat to the beginning of the next.

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Carl Linnaeus

Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.

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Casineria is an extinct genus of tetrapod which lived about 340 million years ago in the Mississippian epoch.

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The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates.

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The cerebrum is a large part of the brain containing the cerebral cortex (of the two cerebral hemispheres), as well as several subcortical structures, including the hippocampus, basal ganglia, and olfactory bulb.

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Chameleons or chamaeleons (family Chamaeleonidae) are a distinctive and highly specialized clade of Old World lizards with 202 species described as of June 2015.

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Charles Dickens

Charles John Huffam Dickens (7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic.

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Chewing or mastication is the process by which food is crushed and ground by teeth.

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Chichen Itza

Chichen Itza, Chichén Itzá, often with the emphasis reversed in English to; from Chi'ch'èen Ìitsha' (Barrera Vásquez et al., 1980.) "at the mouth of the well of the Itza people" was a large pre-Columbian city built by the Maya people of the Terminal Classic period.

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The frilled-necked lizard (Chlamydosaurus kingii), also known as the frilled lizard, frilled dragon or frilled agama, is a species of lizard which is found mainly in northern Australia and southern New Guinea.

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The chorion is the outermost fetal membrane around the embryo in mammals, birds and reptiles.

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Choristodera is an extinct order of semiaquatic diapsid reptiles that ranged from the Middle Jurassic, or possibly Late Triassic, to at least the early Miocene.

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Chthonic (from translit, "in, under, or beneath the earth", from χθών italic "earth") literally means "subterranean", but the word in English describes deities or spirits of the underworld, especially in Ancient Greek religion.

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Circulatory system

The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.

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A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".

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Cladistics (from Greek κλάδος, cládos, i.e., "branch") is an approach to biological classification in which organisms are categorized in groups ("clades") based on the most recent common ancestor.

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Class (biology)

In biological classification, class (classis) is a taxonomic rank, as well as a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank.

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Claudiosaurus is an extinct genus of diapsid reptile from the Permian period of Madagascar.

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Cleopatra VII Philopator (Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ Cleopatra Philopator; 69 – August 10 or 12, 30 BC)Theodore Cressy Skeat, in, uses historical data to calculate the death of Cleopatra as having occurred on 12 August 30 BC.

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In animal anatomy, a cloaca (plural cloacae or) is the posterior orifice that serves as the only opening for the digestive, reproductive, and urinary tracts (if present) of many vertebrate animals, opening at the vent.

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Coatlicue (cōātl īcue,, “skirt of snakes”), also known as Teteoh innan (tēteoh īnnān,, “mother of the gods”), is the Aztec goddess who gave birth to the moon, stars, and Huitzilopochtli, the god of the sun and war.

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Cochleosaurus ('spoon lizard') is a name of a tetrapod belonging to Temnospondyli, which lived during the late Carboniferous period (Moscovian, about 310 millions years ago).

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Conflict avoidance

Conflict avoidance is a method of reacting to conflict, which attempts to avoid directly confronting the issue at hand.

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Coral snake

Coral snakes are a large group of elapid snakes that can be subdivided into two distinct groups, Old World coral snakes and New World coral snakes.

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Corn snake

The corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus) is a North American species of rat snake that subdues its small prey by constriction.

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Cranial nerves

Cranial nerves are the nerves that emerge directly from the brain (including the brainstem), in contrast to spinal nerves (which emerge from segments of the spinal cord).

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Creation myth

A creation myth (or cosmogonic myth) is a symbolic narrative of how the world began and how people first came to inhabit it.

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The Cretaceous is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period mya.

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Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event

The Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) extinction event, also known as the Cretaceous–Tertiary (K–T) extinction, was a sudden mass extinction of some three-quarters of the plant and animal species on Earth, approximately 66 million years ago.

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Crocodiles (subfamily Crocodylinae) or true crocodiles are large aquatic reptiles that live throughout the tropics in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia.

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Crocodile farm

A crocodile farm or alligator farm is an establishment for breeding and raising of crocodilians in order to produce crocodile and alligator meat, leather, and other goods.

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Crocodile oil

Crocodile oil is extracted from the fatty tissues of crocodiles and has been used both as preventive and a treatment for a number of human ailments and conditions for many years and across numerous cultures, including Ancient Egypt.

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Crocodilia (or Crocodylia) is an order of mostly large, predatory, semiaquatic archosaurian reptiles, known as crocodilians.

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Crocodyliformes is a clade of crurotarsan archosaurs, the group often traditionally referred to as "crocodilians".

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Crocodylomorpha is a group of archosaurs that includes the crocodilians and their extinct relatives.

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Crown group

In phylogenetics, the crown group of a collection of species consists of the living representatives of the collection together with their ancestors back to their most recent common ancestor as well as all of that ancestor's descendants.

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In ecology, crypsis is the ability of an animal to avoid observation or detection by other animals.

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Crystal Palace Dinosaurs

The Crystal Palace Dinosaurs are a series of sculptures of dinosaurs and other extinct animals, incorrect by modern standards, in the London borough of Bromley's Crystal Palace Park.

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Cytotoxicity is the quality of being toxic to cells.

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D. M. S. Watson

David Meredith Seares Watson FRS (18 June 1886 – 23 July 1973) was the Jodrell Professor of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy at University College, London from 1921 to 1951.

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The dermis or corium is a layer of skin between the epidermis (with which it makes up the cutis) and subcutaneous tissues, that primarily consists of dense irregular connective tissue and cushions the body from stress and strain.

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Desert iguana

The desert iguana (Dipsosaurus dorsalis) is one of the most common lizards of the Sonoran and Mojave deserts of the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico.

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Diapsids ("two arches") are a group of amniote tetrapods that developed two holes (temporal fenestra) in each side of their skulls about 300 million years ago during the late Carboniferous period.

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Dicynodon ("Two dog-teeth") is a type of dicynodont therapsid that flourished during the Upper Permian period.

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Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.

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Dimetrodon (or, meaning "two measures of teeth") is an extinct genus of synapsids that lived during the Cisuralian (Early Permian), around 295–272 million years ago (Ma).

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Dinosaurs are a diverse group of reptiles of the clade Dinosauria.

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Diurnality is a form of plant or animal behavior characterized by activity during the day, with a period of sleeping, or other inactivity, at night.

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Documentary film

A documentary film is a nonfictional motion picture intended to document some aspect of reality, primarily for the purposes of instruction, education, or maintaining a historical record.

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Dromaeosauridae is a family of feathered theropod dinosaurs.

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Ecdysis is the moulting of the cuticle in many invertebrates of the clade Ecdysozoa.

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Ecography is a bimonthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the Nordic Society Oikos covering the field of spatial ecology.

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An ectotherm (from the Greek ἐκτός (ektós) "outside" and θερμός (thermós) "hot"), is an organism in which internal physiological sources of heat are of relatively small or quite negligible importance in controlling body temperature.

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Edaphosaurus (meaning "pavement lizard" for dense clusters of teeth) is a genus of extinct edaphosaurid synapsid that lived around 300 to 280 million years ago, during the late Carboniferous to early Permian periods.

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Edwin H. Colbert

Edwin Harris "Ned" Colbert (September 28, 1905 – November 15, 2001)O'Connor, Anahad,, The New York Times, November 25, 2001.

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Edwin Stephen Goodrich

Edwin Stephen Goodrich FRS (Weston-super-Mare, 21 June 1868 – Oxford, 6 January 1946), was an English zoologist, specialising in comparative anatomy, embryology, palaeontology, and evolution.

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An eggshell is the outer covering of a hard-shelled egg and of some forms of eggs with soft outer coats.

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Electrical tuning

Electrical tuning is a mechanism by which vertebrates such as frogs and reptiles, which lack a long cochlea, discriminate sound.

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An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.

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Encephalization quotient

Encephalization quotient (EQ) or encephalization level is a relative brain size measure that is defined as the ratio between actual brain mass and predicted brain mass for an animal of a given size, which may approximate intelligence level or cognition of the species.

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Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Eosuchians are an extinct order of diapsid reptiles.

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Epidermis (zoology)

In zoology, the epidermis is an epithelium (sheet of cells) that covers the body of an eumetazoan (animal more complex than a sponge).

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Ernst Haeckel

Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (16 February 1834 – 9 August 1919) was a German biologist, naturalist, philosopher, physician, professor, marine biologist, and artist who discovered, described and named thousands of new species, mapped a genealogical tree relating all life forms, and coined many terms in biology, including anthropogeny, ecology, phylum, phylogeny, and Protista. Haeckel promoted and popularised Charles Darwin's work in Germany and developed the influential but no longer widely held recapitulation theory ("ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny") claiming that an individual organism's biological development, or ontogeny, parallels and summarises its species' evolutionary development, or phylogeny.

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The genus Eublepharis, also known as the leopard geckos, was first described by the British zoologist John Edward Gray in 1827.

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Eunotosaurus is an extinct genus of reptile, possibly a close relative of turtles, from the late Middle Permian (Capitanian stage) Karoo Supergroup of South Africa.

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Eureptilia ("true reptiles") is one of the two major clades of the Sauropsida, the other being Parareptilia.

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Euryapsida is a polyphyletic (unnatural, as the various members are not closely related) group of reptiles that are distinguished by a single temporal fossa, an opening behind the orbit, under which the post-orbital and squamosal bones articulate.

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Evolution of reptiles

Reptiles arose about 310–320 million years ago during the Carboniferous period.

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Evolution of the Vertebrates

Evolution of the Vertebrates, subtitled "A History of the Backboned Animals Through Time" is a basic paleontology textbook by Edwin H. Colbert, published by John Wiley & Sons.

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Excretion is the process by which metabolic waste is eliminated from an organism.

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In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.

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Extinction event

An extinction event (also known as a mass extinction or biotic crisis) is a widespread and rapid decrease in the biodiversity on Earth.

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A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.

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Fitness (biology)

Fitness (often denoted w or ω in population genetics models) is the quantitative representation of natural and sexual selection within evolutionary biology.

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Forbidden fruit

Forbidden fruit is a phrase that originates from the Book of Genesis concerning Adam and Eve in Genesis 2:16–17.

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In Greek mythology, Gaia (or; from Ancient Greek Γαῖα, a poetical form of Γῆ Gē, "land" or "earth"), also spelled Gaea, is the personification of the Earth and one of the Greek primordial deities.

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Gas exchange

Gas exchange is the physical process by which gases move passively by diffusion across a surface.

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A gastrolith, also called a stomach stone or gizzard stones, is a rock held inside a gastrointestinal tract.

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Gavialidae is a family of reptiles within the order Crocodilia.

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Geckos are lizards belonging to the infraorder Gekkota, found in warm climates throughout the world.

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Giant tortoise

Giant tortoises are characteristic reptiles that are currently found on two groups of tropical islands: the Aldabra Atoll and Fregate Island in Seychelles and the Galapagos Islands in Ecuador (a population at the Mascarene Islands was exterminated by the 1900s).

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Gigantothermy (sometimes called ectothermic homeothermy or inertial homeothermy) is a phenomenon with significance in biology and paleontology, whereby large, bulky ectothermic animals are more easily able to maintain a constant, relatively high body temperature than smaller animals by virtue of their smaller surface area to volume ratio.

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Gila monster

The Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum) is a species of venomous lizard native to the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexican state of Sonora.

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In Greek mythology, a Gorgon (plural: Gorgons, Γοργών/Γοργώ Gorgon/Gorgo) is a female creature.

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Grass snake

The grass snake (Natrix natrix), sometimes called the ringed snake or water snake, is a Eurasian non-venomous snake.

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Greek mythology

Greek mythology is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices.

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Green sea turtle

The green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas), also known as the green turtle, black (sea) turtle or Pacific green turtle, is a large sea turtle of the family Cheloniidae.

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Hallucicrania is an extinct clade of procolophonomorph parareptiles from the early Cisuralian epoch (middle Sakmarian stage) to the latest Triassic period (latest Rhaetian stage) of Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America and South America.

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A handbag, also called purse in North American English, is a handled medium-to-large bag used to carry personal items.

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The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.

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Heart valve

A heart valve normally allows blood to flow in only one direction through the heart.

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A hemipenis (plural hemipenes) is one of a pair of intromittent organs of male squamates (snakes, lizards and worm lizards).

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Henry Fairfield Osborn

Henry Fairfield Osborn, Sr. (August 8, 1857 – November 6, 1935) was an American paleontologist and geologist.

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Hercules is a Roman hero and god.

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Herpetology (from Greek "herpein" meaning "to creep") is the branch of zoology concerned with the study of amphibians (including frogs, toads, salamanders, newts, and caecilians (gymnophiona)) and reptiles (including snakes, lizards, amphisbaenids, turtles, terrapins, tortoises, crocodilians, and the tuataras).

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Herpetophobia is a common specific phobia, which consists of fear or aversion to reptiles, commonly lizards and snakes, and similar vertebrates as amphibians.

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History of Egypt

The history of Egypt has been long and rich, due to the flow of the Nile River with its fertile banks and delta, as well as the accomplishments of Egypt's native inhabitants and outside influence.

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Hognose snake is a common name for several colubrid snake species with upturned snouts.

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The Holocene is the current geological epoch.

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Homo sapiens

Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species.

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Hylonomus (hylo- "forest" + nomos "dweller") is an extinct genus of reptile that lived 312 million years ago during the Late Carboniferous period.

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Ichthyopterygia ("fish flippers") was a designation introduced by Sir Richard Owen in 1840 to designate the Jurassic ichthyosaurs that were known at the time, but the term is now used more often for both true Ichthyosauria and their more primitive early and middle Triassic ancestors.

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Ichthyosaurs (Greek for "fish lizard" – ιχθυς or ichthys meaning "fish" and σαυρος or sauros meaning "lizard") are large marine reptiles.

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Iguana is a genus of herbivorous lizards that are native to tropical areas of Mexico, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean.

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The Iguanidae are a family of lizards composed of iguanas and related species.

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Incertae sedis

Incertae sedis (Latin for "of uncertain placement") is a term used for a taxonomic group where its broader relationships are unknown or undefined.

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Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.

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International Union for Conservation of Nature

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.

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IUCN Red List

The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List or Red Data List), founded in 1964, has evolved to become the world's most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of biological species.

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Jacques Gauthier

Jacques Armand Gauthier (born June 7, 1948 in New York City) is an American vertebrate paleontologist, comparative morphologist, and systematist, and one of the founders of the use of cladistics in biology.

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The jaguar (Panthera onca) is a wild cat species and the only extant member of the genus Panthera native to the Americas.

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John Wiley & Sons

John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.

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Josephus Nicolaus Laurenti

Josephus Nicolaus Laurenti (4 December 1735, Vienna – 17 February 1805, Vienna) was an Austrian naturalist and zoologist of Italian origin.

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Journal of the Geological Society

The Journal of the Geological Society is a peer-reviewed scientific journal which covers research in all aspects of the Earth sciences.

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The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.

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Komodo dragon

The Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis), also known as the Komodo monitor, is a species of lizard found in the Indonesian islands of Komodo, Rinca, Flores, Gili Motang, and Padar.

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Kuehneosauridae is an extinct family of small, lizard-like lepidosauromorph diapsids known from the Triassic period of Europe and North America.

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Lacerta (genus)

Lacerta is a genus of lizards of the family Lacertidae.

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The Lacertidae are the family of the wall lizards, true lizards, or sometimes simply lacertas, which are native to Europe, Africa, and Asia.

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Lanthanosuchidae is a family of procolophonomorph parareptiles that lived 268-255 million years ago.

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Lanthanosuchoidea is an extinct superfamily of ankyramorph parareptiles from the late Cisuralian to the middle Guadalupian epochs (Artinskian - Wordian stages) of Europe, North America and Asia.

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Large intestine

The large intestine, also known as the large bowel or colon, is the last part of the gastrointestinal tract and of the digestive system in vertebrates.

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A larva (plural: larvae) is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults.

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Leather is a durable and flexible material created by tanning animal rawhides, mostly cattle hide.

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Leatherback sea turtle

The leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), sometimes called the lute turtle or leathery turtle or simply the luth, is the largest of all living turtles and is the fourth-heaviest modern reptile behind three crocodilians.

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The Lepidosauria (from Greek meaning scaled lizards) are reptiles with overlapping scales.

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Lepidosauromorpha is a group of reptiles comprising all diapsids closer to lizards than to archosaurs (which include crocodiles and birds).

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Lernaean Hydra

The Lernaean Hydra or Hydra of Lerna (Λερναῖα Ὕδρα, Lernaîa Hýdra), more often known simply as the Hydra, was a serpentine water monster in Greek and Roman mythology.

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The lion (Panthera leo) is a species in the cat family (Felidae).

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List of domesticated animals

This page gives a list of domestic animals, also including a list of animals which are or may be currently undergoing the process of domestication and animals that have an extensive relationship with humans beyond simple predation.

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List of reptiles

List of reptiles lists the vertebrate class of reptiles by family, spanning three subclasses.

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List of threatened reptiles and amphibians of the United States

According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), 93 reptile and amphibian species in the United States are threatened with extinction.

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Lists of reptiles by region

The following are the regional reptiles lists by continent.

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The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.

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Lizards are a widespread group of squamate reptiles, with over 6,000 species, ranging across all continents except Antarctica, as well as most oceanic island chains.

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Loop of Henle

In the kidney, the loop of Henle (or Henle's loop, Henle loop, nephron loop or its Latin counterpart ansa nephroni) is the portion of a nephron that leads from the proximal convoluted tubule to the distal convoluted tubule.

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The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.

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Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.

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In Greek mythology, Medusa (Μέδουσα "guardian, protectress") was a monster, a Gorgon, generally described as a winged human female with living venomous snakes in place of hair.

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In terrestrial zoology, megafauna (from Greek μέγας megas "large" and New Latin fauna "animal life") are large or giant animals.

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Megalosaurus (meaning "Great Lizard", from Greek μέγας, megas, meaning 'big', 'tall' or 'great' and σαῦρος, sauros, meaning 'lizard') is a genus of large meat-eating theropod dinosaurs of the Middle Jurassic period (Bathonian stage, 166 million years ago) of Southern England.

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Mesoamerica is an important historical region and cultural area in the Americas, extending from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, and within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.

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Mesosaurs ("middle lizards") were a group of small aquatic reptiles that lived during the early Permian period, roughly 299 to 270 million years ago.

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Mesosaurus (meaning "middle lizard") is an extinct genus of reptile from the Early Permian of southern Africa and South America.

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The Mesozoic Era is an interval of geological time from about.

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Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.

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Mexican beaded lizard

The Mexican beaded lizard (Heloderma horridum) is a species of lizard in the family Helodermatidae, one of the two species of venomous beaded lizards found principally in Mexico and southern Guatemala.

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Millerettidae is an extinct family of parareptiles from the Middle Permian to the Late Permian period (Capitanian - Changhsingian stages) of South Africa.

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The Miocene is the first geological epoch of the Neogene Period and extends from about (Ma).

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Mixcoatl (Mixcōhuātl, from mixtli "cloud" and cōātl "serpent"), or Camaztle from camaz "deer sandal" and atle "without", or Camaxtli, was the god of the hunt and identified with the Milky Way, the stars, and the heavens in several Mesoamerican cultures.

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Molecular Biology and Evolution

Molecular Biology and Evolution is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

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Molecular phylogenetics

Molecular phylogenetics is the branch of phylogeny that analyzes genetic, hereditary molecular differences, predominately in DNA sequences, to gain information on an organism's evolutionary relationships.

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Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution

Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of evolutionary biology and phylogenetics.

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Monitor lizard

The monitor lizards are large lizards in the genus Varanus.

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In cladistics, a monophyletic group, or clade, is a group of organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor.

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Monster movie

A monster movie, creature feature, or giant monster film is a disaster film that focuses on a group of characters struggling to survive attacks by one or more antagonistic monsters, often abnormally large ones.

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Mosasaurs (from Latin Mosa meaning the 'Meuse river', and Greek σαύρος sauros meaning 'lizard') are an extinct group of large marine reptiles containing 38 genera in total.

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Naga Panchami

Naga Panchami (Sanskrit: नाग पंचमी) is a traditional worship of snakes or serpents observed by Hindus throughout India, Nepal and other countries where Hindu adherents live.

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Nahuatl (The Classical Nahuatl word nāhuatl (noun stem nāhua, + absolutive -tl) is thought to mean "a good, clear sound" This language name has several spellings, among them náhuatl (the standard spelling in the Spanish language),() Naoatl, Nauatl, Nahuatl, Nawatl. In a back formation from the name of the language, the ethnic group of Nahuatl speakers are called Nahua.), known historically as Aztec, is a language or group of languages of the Uto-Aztecan language family.

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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Neodiapsida is a clade, or major branch, of the reptilian family tree and includes all diapsids apart from some early primitive types known as the araeoscelidians.

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Neontology is a part of biology that, in contrast to paleontology, deals with living (or, more generally, recent) organisms.

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The nephron (from Greek νεφρός – nephros, meaning "kidney") is the microscopic structural and functional unit of the kidney.

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New Scientist

New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology.

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New Zealand

New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.

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Night lizard

Night lizards (family Xantusiidae) are a group of small scincomorph lizards, averaging from less than 4 cm to over 12 cm snout-vent length.

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Nile crocodile

The Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) is an African crocodile, the largest freshwater predator in Africa, and may be considered the second-largest extant reptile and crocodilian in the world, after the saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus).

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Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.

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Nova Scotia

Nova Scotia (Latin for "New Scotland"; Nouvelle-Écosse; Scottish Gaelic: Alba Nuadh) is one of Canada's three maritime provinces, and one of the four provinces that form Atlantic Canada.

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Nycteroleteridae is a family of procolophonian parareptilians (extinct early reptiles) from the Middle to Late Permian of Russia and North America.

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Occipital condyles

The occipital condyles are undersurface protuberances of the occipital bone in vertebrates, which function in articulation with the superior facets of the atlas vertebra.

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Odontochelys semitestacea (meaning "toothed turtle with a half-shell") is a Late Triassic relative of turtles.

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Ophidiophobia or ophiophobia is a particular type of specific phobia, the abnormal fear of snakes.

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Order (biology)

In biological classification, the order (ordo) is.

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Ornithischia is an extinct clade of mainly herbivorous dinosaurs characterized by a pelvic structure similar to that of birds.

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Ornithopods or members of the clade Ornithopoda are a group of ornithischian dinosaurs that started out as small, bipedal running grazers, and grew in size and numbers until they became one of the most successful groups of herbivores in the Cretaceous world, and dominated the North American landscape.

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Ovoviviparity, ovovivipary, or ovivipary, is a mode of reproduction in animals in which embryos that develop inside eggs remain in the mother's body until they are ready to hatch.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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''Pachypleurosaurus'' Pachypleurosaurs were primitive sauropterygian reptiles that vaguely resembled aquatic lizards, and were limited to the Triassic period.

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Paleothyris was a small, agile, anapsid romeriidan reptile which lived in the Middle Pennsylvanian epoch in Nova Scotia (approximately 312 to 304 million years ago).

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The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era (from the Greek palaios (παλαιός), "old" and zoe (ζωή), "life", meaning "ancient life") is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon.

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Pantestudines is the group of all tetrapods more closely related to turtles than to any other animals.

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In taxonomy, a group is paraphyletic if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a few—typically only one or two—monophyletic subgroups.

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Parareptilia ("at the side of reptiles") is a subclass or clade of reptiles which is variously defined as an extinct group of primitive anapsids, or a more cladistically correct alternative to Anapsida.

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Pareiasaurs (meaning "cheek lizards") are an extinct group of anapsid reptiles classified in the family Pareiasauridae.

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Pareiasauromorpha is a group of parareptilian amniotes from the Permian.

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Parietal eye

A parietal eye, also known as a third eye or pineal eye, is a part of the epithalamus present in some animal species.

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Parthenogenesis (from the Greek label + label) is a natural form of asexual reproduction in which growth and development of embryos occur without fertilization.

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The pelycosaurs (from Greek πέλυξ pelyx 'wooden bowl' or 'axe' and σαῦρος sauros 'lizard') are an informal grouping (previously considered an order) composed of basal or primitive Late Paleozoic synapsids, sometimes erroneously referred to as "mammal-like reptiles".

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A penis (plural penises or penes) is the primary sexual organ that male animals use to inseminate sexually receptive mates (usually females and hermaphrodites) during copulation.

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Pennsylvanian (geology)

The Pennsylvanian (also known as Upper Carboniferous or Late Carboniferous) is, in the ICS geologic timescale, the younger of two subperiods (or upper of two subsystems) of the Carboniferous Period.

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The Permian is a geologic period and system which spans 47 million years from the end of the Carboniferous Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Triassic period 251.902 Mya.

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Permian–Triassic extinction event

The Permian–Triassic (P–Tr or P–T) extinction event, colloquially known as the Great Dying, the End-Permian Extinction or the Great Permian Extinction, occurred about 252 Ma (million years) ago, forming the boundary between the Permian and Triassic geologic periods, as well as the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras.

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In Greek mythology, Perseus (Περσεύς) is the legendary founder of Mycenae and of the Perseid dynasty, who, alongside Cadmus and Bellerophon, was the greatest Greek hero and slayer of monsters before the days of Heracles.

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Pharaoh (ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ Prro) is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until circa 1200 BCE.

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The International Code of Phylogenetic Nomenclature, known as the PhyloCode for short, is a developing draft for a formal set of rules governing phylogenetic nomenclature.

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Phylogenetic nomenclature

Phylogenetic nomenclature, often called cladistic nomenclature, is a method of nomenclature for taxa in biology that uses phylogenetic definitions for taxon names as explained below.

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In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.

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Phytosaurs are an extinct group of large, mostly semiaquatic Late Triassic archosauriform reptiles.

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Pierre André Latreille

Pierre André Latreille (29 November 1762 – 6 February 1833) was a French zoologist, specialising in arthropods.

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A piston is a component of reciprocating engines, reciprocating pumps, gas compressors and pneumatic cylinders, among other similar mechanisms.

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Pit viper

The Crotalinae, commonly known as pit vipers,Mehrtens JM.

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The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, thermo-regulation, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply; to fight against internal infection; and to produce hormones which support pregnancy.

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Placodonts ("Tablet teeth") is an extinct order of marine reptiles that lived during the Triassic period, becoming extinct at the end of the period.

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Plesiosauria (Greek: πλησίος, plesios, meaning "near to" and Sauria) or plesiosaurs are an order or clade of Mesozoic marine reptiles (marine Sauropsida), belonging to the Sauropterygia.

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PLOS One (stylized PLOS ONE, and formerly PLoS ONE) is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Public Library of Science (PLOS) since 2006.

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A poikilotherm is an animal whose internal temperature varies considerably.

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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.

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The Procolophonia are a suborder of herbivorous reptiles that lived from the Middle Permian till the end of the Triassic period.

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Procolophonoidea is an extinct superfamily of procolophonian parareptiles.

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Proganochelys quenstedti, identified as a primitive turtle, is an extinct genus that has been hypothesized to be the sister taxon to all other turtles creating a monophyletic group, the Casichelydia.

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Protorosauria is an extinct, possibly polyphyletic, group of archosauromorph reptiles from the latest Permian (Changhsingian stage) to the early Late Triassic (Carnian stage) of Asia, Europe, North America.

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Pterosaurs (from the Greek πτερόσαυρος,, meaning "winged lizard") were flying reptiles of the extinct clade or order Pterosauria.

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Pulmonary circulation

The pulmonary circulation is the portion of the circulatory system which carries deoxygenated blood away from the right ventricle of the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood to the left atrium and ventricle of the heart.

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Pulmonary vein

The pulmonary veins are the veins that transfer oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart.

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The Pythonidae, commonly known simply as pythons, from the Greek word python (πυθων), are a family of nonvenomous snakes found in Africa, Asia, and Australia.

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Quadrate bone

The quadrate bone is part of a skull in most tetrapods, including amphibians, sauropsids (reptiles, birds), and early synapsids.

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Quetzalcoatl (ket͡saɬˈkowaːt͡ɬ, in honorific form: Quetzalcohuātzin) forms part of Mesoamerican literature and is a deity whose name comes from the Nahuatl language and means "feathered serpent" or "Quetzal-feathered Serpent".

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Rattlesnakes are a group of venomous snakes of the genera Crotalus and Sistrurus of the subfamily Crotalinae (the pit vipers).

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"Rauisuchia" is a group of mostly large (often) Triassic archosaurs.

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In renal physiology, reabsorption or tubular reabsorption is the process by which the nephron removes water and solutes from the tubular fluid (pre-urine) and returns them to the circulating blood.

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Regeneration (biology)

In biology, regeneration is the process of renewal, restoration, and growth that makes genomes, cells, organisms, and ecosystems resilient to natural fluctuations or events that cause disturbance or damage.

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Reptile Database

The Reptile Database is a scientific database that collects taxonomic information on all living reptile species (i.e. no fossil species such as dinosaurs).

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Reptile scale

Reptile skin is covered with scutes or scales which, along with many other characteristics, distinguish reptiles from animals of other classes.

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Reptiliomorpha is a clade containing the amniotes and those tetrapods that share a more recent common ancestor with amniotes than with living amphibians (lissamphibians).

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Rhynchocephalia is an order of lizard-like reptiles that includes only one living species of tuatara, which in turn has two subspecies (Sphenodon punctatus punctatus and Sphenodon punctatus guntheri), which only inhabit parts of New Zealand.

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Rhynchosaurs were a group of Triassic diapsid reptiles related to the archosaurs.

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Richard Lydekker

Richard Lydekker (25 July 1849 – 16 April 1915) was an English naturalist, geologist and writer of numerous books on natural history.

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Richard Owen

Sir Richard Owen (20 July 1804 – 18 December 1892) was an English biologist, comparative anatomist and paleontologist.

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Romeriida is a clade of reptiles that consists of diapsids and the extinct protorothyridid genus Paleothyris, if not the entire family Protorothyrididae.

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Royal College of Surgeons of England

The Royal College of Surgeons of England (abbreviated RCS and sometimes RCSEng), is an independent professional body and registered charity promoting and advancing standards of surgical care for patients, regulating surgery, including dentistry, in England and Wales.

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Sailing ballast

Ballast is used in sailboats to provide moment to resist the lateral forces on the sail.

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Salt gland

The salt gland is an organ for excreting excess salts.

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Saltwater crocodile

The saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus), also known as the estuarine crocodile, Indo-Pacific crocodile, marine crocodile, sea crocodile or informally as saltie, is the largest of all living reptiles, as well as the largest riparian predator in the world.

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Sand lizard

The sand lizard (Lacerta agilis) is a lacertid lizard distributed across most of Europe and eastwards to Mongolia.

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The clade Sauria was traditionally a suborder for lizards which originally (before 1800) comprised crocodilians too.

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Saurischia (meaning "reptile-hipped" from the Greek (σαῦρος) meaning 'lizard' and (ἴσχιον) meaning 'hip joint') is one of the two basic divisions of dinosaurs (the other being Ornithischia).

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Sauropoda, or the sauropods (sauro- + -pod, "lizard-footed"), are a clade of saurischian ("lizard-hipped") dinosaurs.

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Sauropsida ("lizard faces") is a group of amniotes that includes all existing birds and other reptiles as well as their fossil ancestors and other extinct relatives.

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Sauropterygia ("lizard flippers") is an extinct, diverse taxon of aquatic reptiles that developed from terrestrial ancestors soon after the end-Permian extinction and flourished during the Mesozoic before they became extinct at the end of that era.

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Science (journal)

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.

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Scientific American

Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.

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The Scolecophidia, commonly knowns as blind snakes or thread snakes, are an infraorder of snakes.

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A scute or scutum (Latin scutum, plural: scuta "shield") is a bony external plate or scale overlaid with horn, as on the shell of a turtle, the skin of crocodilians, and the feet of birds.

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Sea turtle

Sea turtles (superfamily Chelonioidea), sometimes called marine turtles, are reptiles of the order Testudines.

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Secondary palate

The secondary palate is an anatomical structure that divides the nasal cavity from the oral cavity in many vertebrates.

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Serpent (symbolism)

The serpent, or snake, is one of the oldest and most widespread mythological symbols.

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Sex organ

A sex organ (or reproductive organ) is any part of an animal's body that is involved in sexual reproduction.

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Sexual reproduction

Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.

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Shiva (Sanskrit: शिव, IAST: Śiva, lit. the auspicious one) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism.

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Sinai agama

The Sinai agama (Pseudotrapelus sinaitus, formerly Agama sinaita) is an agamid lizard found in arid areas of southeastern Libya, eastern Egypt, Palestine, Israel, Jordan, Syria, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Oman, eastern Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Djibouti.

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Sinosaurosphargis is an extinct genus of basal marine saurosphargid reptile known from the Middle Triassic (Anisian age) Guanling Formation of Yunnan and Guizhou Provinces, southwestern China.

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Sinus venosus

The sinus venosus is a large quadrangular cavity which precedes the atrium on the venous side of the chordate heart.

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Sister group

A sister group or sister taxon is a phylogenetic term denoting the closest relatives of another given unit in an evolutionary tree.

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Skinks are lizards belonging to the family Scincidae and the infraorder Scincomorpha.

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Skull roof

The skull roof, or the roofing bones of the skull, are a set of bones covering the brain, eyes and nostrils in bony fishes and all land-living vertebrates.

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A sledgehammer is a tool with a large, flat, often metal head, attached to a lever (or handle).

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Snakes are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes.

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Snake venom

Snake venom is highly modified saliva containing zootoxins which facilitates the immobilization and digestion of prey, and defense against threats.

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Snake worship

Snake worship is devotion to serpent deities.

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A snakebite is an injury caused by the bite of a snake, especially a venomous snake.

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Sphaerodactylus ariasae

Sphaerodactylus ariasae, commonly called the Jaragua sphaero or the Jaragua dwarf gecko, is a very small species of lizard in the family Sphaerodactylidae.

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Squamata is the largest order of reptiles, comprising lizards, snakes and amphisbaenians (worm lizards), which are collectively known as squamates or scaled reptiles.

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Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

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Synapomorphy and apomorphy

In phylogenetics, apomorphy and synapomorphy refer to derived characters of a clade – characters or traits that are derived from ancestral characters over evolutionary history.

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Synapsids (Greek, 'fused arch'), synonymous with theropsids (Greek, 'beast-face'), are a group of animals that includes mammals and every animal more closely related to mammals than to other living amniotes.

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Systema Naturae

(originally in Latin written with the ligature æ) is one of the major works of the Swedish botanist, zoologist and physician Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778) and introduced the Linnaean taxonomy.

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The systole is that part of the cardiac cycle during which some chambers of the heart muscle contract after refilling with blood.

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Teiidae is a family of autarchoglossan lizards native to the Americas.

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Temnospondyli (from Greek τέμνειν (temnein, "to cut") and σπόνδυλος (spondylos, "vertebra")) is a diverse subclass of extinct small to giant tetrapods—often considered primitive amphibians—that flourished worldwide during the Carboniferous, Permian, and Triassic periods.

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Temperature-dependent sex determination

Temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) is a type of environmental sex determination in which the temperatures experienced during embryonic/larval development determine the sex of the offspring.

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Tenochtitlan (Tenochtitlan), originally known as México-Tenochtitlán (meːˈʃíʔ.ko te.noːt͡ʃ.ˈtí.t͡ɬan), was a large Mexica city-state in what is now the center of Mexico City.

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Testudinata is the group of all tetrapods with a true turtle shell.

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The superclass Tetrapoda (from Greek: τετρα- "four" and πούς "foot") contains the four-limbed vertebrates known as tetrapods; it includes living and extinct amphibians, reptiles (including dinosaurs, and its subgroup birds) and mammals (including primates, and all hominid subgroups including humans), as well as earlier extinct groups.

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Thalattosaurs (meaning "ocean lizards") are a group of prehistoric marine reptiles that lived during the mid-late Triassic Period.

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Thecodontia (meaning "socket-teeth"), now considered an obsolete taxonomic grouping, was formerly used to describe a diverse "order" of early archosaurian reptiles that first appeared in the latest Permian period and flourished until the end of the Triassic period.

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Therapsida is a group of synapsids that includes mammals and their ancestors.

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Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different.

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Theropoda (or, from Greek θηρίον "wild beast" and πούς, ποδός "foot") or theropods are a dinosaur suborder characterized by hollow bones and three-toed limbs.

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Thomas Henry Huxley

Thomas Henry Huxley (4 May 1825 – 29 June 1895) was an English biologist specialising in comparative anatomy.

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Thoracic diaphragm

For other uses, see Diaphragm (disambiguation). The thoracic diaphragm, or simply the diaphragm (partition), is a sheet of internal skeletal muscle in humans and other mammals that extends across the bottom of the thoracic cavity.

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Tiliqua rugosa

Tiliqua rugosa is a short-tailed, slow moving species of blue-tongued skink found in Australia.

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Titan (mythology)

In Greek mythology, the Titans (Greek: Τιτάν, Titán, Τiτᾶνες, Titânes) and Titanesses (or Titanides; Greek: Τιτανίς, Titanís, Τιτανίδες, Titanídes) were members of the second generation of divine beings, descending from the primordial deities and preceding the Olympians.

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Tortoises are a family, Testudinidae. Testudinidae is a Family under the order Testudines and suborder Cryptodira.

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Tree of the knowledge of good and evil

The tree of the knowledge of good and evil is one of two specific trees in the story of the Garden of Eden in Genesis 2–3, along with the tree of life.

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The Triassic is a geologic period and system which spans 50.6 million years from the end of the Permian Period 251.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Jurassic Period Mya.

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Trilophosaurus (Greek for "lizard with three ridges") is a lizard-like trilophosaurid allokotosaur known from the Late Triassic of North America.

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Troodontidae is a family of bird-like theropod dinosaurs.

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Tuatara are reptiles endemic to New Zealand.

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Tupinambis is a lizard genus which belongs to the family Teiidae, and contains eight described species.

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Turtles are diapsids of the order Testudines (or Chelonii) characterized by a special bony or cartilaginous shell developed from their ribs and acting as a shield.

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The Typhlopidae are a family of blind snakes.

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Tyrannosauridae (or tyrannosaurids, meaning "tyrant lizards") is a family of coelurosaurian theropod dinosaurs that comprises two subfamilies containing up to thirteen genera, including the eponymous Tyrannosaurus.

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Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.

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Uric acid

Uric acid is a heterocyclic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3.

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Urinary bladder

The urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ in humans and some other animals that collects and stores urine from the kidneys before disposal by urination.

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Ventricle (heart)

A ventricle is one of two large chambers in the heart that collect and expel blood received from an atrium towards the peripheral beds within the body and lungs.

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Vertebral column

The vertebral column, also known as the backbone or spine, is part of the axial skeleton.

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Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).

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Vertebrate Palaeontology (Benton)

Vertebrate Palaeontology is a basic textbook on vertebrate paleontology by Michael J. Benton, published by Blackwell's.

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Vertebrate Paleontology (Romer)

Vertebrate Paleontology is an advanced textbook on vertebrate paleontology by Alfred Sherwood Romer, published by the University of Chicago Press.

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Vincent of Beauvais

Vincent of Beauvais (Vincentius Bellovacensis or Vincentius Burgundus; 1184/1194 – c. 1264) was a Dominican friar at the Cistercian monastery of Royaumont Abbey, France.

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Vipera berus

Vipera berus, the common European adderMallow D, Ludwig D, Nilson G. (2003).

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Vishnu (Sanskrit: विष्णु, IAST) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism, and the Supreme Being in its Vaishnavism tradition.

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Among animals, viviparity is development of the embryo inside the body of the parent, eventually leading to live birth, as opposed to reproduction by laying eggs that complete their incubation outside the parental body.

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Warm-blooded animal species can maintain a body temperature higher than their environment.

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Westlothiana is a genus of reptile-like amphibian or possibly early reptile that bore a superficial resemblance to modern-day lizards.

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Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.

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Wood turtle

The wood turtle (Glyptemys insculpta) is a species of turtle endemic to North America.

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World Turtle

The World Turtle (also referred to as the Cosmic Turtle, the World-bearing Turtle) is a mytheme of a giant turtle (or tortoise) supporting or containing the world.

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Younginiformes is a replacement name for the taxon Eosuchia, proposed by Alfred Romer in 1947.

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Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society

The Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal of zoology published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Linnean Society.

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Circulatory system of reptiles, Class Reptilia, Digestive system of reptiles, Excretory systems of reptiles, Hepatic piston, Reproductive biology of reptiles, Reproductive organs of reptiles, Reproductive systems of reptiles, Reptila, Reptile anatomy, Reptile intelligence, Reptile migration, Reptile reproduction, Reptiles, Reptilia, Reptilian proteins, Respiratory system of reptiles, Respiratory systems of reptiles.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reptile

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