275 relations: Academia Sinica, Administrative divisions of Taiwan, Allies of World War II, Andong Province, Anhui, Australia, Authoritarianism, Ürümqi, Baoding, Battle of Shanghai, Bei'an, Beijing, Beiping, Beiyang Army, Beiyang government, Boxer Protocol, Boxer Rebellion, Bushel, Canada, Central Bank of the Republic of China (Taiwan), Central Plains War, Chahar Province, Changsha, Chengde, Chengdu, Chiang Kai-shek, China, China Heroically Stands in the Universe, Chinese Civil War, Chinese Communist Revolution, Chinese Exclusion Act, Chinese people, Chongqing, Collaborationism, Communist Party of China, Congressional Quarterly, Constitution of the Republic of China, Czechoslovakia, Dalian, Dynasties in Chinese history, East Asia, Economic history of China (1912–49), Eight-Nation Alliance, Emperor of China, Empire of China (1915–1916), Empire of Japan, Estonia, Examination Yuan, Executive Yuan, Federal republic, ..., Feng Yuxiang, Five Races Under One Union, Four Policemen, Francoist Spain, Free China (Second Sino-Japanese War), French Third Republic, Fujian People's Government, Fujian Province, Republic of China, Fuzhou, Gansu, Geography of Taiwan, George Marshall, Great Wall of China, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guangzhou, Guatemala, Guilin, Guiyang, Guizhou, Haikou, Hainan, Hangzhou, Hankou, Harbin, He Yingqin, Hebei, Hefei, Heilongjiang, Hejiang Province, Henan, Heping District, Tianjin, History of China, Hohhot, Honduras, Huangpu District, Shanghai, Hubei, Hulunbuir, Hunan, Imperial Japanese Army, Inner Mongolia, Japanese invasion of Manchuria, Jiamusi, Jiang'an District, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Jilin City, Jinan, John Van Antwerp MacMurray, Judicial Yuan, Kaifeng, Kangding, Kingdom of Italy, Kumul Rebellion, Kunming, Kuomintang, Languages of China, Lanzhou, Latvia, League of Nations, Legislative Yuan, Lhasa, Li Zongren, Liaobei, Liaoning, List of islands of Taiwan, List of premiers of the Republic of China, List of Presidents of the Republic of China, Lithuania, Long March, Manchu language, Manchu people, Manchu Restoration, Manchukuo, Manchuria, Mao Zedong, Marco Polo Bridge, Marshall Mission, Martial law, Marxism, May Fourth Movement, Military dictatorship, Mongolia, Mongolia (1911–24), Mongolian independence referendum, 1945, Mongolian language, Mudanjiang, Museum of the Imperial Palace of Manchukuo, Nanchang, Nangang District, Harbin, Nanjing, Nanjing decade, Nanking Massacre, National Anthem of the Republic of China, National Assembly (Republic of China), National day, National Day of the Republic of China, National Flag Anthem of the Republic of China, National Revolutionary Army, Nationalist government, Nazi Germany, Nenjiang Province, Ningxia, Northern Expedition, Norway, Occupation of Mongolia, Old Taiwan dollar, One-party state, Outer Mongolia, Pacific War, Panama, People's Liberation Army, Pinyin, Politics of Manchukuo, Pound sterling, Provisional Government of the Republic of China (1912), Puppet state, Puyi, Qing dynasty, Qingdao, Qinghai, Qinhuai District, Qiqihar, Rehe Province, Republic, Republic of China Armed Forces, Republic of China Army, Republic of China at the 1932 Summer Olympics, Republic of China National Assembly election, 1912, Republic of Cuba (1902–1959), Retrocession Day, Rural Reconstruction Movement, Second Sino-Japanese War, Second United Front, Semi-presidential system, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shandong Peninsula, Shanghai, Shanghai massacre, Shanxi, Shen Chong case, Shenhe District, Shenyang, Shinan District, Shuangliao, Sichuan, Sino-American New Equal Treaty, Sino-British New Equal Treaty, Sino-German cooperation (1926–1941), Sino-Soviet relations, Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Alliance, Sino-Tibetan War, Song Jiaoren, Song to the Auspicious Cloud, Songjiang Province, Sovereign state, Soviet invasion of Xinjiang, Soviet Union, Standard Chinese, Standard Tibetan, Stuart R. Schram, Suiyuan, Sun Yat-sen, Surrender of Japan, Tael, Taipei, Taiwan, Taiwan Province, Taiyuan, Tang Shaoyi, Temporary capital, Thailand, Three Principles of the People, Tianjin, Tibet Area (administrative division), Tibet Autonomous Region, Tonghua, Totalitarianism, Traditional Chinese characters, Treaty of Versailles, Ulaanbaatar, Unequal treaty, United Kingdom, United Nations, United Nations General Assembly Resolution 505, United Nations Security Council, United States, United States dollar, United States Marine Corps, Uyghur language, Vatican City, Wang Jingwei regime, Warlord, Warlord Era, Weiyang District, Xi'an, World War I, World War II, Wuchang District, Wuchang Uprising, Wuhan, Xi'an, Xi'an Incident, Xicheng District, Xigang District, Xikang, Xing'an Province, Xinhai Revolution, Xining, Xinjiang, Yalta Conference, Yan Xishan, Yangtze, Yinchuan, Yuan (currency), Yuan Shikai, Yuexiu District, Yunnan, Yuzhong District, Zhang Xueliang, Zhangjiakou, Zhejiang, Zhenjiang, 1st Marine Division (United States). Expand index (225 more) » « Shrink index
Academia Sinica (Han characters: 中央研究院, literally "central research academy"; abbreviated AS), headquartered in Nangang District, Taipei, is the national academy of Taiwan.
Taiwan consists of provinces and special municipalities.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Andong / Antung (Wade-Giles), or Liaodong was a former province in Northeast China, located in what is now part of Liaoning and Jilin provinces.
Anhui is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the eastern region of the country.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms.
Ürümqi (yengi; from Oirat "beautiful pasture") is the capital of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in the far northwest of the People's Republic of China.
Baoding is a prefecture-level city in central Hebei province, approximately southwest of Beijing.
The Battle of Shanghai was the first of the twenty-two major engagements fought between the National Revolutionary Army (NRA) of the Republic of China (ROC) and the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) of the Empire of Japan during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
Bei'an is a county-level city in west-central Heilongjiang province in the People's Republic of China.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
Beiping or Peiping, meaning "Northern Peace" in Chinese, is a former name of Beijing, which means "Northern Capital".
The Beiyang Army (Pei-yang Army) was a powerful, Western-style Imperial Chinese Army established by the Qing Dynasty government in the late 19th century.
The Beiyang government (北洋政府), also sometimes spelled Peiyang Government, refers to the government of the Republic of China, which was in place in the capital city Beijing from 1912 to 1928.
The Boxer Protocol was signed on September 7, 1901, between the Qing Empire of China and the Eight-Nation Alliance that had provided military forces (Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States) plus Belgium, Spain and the Netherlands after China's defeat in the intervention to put down the Boxer Rebellion at the hands of the Eight-Power Expeditionary Force.
The Boxer Rebellion (拳亂), Boxer Uprising or Yihetuan Movement (義和團運動) was a violent anti-foreign, anti-colonial and anti-Christian uprising that took place in China between 1899 and 1901, toward the end of the Qing dynasty.
A bushel (abbreviation: bsh. or bu.) is an imperial and US customary unit of weight or mass based upon an earlier measure of dry capacity.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Central Bank of the Republic of China (CBC), known in English from 1924 to 2007 as the Central Bank of China, is the central bank of the Republic of China, now commonly known as Taiwan.
The Central Plains War of 1930 was a civil war between the Nationalist Kuomintang government in Nanjing led by Chiang Kai-shek and several regional military commanders that were former allies of Chiang during the Northern Expedition.
Chahar (ᠴᠠᠬᠠᠷ Чахар), also known as Chaha'er, Chakhar, or Qahar, was a province of the Republic of China in existence from 1912 to 1936, mostly covering territory in what is part of eastern Inner Mongolia.
Changsha is the capital and most populous city of Hunan province in the south central part of the People's Republic of China.
Chengde, previously known as Jehol or Rehe, is a prefecture-level city in Hebei province, situated northeast of Beijing.
Chengdu, formerly romanized as Chengtu, is a sub-provincial city which serves as the capital of China's Sichuan province.
Chiang Kai-shek (31 October 1887 – 5 April 1975), also romanized as Chiang Chieh-shih or Jiang Jieshi and known as Chiang Chungcheng, was a political and military leader who served as the leader of the Republic of China between 1928 and 1975, first in mainland China until 1949 and then in exile in Taiwan.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
"China Heroically Stands in the Universe" was the national anthem of the Republic of China (in use 1915–1921) and the Empire of China (1915–1916).
The Chinese Civil War was a war fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led government of the Republic of China and the Communist Party of China (CPC).
The Chinese Communist Revolution started from 1946, after the end of Second Sino-Japanese War, and was the second part of the Chinese Civil War.
The Chinese Exclusion Act was a United States federal law signed by President Chester A. Arthur on May 6, 1882, prohibiting all immigration of Chinese laborers.
Chinese people are the various individuals or ethnic groups associated with China, usually through ancestry, ethnicity, nationality, citizenship or other affiliation.
Chongqing, formerly romanized as Chungking, is a major city in southwest China.
Collaborationism is cooperation with the enemy against one's country in wartime.
The Communist Party of China (CPC), also referred to as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China.
Congressional Quarterly, Inc., or CQ, is part of a privately owned publishing company called CQ Roll Call that produces a number of publications reporting primarily on the United States Congress.
During the National Constituent Assembly session on 25 December 1946 in Nanking, the fifth and current Chinese constitution was officially adopted on 25 December 1947, at a time when the ROC still had nominal control of Mainland China and to which this constitution applied.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
Dalian is a major city and seaport in the south of Liaoning Province, China.
The following is a chronology of the dynasties in Chinese History.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
After the fall of the Qing Dynasty in 1912, China underwent a period of instability and disrupted economic activity.
The Eight-Nation Alliance was an international military coalition set up in response to the Boxer Rebellion in China.
The Emperor or Huangdi was the secular imperial title of the Chinese sovereign reigning between the founding of the Qin dynasty that unified China in 221 BC, until the abdication of Puyi in 1912 following the Xinhai Revolution and the establishment of the Republic of China, although it was later restored twice in two failed revolutions in 1916 and 1917.
The Empire of China was a short-lived attempt by statesman and general Yuan Shikai from late 1915 to early 1916 to reinstate monarchy in China, with himself as the Hongxian Emperor.
The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
The Examination Yuan is in charge of validating the qualification of civil servants in the Republic of China (Taiwan).
The Executive Yuan is the executive branch of the government of the Republic of China on Taiwan.
A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government.
Feng Yuxiang (6 November 1882 – 1 September 1948) was a warlord and leader in Republican China from Chaohu, Anhui.
Five Races Under One Union was one of the major principles upon which the Republic of China was founded in 1911 at the time of the Xinhai Revolution.
The term "Four Policemen" refers to a post-war council consisting of the Big Four that U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt proposed as a guarantor of world peace.
Francoist Spain (España franquista) or the Franco regime (Régimen de Franco), formally known as the Spanish State (Estado Español), is the period of Spanish history between 1939, when Francisco Franco took control of Spain after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War establishing a dictatorship, and 1975, when Franco died and Prince Juan Carlos was crowned King of Spain.
The term Free China, in the context of the Second Sino-Japanese War, refers to those areas of China not under the control of the Imperial Japanese Army or any of its puppet governments, such as Manchukuo, the Mengjiang government in Suiyuan and Chahar, or the Provisional Government of the Republic of China in Peiping (now Beijing).
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.
The Fujian People's Government (or spelt as the Fukien People's Government) is the common name for the People's Revolutionary Government of the Republic of China (1933–1934), also known as the Fujian People's Government (Chinese: 福建人民革命政府; pinyin: Fújiàn Rénmín Zhèngfǔ) as a short-lived anti-Kuomintang government in the Republic of China's Fujian Province.
Fujian, formerly romanized as Fukien or Fuchien (see other names below), is a streamlined province of the Republic of China (ROC).
Fuzhou, formerly romanized as Foochow, is the capital and one of the largest cities in Fujian province, China.
Gansu (Tibetan: ཀན་སུའུ་ Kan su'u) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northwest of the country.
Taiwan, formerly known as Formosa, is an island in East Asia; located some off the southeastern coast of mainland China across the Taiwan Strait.
George Catlett Marshall Jr. (December 31, 1880 – October 16, 1959) was an American statesman and soldier.
The Great Wall of China is a series of fortifications made of stone, brick, tamped earth, wood, and other materials, generally built along an east-to-west line across the historical northern borders of China to protect the Chinese states and empires against the raids and invasions of the various nomadic groups of the Eurasian Steppe with an eye to expansion.
Guangdong is a province in South China, located on the South China Sea coast.
Guangxi (pronounced; Zhuang: Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, is a Chinese autonomous region in South Central China, bordering Vietnam.
Guangzhou, also known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong.
Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala (República de Guatemala), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, Honduras to the east and El Salvador to the southeast.
Guilin, formerly romanized as Kweilin, is a prefecture-level city in the northeast of China's Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region.
Guiyang is the capital of Guizhou province of Southwest China.
Guizhou, formerly romanized as Kweichow, is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the southwestern part of the country.
Hǎikǒu, is the capital and most populous city of Hainan province, China.
Hainan is the smallest and southernmost province of the People's Republic of China (PRC), consisting of various islands in the South China Sea.
Hangzhou (Mandarin:; local dialect: /ɦɑŋ tseɪ/) formerly romanized as Hangchow, is the capital and most populous city of Zhejiang Province in East China.
Hankou p Hànkǒu), formerly romanized as Hankow (Hangkow), was one of the three cities whose merging formed modern-day Wuhan municipality, the capital of the Hubei province, China.
Harbin is the capital of Heilongjiang province, and largest city in the northeastern region of the People's Republic of China.
He Yingqin (April 2, 1890 – October 21, 1987) was one of the most senior generals of the Kuomintang (KMT) during Republican China, and a close ally of Chiang Kai-shek.
Hebei (postal: Hopeh) is a province of China in the North China region.
Hefei is the capital and largest city of Anhui Province in China.
Heilongjiang (Wade-Giles: Heilungkiang) is a province of the People's Republic of China.
Hokiang, was a province in Northeast China, which was established in 1945.
Henan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country.
Heping District is a district in the center of Tianjin, China.
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.
Hohhot, abbreviated in Chinese as Hushi, formerly known as Kweisui, is the capital of Inner Mongolia in the north of the People's Republic of China, serving as the region's administrative, economic and cultural center.
Honduras, officially the Republic of Honduras (República de Honduras), is a republic in Central America.
District, makes up the eastern part of Shanghai's traditional urban core and is today the most central of Shanghai's 16 districts.
Hubei is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the Central China region.
Hulunbuir or Hulun Buir (style, Kölün buyir, Cyrillic: Хөлөнбуйр, Khölönbuir;, Hūlúnbèi'ěr) is a region that is governed as a prefecture-level city in northeastern Inner Mongolia, in China.
Hunan is the 7th most populous province of China and the 10th most extensive by area.
The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA; Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun; "Army of the Greater Japanese Empire") was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan from 1868 to 1945.
Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region or Nei Mongol Autonomous Region (Ѳвѳр Монголын Ѳѳртѳѳ Засах Орон in Mongolian Cyrillic), is one of the autonomous regions of China, located in the north of the country.
The Japanese invasion of Manchuria began on 18 September 1931, when the Kwantung Army of the Empire of Japan invaded Manchuria immediately following the Mukden Incident.
Jiamusi (formerly Kiamusze) is a prefecture-level city in eastern Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China.
Jiang'an District forms part of the urban core of and is one of 13 districts of Wuhan, the capital of Hubei province, People's Republic of China.
Jiangsu, formerly romanized as Kiangsu, is an eastern-central coastal province of the People's Republic of China.
Jiangxi, formerly spelled as Kiangsi Gan: Kongsi) is a province in the People's Republic of China, located in the southeast of the country. Spanning from the banks of the Yangtze river in the north into hillier areas in the south and east, it shares a border with Anhui to the north, Zhejiang to the northeast, Fujian to the east, Guangdong to the south, Hunan to the west, and Hubei to the northwest. The name "Jiangxi" derives from the circuit administrated under the Tang dynasty in 733, Jiangnanxidao (道, Circuit of Western Jiangnan; Gan: Kongnomsitau). The short name for Jiangxi is 赣 (pinyin: Gàn; Gan: Gōm), for the Gan River which runs across from the south to the north and flows into the Yangtze River. Jiangxi is also alternately called Ganpo Dadi (贛鄱大地) which literally means the "Great Land of Gan and Po".
Jilin, formerly romanized as Kirin is one of the three provinces of Northeast China.
Jilin City (postal: Kirin) Is the second-largest city and former capital of Jilin province in northeast China.
Jinan, formerly romanized as Tsinan, is the capital of Shandong province in Eastern China.
John Van Antwerp MacMurray (October 6, 1881 – September 25, 1960) was an American attorney, author and diplomat best known as one of the leading China experts in the U.S. government.
The Judicial Yuan is one of the five branches of the government of the Republic of China on Taiwan, and serves as the highest judicial organ.
Kaifeng, known previously by several names, is a prefecture-level city in east-central Henan province, China.
Kangding, or Dartsedo, is a county-level city and the seat of Garzê Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan province of Southwest China.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
The Kumul Rebellion (Hāmì bàodòng, "Hami Uprising") was a rebellion of Kumulik Uyghurs who conspired with Hui Chinese Muslim Gen.
Kunming is the capital and largest city of Yunnan province in southwest China.
The Kuomintang of China (KMT; often translated as the Nationalist Party of China) is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei and is currently the opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan.
The languages of China are the languages that are spoken in China.
Lanzhou is the capital and largest city of Gansu Province in Northwest China.
Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
The Legislative Yuan is the unicameral legislature of the Republic of China now based in Taiwan.
Lhasa is a city and administrative capital of the Tibet Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China.
Li Zongren or Li Tsung-jen (13 August 1890 – 30 January 1969), courtesy name Delin (Te-lin; 德鄰), was a prominent Guangxi warlord and Kuomintang (KMT) military commander during the Northern Expedition, Second Sino-Japanese War and Chinese Civil War.
Liaobei (Wade-Giles: Liaopei) also known as Liaopeh was a province in Manchuria, in what is now the People's Republic of China.
Liaoning is a province of China, located in the northeast of the country.
This is a list of islands of Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), classified into various island groups.
This is a list of the Premiers of the Republic of China since 1912.
This is a list of the Presidents of the Republic of China (1912–present).
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
The Long March (October 1934 – October 1935) was a military retreat undertaken by the Red Army of the Communist Party of China, the forerunner of the People's Liberation Army, to evade the pursuit of the Kuomintang (KMT or Chinese Nationalist Party) army.
Manchu (Manchu: manju gisun) is a critically endangered Tungusic language spoken in Manchuria; it was the native language of the Manchus and one of the official languages of the Qing dynasty (1636–1911) of China.
The Manchu are an ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.
The Manchu Restoration of July 1917 was an attempt to restore monarchy in China by General Zhang Xun, whose army seized Beijing and briefly reinstalled the last emperor of the Qing dynasty, Puyi, to the throne.
Manchukuo was a puppet state of the Empire of Japan in Northeast China and Inner Mongolia from 1932 until 1945.
Manchuria is a name first used in the 17th century by Chinese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia.
Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), commonly known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.
The Marco Polo Bridge or Lugou Bridge is a stone bridge located 15 km southwest of Beijing city center in the Fengtai District.
The Marshall Mission (20 December 1945 – January 1947) was a failed diplomatic mission undertaken by United States Army General of the Army George C. Marshall to China in an attempt to negotiate the Communist Party of China and the Nationalists (Kuomintang) into a unified government.
Martial law is the imposition of direct military control of normal civilian functions of government, especially in response to a temporary emergency such as invasion or major disaster, or in an occupied territory. Martial law can be used by governments to enforce their rule over the public.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
The May Fourth Movement was an anti-imperialist, cultural, and political movement growing out of student participants in Beijing on 4 May 1919, protesting against the Chinese government's weak response to the Treaty of Versailles, especially allowing Japan to receive territories in Shandong which had been surrendered by Germany after the Siege of Tsingtao.
A military dictatorship (also known as a military junta) is a form of government where in a military force exerts complete or substantial control over political authority.
Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.
The Bogd Khaanate of Mongolia was the government of Mongolia (Outer Mongolia) between 1911 and 1919 and again from 1921 to 1924.
An independence referendum was held in the Mongolian People's Republic on 20 October 1945.
The Mongolian language (in Mongolian script: Moŋɣol kele; in Mongolian Cyrillic: монгол хэл, mongol khel.) is the official language of Mongolia and both the most widely-spoken and best-known member of the Mongolic language family.
Mudanjiang (Manchu: Mudan bira) is a prefecture-level city in southernmost Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China.
The Museum of the Imperial Palace of Manchukuo is a museum in the northeastern corner of Changchun, Jilin province, northeast China.
Nanchang is the capital of Jiangxi Province in southeastern China.
Nangang District is one of nine districts of Harbin, the capital of Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China, forming part of the city's urban core.
Nanjing, formerly romanized as Nanking and Nankin, is the capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China and the second largest city in the East China region, with an administrative area of and a total population of 8,270,500.
The Nanjing decade (also Nanking decade, Nánjīng shí nián, or The Golden decade, Huángjīn shí nián) is an informal name for the decade from 1927 (or 1928) to 1937 in the Republic of China.
The Nanking Massacre was an episode of mass murder and mass rape committed by Japanese troops against the residents of Nanjing (Nanking), then the capital of the Republic of China, during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The "National Anthem of the Republic of China" is the national anthem of Taiwan.
The National Assembly refers to several national parliamentary government organizations of the Republic of China.
A national day is a designated date on which celebrations mark the nationhood of a nation or non-sovereign country.
The National Day of the Republic of China, also referred to as Double Ten Day or Double Tenth Day, is the national day of the Republic of China (ROC). It commemorates the start of the Wuchang Uprising of 10 October 1911 (10-10 or double ten), which led to the collapse of the Qing Dynasty in China and establishment of the ROC on 1 January 1912. During the course of the Chinese Civil War, the government of the Republic of China lost control of mainland China, fleeing to Taiwan Island in December 1949. The National Day is now mainly celebrated in ROC-controlled Taiwan, but is also celebrated by some overseas Chinese.
The National Flag Anthem of the Republic of China (1; also unofficially known as the "National Banner Song") is played during the raising and lowering of the Flag of the Republic of China (ROC). This song is also played at international sporting events such as the Olympic Games; where the Republic of China (Taiwan) participates officially under the name of Chinese Taipei.
The National Revolutionary Army (NRA), sometimes shortened to Revolutionary Army (革命軍) before 1928, and as National Army (國軍) after 1928, was the military arm of the Kuomintang (KMT, or the Chinese Nationalist Party) from 1925 until 1947 in the Republic of China.
The Nationalist government, officially the National Government of the Republic of China, refers to the government of the Republic of China between 1 July 1925 to 20 May 1948, led by the Kuomintang (KMT, Chinese Nationalist Party).
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Nunkiang, was a province in Northeast China, which was established in 1945.
Ningxia (pronounced), officially the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NHAR), is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China located in the northwest part of the country.
The Northern Expedition was a military campaign launched by the National Revolutionary Army of the Kuomintang (KMT), also known as the Nationalists, against the Beiyang government and other regional warlords in 1926.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
The occupation of Outer Mongolia by the Beiyang government of the Republic of China began in October 1919 and lasted until early 1921, when Chinese troops in Urga were routed by Baron Ungern's White Russian (Buryats, Russians etc.) and Mongolian forces.
The Old Taiwan dollar was in use from 1946 to 1949, beginning shortly after Taiwan's handover from the Japanese Empire to Nationalist China.
A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution.
Outer Mongolia (Mongolian script: or ， Mongolian Cyrillic: or, romanization: Gadaad Mongol or Alr Mongol)Huhbator Borjigin.
The Pacific War, sometimes called the Asia-Pacific War, was the theater of World War II that was fought in the Pacific and Asia. It was fought over a vast area that included the Pacific Ocean and islands, the South West Pacific, South-East Asia, and in China (including the 1945 Soviet–Japanese conflict). The Second Sino-Japanese War between the Empire of Japan and the Republic of China had been in progress since 7 July 1937, with hostilities dating back as far as 19 September 1931 with the Japanese invasion of Manchuria. However, it is more widely accepted that the Pacific War itself began on 7/8 December 1941, when Japan invaded Thailand and attacked the British possessions of Malaya, Singapore, and Hong Kong as well as the United States military and naval bases in Hawaii, Wake Island, Guam and the Philippines. The Pacific War saw the Allies pitted against Japan, the latter briefly aided by Thailand and to a much lesser extent by the Axis allied Germany and Italy. The war culminated in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and other large aerial bomb attacks by the Allies, accompanied by the Soviet declaration of war and invasion of Manchuria on 9 August 1945, resulting in the Japanese announcement of intent to surrender on 15 August 1945. The formal surrender of Japan ceremony took place aboard the battleship in Tokyo Bay on 2 September 1945. Japan's Shinto Emperor was forced to relinquish much of his authority and his divine status through the Shinto Directive in order to pave the way for extensive cultural and political reforms. After the war, Japan lost all rights and titles to its former possessions in Asia and the Pacific, and its sovereignty was limited to the four main home islands.
Panama (Panamá), officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá), is a country in Central America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south.
The Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the armed forces of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and Communist Party of China (CPC).
Hanyu Pinyin Romanization, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan.
Manchukuo was a puppet state set up by the Empire of Japan in Manchuria which existed from 1931 to 1945.
The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as Sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.
The Provisional Government of the Republic of China (中華民國臨時政府, pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó Línshí Zhèngfǔ) was a provisional government established during the Xinhai Revolution by the revolutionaries in 1912.
A puppet state is a state that is supposedly independent but is in fact dependent upon an outside power.
Puyi or Pu Yi (7 February 190617 October 1967), of the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan, was the last Emperor of China and the twelfth and final ruler of the Qing dynasty.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
Qingdao (also spelled Tsingtao) is a city in eastern Shandong Province on the east coast of China.
Qinghai, formerly known in English as Kokonur, is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the northwest of the country.
Qinhuai District is one of 11 districts of Nanjing, the capital of Jiangsu province, China.
Qiqihar is the second largest city in the Heilongjiang province of China, located in the west central part of the province.
Rehe (ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ), also known as Jehol, is a former Chinese special administrative region and province.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
The Republic of China Armed Forces, also known as the Chinese National Armed Forces (CNAF) or Armed Forces of Taiwan are the armed forces of the Republic of China now on Taiwan, encompassing the Army, Navy (including the Republic of China Marine Corps), Air Force and Military Police Force.
The Republic of China Army (ROCA) is the largest branch of the Republic of China Armed Forces.
China, as the Republic of China, competed in the Summer Olympic Games for the first time at the 1932 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, United States.
The 1912 Republic of China National Assembly elections, held in December 1912 to January 1913, were the first elections for the new founded Republic of China Senate and House of Representatives.
The Republic of Cuba (Spanish: República de Cuba) of 1902 to 1959, refers to the historical period in Cuba from 1902, when Cuba seceded from US rule in the aftermath of the Spanish–American War that took Cuba from Spanish rule in 1898, until communist revolutionaries took power in 1959.
Taiwan Retrocession Day is an annual observance and unofficial holiday in the Republic of China to commemorate the end of 50 years of Japanese rule of Taiwan and Penghu, and their handover to China on 25 October 1945.
The Rural Reconstruction Movement was started in China in the 1920s by Y.C. James Yen, Liang Shuming and others to revive the Chinese village.
The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937, to September 2, 1945.
The Second United Front was the alliance between the Chinese Nationalist Party (Kuomintang, or KMT) and Communist Party of China (CPC) to resist the Japanese invasion during the Second Sino-Japanese War, which suspended the Chinese Civil War from 1937 to 1941.
A semi-presidential system or dual executive system is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter two being responsible for the legislature of a state.
Shaanxi is a province of the People's Republic of China.
Shandong (formerly romanized as Shantung) is a coastal province of the People's Republic of China, and is part of the East China region.
The Shandong Peninsula is a peninsula in Shandong province in eastern China, between the Bohai Sea to the north and the Yellow Sea to the south.
Shanghai (Wu Chinese) is one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China and the most populous city proper in the world, with a population of more than 24 million.
The Shanghai massacre of April 12, 1927, known commonly as the April 12 Incident, was the violent suppression of Communist Party of China (CPC) organizations in Shanghai by the military forces of Chiang Kai-shek and conservative factions in the Kuomintang (Nationalist Party, or KMT).
Shanxi (postal: Shansi) is a province of China, located in the North China region.
The Shen Chong case, also referred to as the Peiping rape case, was a rape case in 1946 that triggered a nationwide anti-American movement in the Republic of China.
Shenhe District is one of nine districts of Shenyang, the capital of Liaoning province, People's Republic of China, and forms part of the urban core.
Shenyang, formerly known by its Manchu name Mukden or Fengtian, is the provincial capital and the largest city of Liaoning Province, People's Republic of China, as well as the largest city in Northeast China by urban population.
Shinan ("South City") is an urban district of Qingdao, Shandong.
Shuangliao is a city in western Jilin, People's Republic of China, bordering Liaoning and Inner Mongolia.
Sichuan, formerly romanized as Szechuan or Szechwan, is a province in southwest China occupying most of the Sichuan Basin and the easternmost part of the Tibetan Plateau between the Jinsha River on the west, the Daba Mountains in the north, and the Yungui Plateau to the south.
The Sino-American New Equal Treaty or the Sino-American Treaty for Relinquishment of Extraterritorial Rights in China was a bilateral treaty signed by the United States and the Republic of China on January 11, 1943.
The Sino-British New Equal Treaty, or the Sino-British Treaty for the Relinquishment of Extra-Territorial Rights in China was a bilateral treaty concluded between the British and the Chinese governments in Chongqing on 11 January 1943.
Cooperation between China and Germany was instrumental in modernizing the industry and the armed forces of the Republic of China between 1926 and 1941.
Sino-Soviet relations (Советско-китайские отношения, Sovetsko-kitayskiye otnosheniya) refers to the diplomatic relationship between the Chinese Republic and the various forms of Soviet Power which emerged from the Russian Revolution of 1917 to 1991, when the Soviet Union ceased to exist.
The Treaty of Friendship and Alliance (Traditional Chinese:中蘇友好同盟條約) is a 1945 treaty signed by the Nationalist Government of the Republic of China and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics at 14 August 1945.
The Sino-Tibetan War was a war that began in 1930 when the Tibetan Army under the 13th Dalai Lama invaded Xikang and Yushu in Qinghai in a dispute over monasteries.
Song Jiaoren (Given name at birth: Liàn 鍊; Courtesy name: Dùnchū 鈍初) (5 April 1882 – 22 March 1913) was a Chinese republican revolutionary, political leader and a founder of the Kuomintang (KMT).
The Song to the Auspicious Cloud (卿雲歌, Pinyin: Qīng yún gē, literally "Auspicious Cloud Song") was the title of two historical national anthems of the Republic of China.
Sungkiang or Songjiang was a province (c.32,000 sq mi/82,880 km²) of the Republic of China.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
The Soviet invasion of Xinjiang was a military campaign of the Soviet Union in the Chinese northwestern region of Xinjiang in 1934.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
Standard Tibetan is the most widely spoken form of the Tibetic languages.
Stuart Reynolds Schram (February 27, 1924 – July 8, 2012) was an American physicist, political scientist and sinologist who specialised in the study of modern Chinese politics.
Suiyuan was a historical province of China.
Sun Yat-sen (12 November 1866 – 12 March 1925)Singtao daily.
The surrender of Imperial Japan was announced on August 15 and formally signed on September 2, 1945, bringing the hostilities of World War II to a close.
Tael (at the OED Online.) or tahil can refer to any one of several weight measures of the Far East.
Taipei, officially known as Taipei City, is the capital and a special municipality of Taiwan (officially known as the Republic of China, "ROC").
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Taiwan Province is one of the two administrative divisions of the Republic of China (ROC) that are officially referred to as "provinces".
Taiyuan (also known as Bīng (并), Jìnyáng (晋阳)) is the capital and largest city of Shanxi province in North China.
Tang Shaoyi (2 January 1862 – 30 September 1938), originally Tong Shao Yi, courtesy name Shaochuan (少川), was a Chinese statesman who briefly served as the first Premier of the Republic of China in 1912.
A temporary capital or a provisional capital is a city or town chosen by a government as an interim base of operations due to some difficulty in retaining or establishing control of a different metropolitan area.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
The Three Principles of the People, also translated as Three People's Principles, San-min Doctrine, or Tridemism is a political philosophy developed by Sun Yat-sen as part of a philosophy to make China a free, prosperous, and powerful nation.
Tianjin, formerly romanized as Tientsin, is a coastal metropolis in northern China and one of the four national central cities of the People's Republic of China (PRC), with a total population of 15,469,500, and is also the world's 11th-most populous city proper.
The Tibet Area was a province-level administrative division of the Republic of China and early People's Republic of China.
The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) or Xizang Autonomous Region, called Tibet or Xizang for short, is a province-level autonomous region of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
Tonghua is an industrial city in the south of Jilin province, People's Republic of China.
Benito Mussolini Totalitarianism is a political concept where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to control every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.
Traditional Chinese characters (Pinyin) are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946.
The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end.
Ulaanbaatar, formerly anglicised as Ulan Bator (Улаанбаатар,, Ulaγanbaγatur, literally "Red Hero"), is the capital and largest city of Mongolia. The city is not part of any aimag (province), and its population was over 1.3 million, almost half of the country's total population. Located in north central Mongolia, the municipality lies at an elevation of about in a valley on the Tuul River. It is the country's cultural, industrial and financial heart, the centre of Mongolia's road network and connected by rail to both the Trans-Siberian Railway in Russia and the Chinese railway system. The city was founded in 1639 as a nomadic Buddhist monastic centre. In 1778, it settled permanently at its present location, the junction of the Tuul and Selbe rivers. Before that, it changed location twenty-eight times, with each location being chosen ceremonially. In the twentieth century, Ulaanbaatar grew into a major manufacturing center. Ulaanbaatar is a member of the Asian Network of Major Cities 21. The city's official website lists Moscow, Hohhot, Seoul, Sapporo and Denver as sister cities.
Unequal treaty is the name given by the Chinese to a series of treaties signed with Western powers during the 19th and early 20th centuries by Qing dynasty China after suffering military defeat by the West or when there was a threat of military action by those powers.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations General Assembly Resolution 505 is titled Threats to the political independence and territorial integrity of China and to the peace of the Far East, resulting from Soviet violations of the Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Alliance of August 14, 1945 and from Soviet violations of the Charter of the United Nations.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting amphibious operations with the United States Navy.
The Uyghur or Uighur language (Уйғур тили, Uyghur tili, Uyƣur tili or, Уйғурчә, Uyghurche, Uyƣurqə), formerly known as Eastern Turki, is a Turkic language with 10 to 25 million speakers, spoken primarily by the Uyghur people in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of Western China.
Vatican City (Città del Vaticano; Civitas Vaticana), officially the Vatican City State or the State of Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano; Status Civitatis Vaticanae), is an independent state located within the city of Rome.
The Wang Jingwei regime is the common name of the Reorganized National Government of the Republic of China (p), a puppet state of the Empire of Japan, located in eastern China.
A warlord is a leader able to exercise military, economic, and political control over a subnational territory within a sovereign state due to their ability to mobilize loyal armed forces.
The Warlord Era (19161928) was a period in the history of the Republic of China when the control of the country was divided among former military cliques of the Beiyang Army and other regional factions, which was spread across in the mainland regions of Sichuan, Shanxi, Qinghai, Ningxia, Guangdong, Guangxi, Gansu, Yunnan, and Xinjiang.
Weiyang District is one of nine districts of Xi'an, the capital of Shaanxi province, China.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Wuchang forms part of the urban core of and is one of 13 districts of Wuhan, the capital of Hubei Province, China. It is the oldest of the three cities that merged into modern-day Wuhan, and stood on the right (southeastern) bank of the Yangtze River, opposite the mouth of the Han River. The two other cities, Hanyang and Hankou, were on the left (northwestern) bank, separated from each other by the Han. The name "Wuchang" remains in common use for the part of urban Wuhan south of the Yangtze River. Administratively, however, it is split between several districts of the City of Wuhan. The historic center of Wuchang lies within the modern Wuchang District, which has an area of and a population of 1,003,400. Other parts of what is colloquially known as Wuchang are within Hongshan District (south and south-east) and Qingshan District (north-east). Presently, on the right bank of the Yangtze, it borders the districts of Qingshan (for a very small section) to the northeast and Hongshan to the east and south; on the opposite bank it borders Jiang'an, Jianghan and Hanyang. On 10 October 1911, the New Army stationed in the city started the Wuchang Uprising, a turning point of the Xinhai Revolution that overthrew the Qing dynasty and established the Republic of China.
The Wuchang Uprising was an armed rebellion against the ruling Qing dynasty that took place in Wuchang, Hubei, in China.
Wuhan is the capital of Hubei province, People's Republic of China.
Xi'an is the capital of Shaanxi Province, China.
The Xi'an Incident of 1936 was a political crisis that took place in Xi'an, China prior to the Second Sino-Japanese War.
Xicheng District (lit. "West City District") is a district of Beijing.
Xigang District is one of the seven districts of Dalian, Liaoning province, People's Republic of China, forming part of the urban core.
Xikang or Sikang or Hsikang was a province of the Republic of China and early People's Republic of China.
Hsingan (or Xing'an) refers to a former province, which once occupied western Heilongjiang and part of northwest Jilin provinces of China.
The Xinhai Revolution, also known as the Chinese Revolution or the Revolution of 1911, was a revolution that overthrew China's last imperial dynasty (the Qing dynasty) and established the Republic of China (ROC).
Xining (Xīníng; ཟི་ལིང་། Ziling) is the capital of Qinghai province in western China, and the largest city on the Tibetan Plateau.
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; p) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country.
The Yalta Conference, also known as the Crimea Conference and code named the Argonaut Conference, held from 4 to 11 February 1945, was the World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union for the purpose of discussing Germany and Europe's postwar reorganization.
Yan Xishan; 8 October 1883 – 22 July 1960) was a Chinese warlord who served in the government of the Republic of China. He effectively controlled the province of Shanxi from the 1911 Xinhai Revolution to the 1949 Communist victory in the Chinese Civil War. As the leader of a relatively small, poor, remote province, he survived the machinations of Yuan Shikai, the Warlord Era, the Nationalist Era, the Japanese invasion of China and the subsequent civil war, being forced from office only when the Nationalist armies with which he was aligned had completely lost control of the Chinese mainland, isolating Shanxi from any source of economic or military supply. He has been viewed by Western biographers as a transitional figure who advocated using Western technology to protect Chinese traditions, while at the same time reforming older political, social and economic conditions in a way that paved the way for the radical changes that would occur after his rule.Gillin The Journal of Asian Studies 289.
The Yangtze, which is 6,380 km (3,964 miles) long, is the longest river in Asia and the third-longest in the world.
Yinchuan is the capital of the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China, and historically it was the former capital of the Western Xia Empire of the Tanguts.
The yuan (sign: ¥) is the base unit of a number of former and present-day Chinese currencies.
Yuan Shikai (16 September 1859 – 6 June 1916) was a Chinese warlord, famous for his influence during the late Qing dynasty, his role in the events leading up to the abdication of the last Qing Emperor, his autocratic rule as the first formal President of the Republic of China, and his short-lived attempt to restore monarchy in China, with himself as the Hongxian Emperor.
Yuexiu District is a district of Guangzhou, the capital of Guangdong province, China, located west of the Tianhe District and east of the Liwan District.
Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country.
Yuzhong District is the central district and heart of Chongqing municipality.
Zhang Xueliang or Chang Hsueh-liang or Chang Hsiao-liang (3 June 1901 – 15 October 2001), occasionally called Peter Hsueh Liang Chang and nicknamed the "Young Marshal" (少帥), was the effective ruler of northeast China and much of northern China after the assassination of his father, Zhang Zuolin, by the Japanese on 4 June 1928.
Zhangjiakou also known by several other names, is a prefecture-level city in northwestern Hebei province in Northern China, bordering Beijing to the southeast, Inner Mongolia to the north and west, and Shanxi to the southwest.
, formerly romanized as Chekiang, is an eastern coastal province of China.
Zhenjiang, formerly romanized as Chenkiang, is a prefecture-level city in Jiangsu Province, China.
The 1st Marine Division (1st MARDIV) is a Marine infantry division of the United States Marine Corps headquartered at Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California.
China (Chungking), China (Nanjing), China (Nanking), China-Nanjing, History of China (1912-1949), History of China (1912–1949), Mainland era, Period of the Chinese Republic, Republic of China (1911-1949), Republic of China (1911–1949), Republic of China (1912 to 1949), Republic of China (1912-1949), Republic of China (1912-49), Republic of China (1912–49), Republic of China (1912−1949), Republic of China (Nanjing), Republic of China (mainland), Republic of China 1912-1949, Republic of China 1912–1949, Republic of China-Nanjing, Republic of china 1912 1949, Republican China, Republican Era (China), 大陸時期.