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The accession of Republic of Macedonia to NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) is currently pending.
Accession of Macedonia to the European Union (EU) is on the current agenda for future enlargement of the EU.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
The administrative regions of Greece (περιφέρειες, peripheries) are the country's thirteen first-level administrative entities, each comprising several second-level units, originally prefectures and, since 2011, regional units.
The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula.
Adyghe (or; Adyghe: Адыгабзэ, Adygabzæ), also known as West Circassian (КӀахыбзэ, K’axybzæ), is one of the two official languages of the Republic of Adygea in the Russian Federation, the other being Russian. It is spoken by various tribes of the Adyghe people: Abzekh, Adamey, Bzhedug, Hatuqwai, Temirgoy, Mamkhegh, Natekuay, Shapsug, Zhaney and Yegerikuay, each with its own dialect. The language is referred to by its speakers as Adygebze or Adəgăbză, and alternatively transliterated in English as Adygean, Adygeyan or Adygei. The literary language is based on the Temirgoy dialect. There are apparently around 128,000 speakers of Adyghe in Russia, almost all of them native speakers. In total, some 300,000 speak it worldwide. The largest Adyghe-speaking community is in Turkey, spoken by the post Russian–Circassian War (circa 1763–1864) diaspora; in addition to that, the Adyghe language is spoken by the Cherkesogai in Krasnodar Krai. Adyghe belongs to the family of Northwest Caucasian languages. Kabardian (also known as East Circassian) is a very close relative, treated by some as a dialect of Adyghe or of an overarching Circassian language. Ubykh, Abkhaz and Abaza are somewhat more distantly related to Adyghe. The language was standardised after the October Revolution in 1917. Since 1936, the Cyrillic script has been used to write Adyghe. Before that, an Arabic-based alphabet was used together with the Latin.
The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.
Albanian (shqip, or gjuha shqipe) is a language of the Indo-European family, in which it occupies an independent branch.
The Albanians (Shqiptarët) are a European ethnic group that is predominantly native to Albania, Kosovo, western Macedonia, southern Serbia, southeastern Montenegro and northwestern Greece, who share a common ancestry, culture and language.
Albanians are the largest ethnic minority in the Republic of Macedonia.
Aleksandar Pavlov Malinov (Александър Павлов Малинов) (3 May 1867 – 20 March 1938) was a leading Bulgarian politician who served as Prime Minister on three occasions.
Alexandar Protogerov (Bulgarian: Александър Протогеров) (28 February 1867 Ohrid, Ottoman Empire, today Republic of Macedonia – 7 July 1928, Sofia) was a Bulgarian general, politician and revolutionary as well as a member of the revolutionary movement in Macedonia, Thrace and Pomoravlje.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
The Alhambra Decree (also known as the Edict of Expulsion; Spanish: Decreto de la Alhambra, Edicto de Granada) was an edict issued on 31 March 1492, by the joint Catholic Monarchs of Spain (Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon) ordering the expulsion of practicing Jews from the Kingdoms of Castile and Aragon and its territories and possessions by 31 July of that year.
Alsat-M is a national television station that broadcasts throughout the territory of Macedonia.
Amphenol Corporation is a major producer of electronic and fiber optic connectors, cable and interconnect systems such as coaxial cables.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Ancient history is the aggregate of past events, "History" from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the post-classical history.
The Macedonians (Μακεδόνες, Makedónes) were an ancient tribe that lived on the alluvial plain around the rivers Haliacmon and lower Axios in the northeastern part of mainland Greece.
The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.
The Anti-fascist Assembly for the National Liberation of Macedonia (Антифашистичко Собрание за Народно Ослободување на Македонија, Antifašističko Sobranie za Narodno Osloboduvanje na Makedonija; Antifašističko sobranje narodnog oslobođenja Makedonije; abbr. ASNOM) was the supreme legislative and executive people's representative body of the Macedonian state from 1944 until the end of World War II.
The Arbitration Commission of the Conference on Yugoslavia (commonly known as Badinter Arbitration Committee) was an arbitration body set up by the Council of Ministers of the European Economic Community on 27 August 1991 to provide the Conference on Yugoslavia with legal advice.
The Army of the Republic of Macedonia (Армија на Република Македонија) is the name of the armed forces of the Republic of Macedonia.
Aromanian (rrãmãneshti, armãneashti, armãneshce., "Aromanian", or limba rrãmãniascã/ armãneascã/ armãneshce, "Aromanian language"), also known as Macedo-Romanian or Vlach, is an Eastern Romance language, similar to Meglenoromanian, or a dialect of the Romanian language.
The Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia (Собрание на Република Македонија) or the Sobranie is the unicameral representative body of the citizens of the Republic of Macedonia; it is Macedonia's sole legislature.
The Association against Bulgarian Bandits (Удружење против бугарских бандита/Udruženje protiv bugarskih bandita) was a paramilitary organization based in Štip, then in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Autocephaly (from αὐτοκεφαλία, meaning "property of being self-headed") is the status of a hierarchical Christian Church whose head bishop does not report to any higher-ranking bishop (used especially in Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Independent Catholic churches).
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
The Šar Mountains (Macedonian and Шар планина, Šar planina) or Sharr Mountains (Malet e Sharrit), form a mountain range in the Balkans that extends from Kosovo and the northwest of the Republic of Macedonia, to northeastern Albania.
Šarena Džamija, (Шарена Џамија; Xhamia e Pashës; Alaca Cami) meaning Decorated Mosque in English, is a mosque located near the Pena River in Tetovo, Macedonia.
The Šarplaninac or Yugoslavian Shepherd Dog (formerly known as Ilirski Ovčar; Illyrian Shepherd dog) is a dog breed of the livestock guardian type named after the Šar Mountains.
Štefan Füle (born 24 May 1962 in Sokolov) is a former Czech diplomat who served as the European Commissioner for Enlargement and European Neighbourhood Policy from February 2010 until October 2014.
Štip (Штип) is the largest urban agglomeration in the eastern part of the Republic of Macedonia, serving as the economic, industrial, entertainment and educational focal point for the surrounding municipalities.
Baba Mountain (Баба Планина/Baba Planina, or also known by the name of its highest peak, Pelister (Peristeri), is a mountain in Macedonia. The Pelister (peak (2601 metres, or 8533 feet) overlooks the city of Bitola. Baba Mountain is the third highest mountain in the Republic of Macedonia. Other peaks besides Pelister are Dva Groba (2514 metres), Veternica (2420 metres), Musa (2350 metres), Rzana (2334 meters), Shiroka (2218 metres), Kozji Kamen (2199 metres), Griva (2198 metres) and Golema Chuka (2188 metres) in the Republic of Macedonia, and Belavoda (2.179 meters), Kirko. The Baba massif splits up the rivers in the region, so that they either flow towards the Adriatic. Pelister National Park's flora include the five-needle pine molica (Pinus peuce) - a unique species of tertiary age being present on only a few mountains in the Balkan Peninsula. Fauna in the area include: bears, roe deer, wolves, chamois, deer, wild boars, rabbits, several species of eagles, partridges, redbilled jackdaws, and the endemic Macedonian Pelagonia trout. In a comprehensive article published in 2002, Melovski and Godes reported that there are three large carnivores in the republic of Macedonia which can be found in Baba Mountain and surrounds, the brown bear, the wolf and the lynx. Actual numbers at that time were difficult to estimate given that most reports came from non-scientific sources (surveys, hunters and anecdotal reports), however in 2002, it was estimated there were approximately 30 bears in N.P. Pelister and Galicica N.P hosting only 3-4. A larger number could apparently be found in the N.P Mavrovo. The numbers however may be significantly larger in today's climate given the protected status of bears in Macedonia. In terms of wolves, there was an estimated total of 1200 wolves in the entire country of Macedonia, with an estimated 54 lynx when the article was written. Pelister is the oldest and second largest national park in Republic of Macedonia after Mavrovo. It is one of the leading tourist areas in the country, since it is a well-known ski resort, along with Ohrid, Prespa, Dojran, Popova Šapka, and Kruševo. Pelister provides views of the Pelagonia valley, Lake Prespa, Nidže, Galičica, Jakupica, and the city of Bitola. Pelister is also one of the most southern mountains in the Balkans that has an alpine character. Pelister is also known for its two mountain lakes, which are called Pelister's Eyes. The Big lake is 2,218 metres above the sea level while the Small lake is 2,180 metres high. Here are the sources of many rivers. The climate in Pelister National Park is diverse. On the peaks, there is snow even in July, and in some places the new snow meets the old from previous years. On Pelister mountain, there is a TV transmitter using an additionally guyed lattice steel mast as antenna tower.
Bal-Can-Can (Бал-Кан-Кан, transliterated Bal-Kan-Kan) is a 2005 Macedonian-Italian joint production film about a deserter who travels throughout the Balkans as a political immigrant in search of his dead mother-in-law who is wrapped in a carpet.
Balkan Gagauz Turkish, also known as Balkan Turkic, is a Turkic language spoken in European Turkey, in Dulovo and the Deliorman area in Bulgaria, and in the Kumanovo and Bitola areas of the Republic of Macedonia.
The Balkan Wars (Balkan Savaşları, literally "the Balkan Wars" or Balkan Faciası, meaning "the Balkan Tragedy") consisted of two conflicts that took place in the Balkan Peninsula in 1912 and 1913.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
Basil II (Βασίλειος Β΄, Basileios II; 958 – 15 December 1025) was a Byzantine Emperor from the Macedonian dynasty who reigned from 10 January 976 to 15 December 1025.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Belasica (Macedonian and Bulgarian:, also translit. Belasitsa or Belasitza, Ottoman Turkish: بلش Turkish: Beleş), Belles (Μπέλλες, Bélles) or Kerkini (Κερκίνη, Kerkíni), is a mountain range in the region of Macedonia in Southeastern Europe, shared by northwestern Greece (about 45%), southeastern Republic of Macedonia (35%) and southwestern Bulgaria (20%).
Bitola (Битола known also by several alternative names) is a city in the southwestern part of the Republic of Macedonia.
Blaže Ristovski (born in the village Garnikovo, Kavadarci, Macedonia on March 21, 1931) is Macedonian linguist, folklorist and historian.
The Black Drin, or Black Drim (Drini i Zi: meaning "it shines" from the Albanian word "ndrin", to shine, because of its extremely clear waters; Црн Дрим|translit.
The black grouse or blackgame or blackcock (Tetrao tetrix) is a large game bird in the grouse family.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
Blagoevgrad Province (област Благоевград, oblast Blagoevgrad or Благоевградска област, Blagoevgradska oblast), also known as Pirin Macedonia (Пиринска Македония, Pirinska Makedoniya), is a province (oblast) of southwestern Bulgaria.
The Boreal Kingdom or Holarctic Kingdom (Holarctis) is a floristic kingdom identified by botanist Ronald Good (and later by Armen Takhtajan), which includes the temperate to Arctic portions of North America and Eurasia.
Boris I, also known as Boris-Mikhail (Michael) and Bogoris (Борис I / Борис-Михаил; died 2 May 907), was the ruler of the First Bulgarian Empire in 852–889.
Boris Trajkovski (Борис Трајковски; 25 June 1956 – 26 February 2004) was the president and Supreme Commander of the Republic of Macedonia from 1999 to 2004, when he died in a plane crash.
The Boris Trajkovski Sports Center (Спортски центар Борис Трајковски, Sportski centar Boris Trajkovski) in Skopje is a multi-functional indoor sports arena.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
The Bosnian language (bosanski / босански) is the standardized variety of Serbo-Croatian mainly used by Bosniaks.
The Bosnian War was an international armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1992 and 1995.
Bucharest (București) is the capital and largest city of Romania, as well as its cultural, industrial, and financial centre.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
The Bulgarian Action Committees in Macedonia were patriotic nationalist organizations of Bulgarians in Macedonia during 1941, emboldened by the invasion Yugoslavia by Nazi Germany, determined to end the Yugoslavian (Serbian) rule in the region, perceived as oppressive by Macedonian Bulgarians and by the representatives of other communities or political tendencies in Vardar Macedonia.
The Bulgarian Communist Party (BCP; Bulgarian: Българска Комунистическа Партия, Bâlgarska Komunisticheska Partiya (БКП)) was the Communist and Marxist-Leninist ruling party of the People's Republic of Bulgaria from 1946 until 1989 when the country ceased to be a communist state.
The Bulgarian Exarchate (Българска екзархия Bǎlgarska ekzarhiya, Bulgar Eksarhlığı) was the official name of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church before its autocephaly was recognized by the Ecumenical See in 1945 and the Bulgarian Patriarchate was restored in 1953.
The Bulgarian National Revival (Българско национално възраждане, Balgarsko natsionalno vazrazhdane or simply: Възраждане, Vazrazhdane), sometimes called the Bulgarian Renaissance, was a period of socio-economic development and national integration among Bulgarian people under Ottoman rule.
The Bulgars (also Bulghars, Bulgari, Bolgars, Bolghars, Bolgari, Proto-Bulgarians) were Turkic semi-nomadic warrior tribes that flourished in the Pontic-Caspian steppe and the Volga region during the 7th century.
Byzantine art is the name for the artistic products of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire, as well as the nations and states that inherited culturally from the empire.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Byzantine music is the music of the Byzantine Empire.
The Byzantine Rite, also known as the Greek Rite or Constantinopolitan Rite, is the liturgical rite used by the Eastern Orthodox Church as well as by certain Eastern Catholic Churches; also, parts of it are employed by, as detailed below, other denominations.
The Byzantine–Bulgarian wars were a series of conflicts fought between the Byzantines and Bulgarians which began when the Bulgars first settled in the Balkan peninsula in the 5th century, and intensified with the expansion of the Bulgarian Empire to the southwest after 680 AD.
Cavalleria rusticana (Italian for "rustic chivalry") is an opera in one act by Pietro Mascagni to an Italian libretto by Giovanni Targioni-Tozzetti and Guido Menasci, adapted from an 1880 and subsequent play by Giovanni Verga.
The Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA) is a trade agreement between non-EU countries, members of which are now mostly located in Southeastern Europe.
The Central European Initiative (CEI) is a forum of regional cooperation in Central and Eastern Europe, counting 18 member states.
Central European Summer Time (CEST), sometime referred also as Central European Daylight Time (CEDT), is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time (UTC+1) during the other part of the year.
Central European Time (CET), used in most parts of Europe and a few North African countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri / Bağlaşma Devletleri; translit), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).
The chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) is a species of goat-antelope native to mountains in Europe, including the European Alps, the Pyrenees, the Carpathians, the Tatra Mountains, the Balkans, parts of Turkey, the Caucasus, and the Apennines.
The Chetnik Detachments of the Yugoslav Army, also known as the Yugoslav Army in the Homeland or The Ravna Gora Movement, commonly known as the Chetniks (Četnici, Четници,; Četniki), was a World War II movement in Yugoslavia led by Draža Mihailović, an anti-Axis movement in their long-term goals which engaged in marginal resistance activities for limited periods.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
A Christian denomination is a distinct religious body within Christianity, identified by traits such as a name, organisation, leadership and doctrine.
The Church of St.
The Circumboreal Region in phytogeography is a floristic region within the Holarctic Kingdom in Eurasia and North America, as delineated by such geobotanists as Josias Braun-Blanquet and Armen Takhtajan.
Saint Clement of Ohrid (Bulgarian, Macedonian: Свети Климент Охридски,, Άγιος Κλήμης της Αχρίδας, Slovak: svätý Kliment Ochridský / Sloviensky) (ca. 840 – 916) was a medieval Bulgarian saint, scholar, writer and enlightener of the Slavs.
In linguistics, codification is the process of standardizing and developing a norm for a language.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
The Communist International (Comintern), known also as the Third International (1919–1943), was an international communist organization that advocated world communism.
The Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia is a codified constitution outlining the country's system of government and basic human rights adopted in Macedonian Parliament on November 17, 1991.
A constitutional court is a high court that deals primarily with constitutional law.
Continental climates are defined in the Köppen climate classification as having the coldest month with the temperature never rising above 0.0° C (32°F) all month long.
The Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, also known as the 1951 Refugee Convention, is a United Nations multilateral treaty that defines who is a refugee, and sets out the rights of individuals who are granted asylum and the responsibilities of nations that grant asylum.
The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.
The culture of Greece has evolved over thousands of years, beginning in Mycenaean Greece, continuing most notably into Classical Greece, through the influence of the Roman Empire and its successor the Byzantine Empire.
Dairy products, milk products or lacticinia are a type of food produced from or containing the milk of mammals, primarily cattle, water buffaloes, goats, sheep, camels, and humans.
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
The Dardani (Δαρδάνιοι, Δάρδανοι; Dardani), or Dardanians (Δαρδανίωνες) were a tribe which occupied the region that took its name from them of Dardania, at the Thraco-Illyrian contact zone; their identification as either an Illyrian or Thracian tribe is uncertain.
Dardania (Δαρδανία; Dardania) was a Roman province in the Central Balkans, initially an unofficial region in Moesia (87–284), then a province administratively part of the Diocese of Moesia (293–337).
Darius I (Old Persian: Dārayava(h)uš, New Persian: rtl Dāryuš;; c. 550–486 BCE) was the fourth king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire.
Demir Kapija (Демир Капија) is a town in the Republic of Macedonia, located near the ominous limestone gates of the same name.
The Democratic Party of Albanians (Partia Demokratike Shqiptare; Демократска партија на Албанците, Demokratska Partija na Albancite) or DPA is a political party of ethnic Albanians in the Republic of Macedonia.
The Democratic Union for Integration (Bashkimi Demokratik për Integrim, BDI; Демократска унија за интеграција, ДУИ — Demokratska unija za integracija, DUI) is the largest Albanian political party in the Republic of Macedonia, and the third largest political party in all of Macedonia.
"Denes nad Makedonija" (Денес над Македонија,, "Today Over Macedonia") is the national anthem of the Republic of Macedonia.
Despotism (Δεσποτισμός, Despotismós) is a form of government in which a single entity rules with absolute power.
Deuriopus (Strabo: Δευρίοπος Deuriopos; Stephanus of Byzantium: Δουρίοπος Douriopos) was a subdivision of Paionia, in what is today the Republic of Macedonia.
Dieter Nohlen (born 6 November 1939 in Oberhausen) is a German academic and political scientist.
The Dinaric Alps, also commonly Dinarides, are a mountain range in Southern and Southeastern Europe, separating the continental Balkan Peninsula from the Adriatic Sea.
Diocletian (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus), born Diocles (22 December 244–3 December 311), was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305.
The period of the defeat and end of the Ottoman Empire (1908–1922) began with the Second Constitutional Era with the Young Turk Revolution.
Dnevnik (Дневник) was the first private daily newspaper in Macedonia.
Doiran Lake (Dojransko Ezero;, Límni Doïráni), also spelled Dojran Lake is a lake with an area of shared between the Republic of Macedonia and Greece.
Dojran (Дојран) was a city on the west shore of Dojran Lake in the south-east part of the Republic of Macedonia.
Domitian (Titus Flavius Caesar Domitianus Augustus; 24 October 51 – 18 September 96 AD) was Roman emperor from 81 to 96.
Dräxlmaier Group is a German automotive component supplier active in vehicle electric systems, electrical and electronic parts, interiors, storage systems, plastics, toolmaking and logistics.
The ease of doing business index is an index created by Simeon Djankov at the World Bank Group.
Easter,Traditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the Book of Common Prayer, "Easter Sunday", used by James Ussher and Samuel Pepys and plain "Easter", as in books printed in,, also called Pascha (Greek, Latin) or Resurrection Sunday, is a festival and holiday celebrating the resurrection of Jesus from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred on the third day of his burial after his crucifixion by the Romans at Calvary 30 AD.
Easter Monday is the day after Easter Sunday and is a holiday in some countries.
The Eastern Catholic Churches or Oriental Catholic Churches, also called the Eastern-rite Catholic Churches, and in some historical cases Uniate Churches, are twenty-three Eastern Christian particular churches sui iuris in full communion with the Pope in Rome, as part of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
The eastern imperial eagle (Aquila heliaca) is a large species of bird of prey that breeds from southeastern Europe to western and central Asia.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
The Eastern Statistical Region (Источен регион) is one of eight statistical regions of the Republic of Macedonia.
economic development wikipedia Economic development is the process by which a nation improves the economic, political, and social well-being of its people.
Economic sanctions are commercial and financial penalties applied by one or more countries against a targeted country, group, or individual.
The breakup of Yugoslavia in 1991 deprived the economy of the Republic of Macedonia, then its poorest republic (only 5% of the total federal output of goods and services), of its key protected markets and large transfer payments from Belgrade.
An ecoregion (ecological region) is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than an ecozone.
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.
The EHF Champions League is the most important handball club competition for men's teams in Europe and involves the leading teams from the top European nations.
Eid al-Fitr (عيد الفطر) is an important religious holiday celebrated by Muslims worldwide that marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting (sawm).
Elijah (meaning "My God is Yahu/Jah") or latinized form Elias (Ἡλίας, Elías; ܐܸܠܝܼܵܐ, Elyāe; Arabic: إلياس or إليا, Ilyās or Ilyā) was, according to the Books of Kings in the Hebrew Bible, a prophet and a miracle worker who lived in the northern kingdom of Israel during the reign of King Ahab (9th century BC).
eNCA (also referred to as eNews Channel Africa) is a 24-hour television news broadcaster, owned by e.tv, focusing on South African and African stories.
The Enchelii (also Enchelei or Encheleans),Apollodorus, Library, 3.5.4.
Erga omnes is a Latin phrase which means "towards all" or "towards everyone".
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
Eugene N. Borza was a professor emeritus of ancient history at Pennsylvania State University.
The Eurasian blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla) usually known simply as the blackcap, is a common and widespread typical warbler.
The Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) is a medium-sized wild cat native to Siberia, Central, Eastern, and Southern Asia, Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.
EuroBasket, also commonly referred to as the European Basketball Championship, is the main international basketball competition that is contested biannually, by the senior men's national teams that are governed by FIBA Europe, which is the European zone within the International Basketball Federation.
EuroBasket 2011 was the 37th men's European Basketball Championship, held by FIBA Europe.
The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) is an international financial institution founded in 1991.
The European Broadcasting Union (EBU; Union européenne de radio-télévision, UER) is an alliance of public service media organisations, established on 12 February 1950.
The European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) (formally the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms) is an international treaty to protect human rights and political freedoms in Europe.
The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.
The European eel (Anguilla anguilla) is a species of eel, a snake-like, catadromous fish.
The European Environment Agency (EEA) is the agency of the European Union (EU) that provides independent information on the environment, thereby helping those involved in developing, adopting, implementing and evaluating environmental policy, as well as informing the general public.
The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).
European route E 75 is part of the International E-road network, which is a series of main roads in Europe.
The European Single Market, Internal Market or Common Market is a single market which seeks to guarantee the free movement of goods, capital, services, and labour – the "four freedoms" – within the European Union (EU).
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The European Women's Handball Championship is the official competition for senior women's national handball teams of Europe, and takes place every two years.
Eurostat is a Directorate-General of the European Commission located in Luxembourg.
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
In biological classification, family (familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus.
Fédération Cynologique Internationale (English: World Canine Organization) is the largest international federation of kennel clubs, based in Thuin, Belgium.
A fern is a member of a group of vascular plants that reproduce via spores and have neither seeds nor flowers.
A flat tax (short for flat tax rate) is a tax system with a constant marginal rate, usually applied to individual or corporate income.
Flora is the plant life occurring in a particular region or time, generally the naturally occurring or indigenous—native plant life.
The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.
The Football Federation of Macedonia (Фудбалска Федерација на Македонија / Fudbalska Federacija na Makedonija or ФФМ/FFM) is the governing body of football in the Republic of Macedonia based in Skopje.
A foreign direct investment (FDI) is an investment in the form of a controlling ownership in a business in one country by an entity based in another country.
Fresco (plural frescos or frescoes) is a technique of mural painting executed upon freshly laid, or wet lime plaster.
Galičica (Галичица, Mali i Thatë) is a mountain situated across the border between the Republic of Macedonia and Albania.
Gentherm Incorporated, formerly called Amerigon, created the first thermoelectrically heated and cooled seat system for the automotive industry.
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
Bulgaria is a country situated in south-eastern Europe, bordering Romania to the north, Serbia and the Republic of Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, and the Black Sea to the east.
The cuisine of Germany has evolved as a national cuisine through centuries of social and political change with variations from region to region.
Gevgelija (Гевгелија) is a town with a population of 15,685 located in the very southeast of the Republic of Macedonia along the banks of the Vardar River, situated at the country's main border with Greece (Bogorodica-Evzoni), the point which links the motorway from Skopje and three other former Yugoslav capitals (Belgrade, Zagreb and Ljubljana) with Thessaloniki.
Gjorge Ivanov (Ѓорге Иванов,; born May 2, 1960), is a Macedonian politician currently serving as the President of the Republic of Macedonia, in office since 2009.
Global Peace Index (GPI) measures the relative position of nations' and regions' peacefulness.
"Goce Delchev" University – Shtip (Универзитет Гоце Делчев Штип, Univerzitet Goce Delchev Shtip, short name - UGD) is a state university in Macedonia, ranked on the second place from the list of state universities in the country.
Good Friday is a Christian holiday celebrating the crucifixion of Jesus and his death at Calvary.
In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").
The Great Morava (Велика Морава/Velika Morava) is the final section of the Morava (Serbian Cyrillic: Морава), a major river system in Serbia.
Τhe Greek Civil War (ο Eμφύλιος, o Emfýlios, "the Civil War") was fought in Greece from 1946 to 1949 between the Greek government army—backed by the United Kingdom and the United States—and the Democratic Army of Greece (DSE)—the military branch of the Greek Communist Party (KKE).
Greek cuisine (Ελληνική κουζίνα, Elliniki kouzina) is a Mediterranean cuisine.
The Republic of Macedonia generally has good relations with Greece and enjoys substantial inward investment from Greece.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
A grey or gray market (sometimes confused with the similar term parallel market) refers to the trade of a commodity through distribution channels that are legal but unintended by the original manufacturer or trade mark proprietor.
Grouse are a group of birds from the order Galliformes, in the family Phasianidae.
Gudgeon is the common name for a number of small freshwater fish of the families Cyprinidae, Eleotridae or Ptereleotridae.
Handball (also known as team handball, fieldball, European handball or Olympic handball) is a team sport in which two teams of seven players each (six outfield players and a goalkeeper) pass a ball using their hands with the aim of throwing it into the goal of the other team.
Although the start of the history of film is not clearly defined, the commercial, public screening of ten of Lumière brothers' short films in Paris on 28 December 1895 can be regarded as the breakthrough of projected cinematographic motion pictures.
The Holocaust Memorial Center for the Jews of Macedonia (Macedonian: Меморијален центар на холокаустот на Евреите од Македонија, Memorijalen centar na holokaustot na Evreite od Makedonija; Ladino: Sentro Memorial del Holokausto de los Djudios de la Makedonia) is a memorial to the holocaust of the 7,148 Jews from Macedonia and the history of the Jews in the Balkans, located in Skopje, the capital city of the Republic of Macedonia.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
Hungarian or Magyar cuisine is the cuisine characteristic of the nation of Hungary and its primary ethnic group, the Magyars.
An IATA airport code, also known as an IATA location identifier, IATA station code or simply a location identifier, is a three-letter code designating many airports around the world, defined by the International Air Transport Association (IATA).
The Ilinden–Preobrazhenie Uprising or simply the Ilinden Uprising of August 1903 (Илинденско-Преображенско въстание, Ilindensko-Preobražensko vǎstanie; Илинденско востание, Ilindensko vostanie; Εξέγερση του Ίλιντεν, Eksegersi tou Ilinden), was an organized revolt against the Ottoman Empire, which was prepared and carried out by the Internal Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organization.
In classical antiquity, Illyria (Ἰλλυρία, Illyría or Ἰλλυρίς, Illyrís; Illyria, see also Illyricum) was a region in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula inhabited by the Illyrians.
The Illyrians (Ἰλλυριοί, Illyrioi; Illyrii or Illyri) were a group of Indo-European tribes in antiquity, who inhabited part of the western Balkans.
The Independence Day (Ден на независноста, Den na nezavisnosta) in the Republic of Macedonia is celebrated on 8 September.
In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.
The Institute for Economics & Peace (IEP), is a global think tank headquartered in Sydney, Australia with branches in New York City, Mexico City and The Hague.
The Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO; Вътрешна Македонска Революционна Организация (ВМРО), Vatreshna Makedonska Revolyutsionna Organizatsiya (VMRO); Внатрешна Македонска Револуционерна Организација, Vnatrešna Makedonska Revolucionerna Organizacija) was a revolutionary national liberation movement in the Ottoman territories in Europe, that operated in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
The Internal Thracian Revolutionary Organisation (Bulgarian: Вътрешна тракийска революционна организация, Vatreshna trakiyska revolutsionna organizatsiya, ITRO) was a Bulgarian revolutionary organisation active in Western Thrace and southern Bulgaria between 1920 and 1934.
Skopje Airport (Аеродром Скопје, Aerodrom Skopje) or Skopje International Airport (Меѓународен аеродром Скопје, Megjunaroden aerodrom Skopje), previously known as Petrovec Airport (Аеродром Петровец, Aerodrom Petrovec) and Skopje "Alexander the Great" Airport (Аеродром „Александар Велики“ Скопје, Aerodrom "Aleksandar Veliki" Skopje), is the larger and busier of the two international airports in the Republic of Macedonia, with the other being the St. Paul the Apostle Airport in Ohrid.
The International Court of Justice (abbreviated ICJ; commonly referred to as the World Court) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations (UN).
International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
The International Olympic Committee (IOC; French: Comité International Olympique, CIO) is a Swiss private non-governmental organisation based in Lausanne, Switzerland, which is the authority responsible for the modern Olympic Games.
An Internet service provider (ISP) is an organization that provides services for accessing, using, or participating in the Internet.
In the context of the history of the 20th century, the interwar period was the period between the end of the First World War in November 1918 and the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939.
Irredentism is any political or popular movement that seeks to reclaim and reoccupy a land that the movement's members consider to be a "lost" (or "unredeemed") territory from their nation's past.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
The Islamic, Muslim, or Hijri calendar (التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī) is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 months in a year of 354 or 355 days.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Italian cuisine is food typical from Italy.
Ivan Mihailov Gavrilov (Иван Михайлов ГавриловHe is credited in English language sources as Mihailov, while the Bulgarian and Macedonian transliteration schemes would render it Mihaylov and Mihajlov, respectively.; 26 August 1896 – 5 September 1990), sometimes Vancho Mihailov, was a Bulgarian revolutionary in Ottoman and interwar Macedonia, and leader of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO) after 1924.
Jakupica (Јакупица) or Mokra is a mountain range in the central part of the Republic of Macedonia.
Johnson Controls International plc is a multinational conglomerate headquartered in Cork, Ireland, that produces automotive parts such as batteries, and electronics and HVAC equipment for buildings.
Johnson Matthey is a British multinational speciality chemicals and sustainable technologies company headquartered in the United Kingdom.
Josip Broz (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз,; 7 May 1892 – 4 May 1980), commonly known as Tito (Cyrillic: Тито), was a Yugoslav communist revolutionary and political leader, serving in various roles from 1943 until his death in 1980.
Jovan Vraniškovski (Serbian and Јован Вранишковски; born 28 February 1966), numbered Jovan VI, is a Serbian Orthodox bishop, currently the head of the Orthodox Ohrid Archbishopric, an autonomous church that split off from the unrecognized Macedonian Orthodox Church in 2002 to seek reunification with the Serbian Orthodox Church and the other Orthodox churches.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.
Kanal 5 (Канал 5) is a national, privately owned, television channel in the Republic of Macedonia.
The Karst Shepherd (kraški ovčar or kraševec) is a breed of dog of the livestock guardian type, originating in Slovenia.
I Kathimerini (Η Καθημερινή,, meaning "The Daily") is a daily morning newspaper published in Athens.
The Kežovica mineral spa (Бања Кежовица) is situated near the southern Štip suburb of Novo Selo in the Republic of Macedonia, just after the canyon that the river Bregalnica forms when exiting the city.
KEMET Corporation was set up in 1919 and now is based in Simpsonville, South Carolina.
Kindergarten (from German, literally meaning 'garden for the children') is a preschool educational approach based on playing, singing, practical activities such as drawing, and social interaction as part of the transition from home to school.
The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croatian, Slovene: Kraljevina Jugoslavija, Краљевина Југославија; Кралство Југославија) was a state in Southeast Europe and Central Europe, that existed from 1918 until 1941, during the interwar period and beginning of World War II.
Kiril Makedonski (19 January 1925 – 2 June 1984) was a Macedonian composer.
Kiril Peychinovich or Kiril Pejčinoviḱ (Кирил Пейчинович, Кирил Пејчиновиќ, Church Slavonic: Күриллъ Пейчиновићь, Serbian: Кирил Пејчиновић) (c. 1770 – 7 March 1865) was a Bulgarian cleric, writer and enlightener, one of the first supporters of the use of modern Bulgarian in literature (as opposed to Church Slavonic), and one of the early figures of the Bulgarian National Revival.
Kožuf mountain or Tzena / Zona (Τζένα/Tzena, Ζώνα/Zona, Кожуф планина) is a mountain situated in the southern part of the Republic of Macedonia and partly in Greece.
Kometal Gjorče Petrov Skopje (Ракометен Клуб Кометал Ѓорче Петров) was a female handball club based in Skopje, the capital of Macedonia.
Mount Korab (Maja e Korabit or Mali i Korabit; Голем Кораб, Golem Korab) is the highest peak of the eponymous fourth highest mountain in the entire Balkan Peninsula, standing at.
Kosovo (Kosova or Kosovë; Косово) is a partially recognised state and disputed territory in Southeastern Europe that declared independence from Serbia in February 2008 as the Republic of Kosovo (Republika e Kosovës; Република Косово / Republika Kosovo).
Krste Petkov Misirkov (Кръстьо Петков Мисирков; Крсте Петков Мисирков) (18 November 1874, Postol, Ottoman Empire – 26 July 1926, Sofia, Kingdom of Bulgaria) was a philologist, slavist, historian and ethnographer.
The Kruševo Republic (Bulgarian and Kruševska Republika) was a short-lived political entity proclaimed in 1903 by rebels from the Secret Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organization (IMARO) in Kruševo during the anti-Ottoman Ilinden–Preobrazhenie Uprising.
Kuber (also Kouber or Kuver) was a Bulgar leader who according to the Miracles of Saint Demetrius led in the 670s, a mixed Bulgar and Byzantine Christian population, whose ancestors had been transferred from the Eastern Roman Empire to the Syrmia region in Pannonia by the Avars 60 years earlier.
Kumanovo (Куманово; also known by other alternative names) is a city in the Republic of Macedonia and is the seat of Kumanovo Municipality, the largest municipality in the country.
Lake Baikal (p; Байгал нуур, Baigal nuur; Байгал нуур, Baigal nuur, etymologically meaning, in Mongolian, "the Nature Lake") is a rift lake in Russia, located in southern Siberia, between Irkutsk Oblast to the northwest and the Buryat Republic to the southeast.
Lake Ohrid (Liqeni i Ohrit, Liqeni i Pogradecit; Охридско Езеро) straddles the mountainous border between southwestern Macedonia and eastern Albania.
Prespa is the name of two freshwater lakes in southeast Europe, shared by Albania, Greece, and the Republic of Macedonia.
The lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) is a species of freshwater whitefish from North America.
A landlocked state or landlocked country is a sovereign state entirely enclosed by land, or whose only coastlines lie on closed seas.
The League of Communists of Yugoslavia, before 1952 the Communist Party of Yugoslavia, was the country's largest communist party, and the ruling party of SFR Yugoslavia.
Lear Corporation headquartered in Southfield, Michigan, United States of America, is a Fortune 500 company, engaged in the business of manufacturing and distribution of automotive seating and electrical distribution systems.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
This is a list of ancient tribes in the ancient territory of Illyria (Ancient Greek: Ἰλλυρία).
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
Three lists of countries below calculate gross domestic product (at purchasing power parity) per capita, i.e., the purchasing power parity (PPP) value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given year, divided by the average (or mid-year) population for the same year.
This is a list of all the countries by the Human Development Index as included in a United Nations Development Programme's Human Development Report.
This is a list of dates for Easter.
The Lordship of Prilep, also known as the Lordship of King Marko (Област краља Марка), was one of the provinces of the Serbian Empire, centered around the city of Prilep and covering (mainly) the region of Pelagonia and surrounding areas in western parts of the present-day Republic of Macedonia.
Lynkestis (also Lyncestis, Λυγκηστίς meaning "land of the lynx") or Lyncus (Λύγκος) was a region, and in earlier times a Greek kingdom of Upper Macedonia, located on the southern borders of Illyria and Paeonia.
Macedonia or Macedon (Μακεδονία, Makedonía) was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece.
Macedonia (Μακεδονία, Makedonía) is a geographic and historical region of Greece in the southern Balkans.
Macedonia is a geographical and historical region of the Balkan peninsula in southeastern Europe.
The Roman province of Macedonia (Provincia Macedoniae, Ἐπαρχία Μακεδονίας) was officially established in 146 BC, after the Roman general Quintus Caecilius Metellus defeated Andriscus of Macedon, the last self-styled King of the ancient kingdom of Macedonia in 148 BC, and after the four client republics (the "tetrarchy") established by Rome in the region were dissolved.
The Macedonia naming dispute is a political dispute over the use of the name "Macedonia" between the southeastern European countries of Greece and the Republic of Macedonia, formerly a region within Yugoslavia.
The Macedonia national basketball team (Macedonian: Кошаркарска репрезентациjа на Македониjа / Košarkarska reprezentacija na Makedonija) represents the Republic of Macedonia in international basketball.
The Macedonia national football team (Фудбалска репрезентација на Македонија, Fudbalska reprezentacija na Makedonija, officially known as the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia national football team) is the national football team of the Republic of Macedonia and is controlled by the Football Federation of Macedonia.
The Macedonia women's national handball team is the women's national handball team of the Republic of Macedonia.
The Macedonian Aviation Brigade is the Air Warfare and Air Defence Force of the Army of the Republic of Macedonia.
Macedonians or Macedonian Bulgarians (Македонски българи or Mакедонци), sometimes also referred to as Macedono-Bulgarians or Macedo-Bulgarians is a regional, ethnographic group of ethnic Bulgarians, inhabiting or originating from the region of Macedonia.
The denar (денар; paucal: denari / денари) is the currency of the Republic of Macedonia.
The Macedonian Federative Organization (MFO) was established in Sofia in 1921 by former Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO) left wing's activists.
The Macedonian Greek Catholic Church is a Byzantine Rite sui juris Eastern Catholic Church in full union with the Roman Catholic Church which uses the Macedonian language in the liturgy.
An independence referendum was held in Macedonia on 8 September 1991.
Macedonian (македонски, tr. makedonski) is a South Slavic language spoken as a first language by around two million people, principally in the Republic of Macedonia and the Macedonian diaspora, with a smaller number of speakers throughout the transnational region of Macedonia.
The Macedonian Muslims (Македонци-муслимани, Makedonci-muslimani), also known as Muslim Macedonians or Torbeši, (Торбеши) and in some sources grouped together with Pomaks, are a minority religious group within the community of ethnic Macedonians who are Muslims (primarily Sunni, with Sufism being widespread among the population).
Macedonian nationalism is a general grouping of nationalist ideas and concepts among ethnic Macedonians that were first formed in the late 19th century among separatists seeking the autonomy of the region of Macedonia from the Ottoman Empire.
The Macedonian Orthodox Church – Ohrid Archbishopric (MOC-OA; Македонска православна црква – Охридска архиепископија (МПЦ-ОА), tr. Makedonska pravoslavna crkva – Ohridska arhiepiskopija (MPC-OA)), or simply the Macedonian Orthodox Church (MOC; Македонска православна црква (МПЦ), tr. Makedonska pravoslavna crkva (MPC)), is the largest body of Christians in the Republic of Macedonia who are united under the Archbishop of Ohrid and Macedonia.
Parliamentary elections were in Macedonia on 5 July 2006.
A presidential election was held in the Republic of Macedonia on 22 March 2009, at the same time as local elections; a run-off round was held on 5 April 2009.
Macedonian Radio Television (Македонска радио телевизија, transliteration: Makedonska radio televizija) (or MRT) is the public broadcasting organization of the Republic of Macedonia.
The Macedonian sign language (translit or македонски гестовен јазик makedonski gestoven jazik) is the sign language of the deaf community in Macedonia.
The Macedonian Youth Secret Revolutionary Organization or MYSRO; (Македонска младежка тайна революционна организация, Македонска младинска тајна револуционерна организација), was the name of a secret pro-Bulgarian youth organization established by the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization, active across the most regions of Macedonia between 1922-1941.
The Macedonians (Македонци; transliterated: Makedonci), also known as Macedonian Slavs or Slavic Macedonians, are a South Slavic ethnic group native to the region of Macedonia.
The Macedonians (Μακεδόνες, Makedónes) are a regional and historical population group of ethnic Greeks, inhabiting or originating mainly from the Greek region of Macedonia, in Northern Greece, which incorporates most of the territories (and the two capitals) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedonia.
Makedon, also Macedon (Μακεδών) or Makednos (Μακεδνός), was the eponymous mythological ancestor of the ancient Macedonians according to various ancient Greek fragmentary narratives.
Makedonska Pošta is the company responsible for postal service in the Republic of Macedonia.
Makedonsko Sonce (Македонско Сонце; Macedonian Sun) is a weekly magazine published in the Republic of Macedonia.
A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand.
Marquardt Group is a family enterprise headquartered in Germany.
Mastika (Greek: Μαστίχα) is a liqueur seasoned with mastic, a resin gathered from the mastic tree, a small evergreen tree native to the Mediterranean region.
Matthew Nimetz (born June 17, 1939) is an American diplomat.
Mavrovo (Маврово) is a valley region in the northwest of the Republic of Macedonia.
Mavrovo National Park (Национален парк Маврово) is the largest of the three national parks of the Republic of Macedonia.
Mediterranean cuisine is the foods and methods of preparation by people of the Mediterranean Basin region.
The Megleno-Romanian language (Megleno-Romanian: Vlăheshte), also known as Meglenitic or Moglenitic, is an Eastern Romance language.
The United Nations member states are the sovereign states that are members of the United Nations (UN) and have equal representation in the UN General Assembly.
Methodism or the Methodist movement is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley, an Anglican minister in England.
Metodi Tasev Shatorov - Sharlo (Bulgarian: Методи Шаторов - Шарло and Macedonian Cyrillic: Методиja Шаторов - Шарло) (January 10, 1897, Prilep, Manastir Vilayet, Ottoman Empire – September 12, 1944 near Velingrad, Bulgaria) was a Bulgarian communist leader during the first half of 20th century and also temporary leader of the Macedonian communists in 1940-1941.
Middle Eastern cuisine is the cuisine of the various countries and peoples of the Middle East.
. The Miladinov brothers (Братя Миладинови, Bratya Miladinovi, Браќа Миладиновци, Brakja Miladinovci), Dimitar Miladinov (1810–1862) and Konstantin Miladinov (1830–1862), were Bulgarian poets and folklorists from the region of Macedonia, authors of an important collection of folk songs, Bulgarian Folk Songs.
A minority group refers to a category of people differentiated from the social majority, those who hold on to major positions of social power in a society.
A minority language is a language spoken by a minority of the population of a territory.
Moesia (Latin: Moesia; Μοισία, Moisía) was an ancient region and later Roman province situated in the Balkans south of the Danube River.
The Molossians were an ancient Greek tribe and kingdom that inhabited the region of Epirus since the Mycenaean era.
Montenegro (Montenegrin: Црна Гора / Crna Gora, meaning "Black Mountain") is a sovereign state in Southeastern Europe.
Mosses are small flowerless plants that typically grow in dense green clumps or mats, often in damp or shady locations.
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground.
The music of the Republic of Macedonia and of the Macedonians has much in common with the music of neighbouring Balkan countries, yet maintains a distinctive sound.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
National and University Library "St.
A national language is a language (or language variant, e.g. dialect) that has some connection—de facto or de jure—with people and the territory they occupy.
The National Liberation Army (Ushtria Çlirimtare Kombëtare – UÇK; Ослободителна народна армија – ОНА, Osloboditelna narodna armija – ONA), also known as the Macedonian UÇK, is a militant organization that operated in the Republic of Macedonia in 2001 and was closely associated with the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA).
A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes.
National security refers to the security of a nation state, including its citizens, economy, and institutions, and is regarded as a duty of government.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled before and during the Second World War.
Niš (Ниш) is the third-largest city in Serbia and the administrative center of the Nišava District.
Nikola Gruevski (Никола Груевски; born 31 August 1970) is a Macedonian politician.
The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; Normands; Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.
The Northeastern Statistical Region (Североисточен плански регион) is one of eight arbitrary statistical regions in the Republic of Macedonia.
Nova Makedonija (Нова Македонија, "New Macedonia") is the oldest daily newspaper in the Republic of Macedonia.
Ohrid (Охрид) is a city in the Republic of Macedonia and the seat of Ohrid Municipality.
Ohrid Airport (Аеродром Охрид, Aerodrom Ohrid), or Ohrid "St.
The Ohrid Framework Agreement (Marrëveshja e Ohrit) was the peace deal signed by the government of the Republic of Macedonia and ethnic Albanian representatives on 13 August 2001.
The Ohrid Swimming Marathon (Macedonian: Охридски Пливачки Маратон, Ohridski Plivački Maraton) is an international Open water swimming competition, established in always taking place in the waters of the Ohrid Lake, Republic of Macedonia.
Oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is transformed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, jet fuel and fuel oils.
An open economy is an economy in which there are economic activities between the domestic community and outside.
Opium (poppy tears, with the scientific name: Lachryma papaveris) is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy (scientific name: Papaver somniferum).
Flag of the Francophonie The Organisation internationale de la Francophonie (OIF), generally known as the Francophonie (La Francophonie), but also called International Organisation of La Francophonie in English language context, is an international organization representing countries and regions where French is a lingua franca or customary language, where a significant proportion of the population are francophones (French speakers), or where there is a notable affiliation with French culture.
The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization.
The Orthodox Ohrid Archbishopric (OOA; Serbian and Православна охридска архиепископија (ПОА), Pravoslavna ohridska arhiepiskopija (POA)) is an autonomous Eastern Orthodox Archbishopric with canonical jurisdiction over the territory of the Republic of Macedonia.
Osogovo (Bulgarian and Macedonian Cyrillic) or Osogovska Planina (Осоговска планина or Осоговски Планини) is a mountain and ski resort between southwestern Bulgaria (Kyustendil Province) and northeastern Republic of Macedonia, (Kočani and Kriva Palanka municipalities).
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Ottoman Turks (or Osmanlı Turks, Osmanlı Türkleri) were the Turkish-speaking population of the Ottoman Empire who formed the base of the state's military and ruling classes.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Macedonia: The Republic of Macedonia is a landlocked sovereign country located on the Balkan Peninsula in Southern Europe.
In antiquity, Paeonia or Paionia (Παιονία) was the land and kingdom of the Paeonians (Παίονες).
Panko Brashnarov (Панко Брашнаров, Панко Брашнар, Panko Brašnar) (1883, Veles, Kosovo Vilayet, Ottoman Empire – 1951, Goli Otok, Yugoslavia) was a revolutionary and member of the left wing of the Internal Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organization (IMARO) and IMRO (United) later.
A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament).
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
The Party for Democratic Prosperity or PDP (Партија за демократски просперитет, ПДП) is an ethnic Albanian political party in the Republic of Macedonia.
Pelagonia (Greek: Πελαγονíα, Pelagonía; Macedonian: Пелагонија, Pelagonija) is a geographical region of Macedonia.
The Pelagonia Statistical Region (Пелагониски регион) is one of eight statistical regions of the Republic of Macedonia.
Pelister National Park is a national park in the Municipality of Bitola, Republic of Macedonia.
On 5 December 1496, King Manuel I of Portugal signed the decree of expulsion of Jews and Muslims to take effect by the end of October of the next year.
Philip II National Arena (Macedonian: Филип Втори Арена, Philip II Arena), formerly also known as the Telekom Arena (Телеком арена) for sponsorship reasons, is a multi-purpose stadium in Skopje, Republic of Macedonia.
Philip II of Macedon (Φίλιππος Β΄ ὁ Μακεδών; 382–336 BC) was the king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon from until his assassination in.
Phytogeography (from Greek φυτό, phyto.
The Pindus (also Pindos or Pindhos) (Πίνδος) mountain range is located in northern Greece and southern Albania.
Pinus peuce (Macedonian pine or Balkan Pine) (Serbian/Macedonian: Молика, Molika; Bulgarian: Бяла мура, Byala mura) is a species of pine native to the mountains of Macedonia, Bulgaria, Albania, Montenegro, Kosovo, the extreme southwest of Serbia, and the extreme north of Greece,Farjon, A. (2005).
Polog (Полог, Polog; Pollog) also known as the Polog Valley (Полошка Котлина, Pološka Kotlina; Lugina e Pollogut), is located in the north-western part of the Republic of Macedonia, near the border with Kosovo.
The Polog Statistical Region (Полошки регион, Rajoni Pollog) is one of eight statistical regions of the Republic of Macedonia.
A poppy is a flowering plant in the subfamily Papaveroideae of the family Papaveraceae.
The poverty threshold, poverty limit or poverty line is the minimum level of income deemed adequate in a particular country.
The Pre-Greek substrate (or Pre-Greek substratum) consists of the unknown language or languages spoken in prehistoric ancient Greece before the settlement of Proto-Hellenic speakers in the area.
Presian (Пресиян, Персиян, Пресиан) was the Khan of Bulgaria from 836–852.
The President of the Republic of Macedonia (Претседател на Република Македонија) is the head of state of the Republic of Macedonia.
Prilep (Прилеп, is the fourth largest city in the Republic of Macedonia. It has a population of 66,246 and is known as "the city under Marko's Towers" because of its proximity to the towers of Prince Marko.
The Prime Minister of the Republic of Macedonia, officially the Premier of the Republic of Macedonia (Премиер на Република Македонија), is the head of government of the Republic of Macedonia.
Pristina (Prishtina or Prishtinë) or Priština (Приштина), is the capital and largest city of Kosovo.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Public holidays are observed in the Republic of Macedonia for a number of reasons, including for religious and national significance.
Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.
Quercus trojana, the Macedonian oak is an oak in the 'turkey oak section' ''Quercus'' sect. ''Cerris''.
Radoviš (Радовиш) is a city in the southeastern part of the Republic of Macedonia.
Rakia or Rakija is the collective term for fruit brandy popular in the Balkans.
Ratification is a principal's approval of an act of its agent that lacked the authority to bind the principal legally.
Rayko Ivanov (Yoanov) Zhinzifov or Rajko Žinzifov, (Райко Иванов (Йоанов) Жинзифов; 15 February 1839 – 15 February 1877), born Ksenofont Dzindzifi (Ксенофонт Дзиндзифи) was a Bulgarian National Revival poet and translator from Veles in today's Republic of Macedonia, who spent most of his life in the Russian Empire.
A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal.
A relict is a surviving remnant of a natural phenomenon.
Reporters Without Borders (RWB), or Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF), is an international non-profit, non-governmental organization that promotes and defends freedom of information and freedom of the press.
Republic Day or the Day of the Republic or Ilinden (Macedonian: Ден на Републиката, Den na Republikata, Илинден) is a major national holiday of the Republic of Macedonia.
The resolution of the Comintern of January 11, 1934, was an official political document, in which for the first time, an authoritative international organization has recognized the existence of a separate Macedonian nation and Macedonian language.
The Rhodopes (Родопи, Rodopi; Ροδόπη, Rodopi; Rodoplar) are a mountain range in Southeastern Europe, with over 83% of its area in southern Bulgaria and the remainder in Greece.
RK Vardar (HC Vardar) (РК Вардар) is a handball club from Skopje, Republic of Macedonia.
Robert Badinter (born 30 March 1928 in Paris) is a French lawyer and politician known for having championed the abolition of the death penalty in France in 1981.
Robert Stephen Paul Beekes (2 September 1937 – 21 September 2017) was Emeritus Professor of Comparative Indo-European Linguistics at Leiden University and the author of many monographs on the Proto-Indo-European language.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Romani (also Romany; romani čhib) is any of several languages of the Romani people belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.
According to the last census from 2002, there were 53 879 people counted as Romani in the Republic of Macedonia, or 2.66% of the population.
Rutilus is a genus of fish in the family Cyprinidae found in Eurasia.
Saints Cyril and Methodius (826–869, 815–885; Κύριλλος καὶ Μεθόδιος; Old Church Slavonic) were two brothers who were Byzantine Christian theologians and Christian missionaries.
Samuel (also Samuil, representing Bulgarian Самуил, pronounced, Old Church Slavonic) was the Tsar (Emperor) of the First Bulgarian Empire from 997 to 6 October 1014.
The Sargasso Sea is a region of the North Atlantic Ocean bounded by four currents forming an ocean gyre.
Sclerophyll is a type of vegetation that has hard leaves, short internodes (the distance between leaves along the stem) and leaf orientation parallel or oblique to direct sunlight.
Scupi is an archaeological site located between Zajčev Rid (Зајчев Рид 'Rabbit Hill') and the Vardar River, several kilometers from the center of Skopje, in the Republic of Macedonia.
The Second Bulgarian Empire (Второ българско царство, Vtorо Bălgarskо Tsarstvo) was a medieval Bulgarian state that existed between 1185 and 1396.
The second Persian invasion of Greece (480–479 BC) occurred during the Greco-Persian Wars, as King Xerxes I of Persia sought to conquer all of Greece.
Seminary, school of theology, theological seminary, Early-Morning Seminary, and divinity school are educational institutions for educating students (sometimes called seminarians) in scripture, theology, generally to prepare them for ordination as clergy, academia, or ministry.
Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews or Sephardim (סְפָרַדִּים, Modern Hebrew: Sefaraddim, Tiberian: Səp̄āraddîm; also Ye'hude Sepharad, lit. "The Jews of Spain"), originally from Sepharad, Spain or the Iberian peninsula, are a Jewish ethnic division.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
Serbia and Montenegro (Srbija i Crna Gora, Србија и Црна Гора; SCG, СЦГ), officially the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro (Državna Zajednica Srbija i Crna Gora, Државна Заједница Србија и Црна Гора), was a country in Southeast Europe, created from the two remaining federal republics of Yugoslavia after its breakup in 1992.
The Serbian Empire (Српско царство/Srpsko carstvo) is a historiographical term for the empire in the Balkan peninsula that emerged from the medieval Serbian Kingdom.
Serbian (српски / srpski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs.
The Serbian Orthodox Church (Српска православна црква / Srpska pravoslavna crkva) is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Christian Churches.
Serbianisation or Serbianization, also known as Serbification, and Serbisation or Serbization (србизација/srbizacija or посрбљавање/posrbljavanje; сърбизация, sərbizacija or посръбчване, posrəbčvane; serbificarea) is the spread of Serbian culture, people, or politics, either by integration or assimilation.
Serbs (Србите во Македонија, Срби у Македонији / Srbi u Makedoniji) are one of the constitutional peoples of the Republic of Macedonia.
Shopi, (South Slavic languages: Шопи, Šopi) is a regional term, used by a group of people in the Balkans, self-identifying as Bulgarians, Macedonians and Serbs.
Shopska salad, also known as Bulgarian salad (Bulgarian, Macedonian, and Serbian Cyrillic: Шопска салата; Bosnian and Croatian: Šopska salata; Salata bulgărească; Šopský salát; Sałatka szopska; Sallatë Shope; Sopszka saláta), is a Bulgarian cold salad popular throughout the Balkans and Central Europe.
SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics) is a U.S.-based, worldwide, Christian non-profit organization, whose main purpose is to study, develop and document languages, especially those that are lesser-known, in order to expand linguistic knowledge, promote literacy, translate the Christian Bible into local languages, and aid minority language development.
Sitel Television (Macedonian: Сител Телевизија, Sitel Televizija) is the second private television channel in Macedonia.
Skopje (Скопје) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Macedonia.
The Skopje Jazz Festival is a jazz festival held in Skopje since 1982.
The Skopje Statistical Region (Скопски регион) is one of eight statistical regions of the Republic of Macedonia.
Skopska Crna Gora (Macedonian and Скопска Црна Гора,, Mali i Zi i Shkupit; meaning "Black Mountain of Skopje"), often called and only as Crna Gora (Macedonian and Serbian Cyrillic: Црна Гора, Albanian: Mali i Zi; meaning "Black Mountain"), also historically known as Karadağ (Turkish for "Black Mountain", Macedonian and Карадаг, Karadag, Albanian: Malet e Karadakut), is a mountain range largely in the Republic of Macedonia, with smaller part in Kosovo.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.
The Social Democratic Union of Macedonia (Социјалдемократски сојуз на Македонија–СДСМ, SDSM) is a social-democratic and the main centre-left political party in Macedonia.
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia or SFRY) was a socialist state led by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars.
The Socialist Republic of Macedonia (Macedonian: Социјалистичка Република Македонија, Socijalistička Republika Makedonija) was one of the six constituent countries of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, and a socialist nation state of the Macedonians.
South East European University (SEEU) is a university in Tetovo, Republic of Macedonia, with a branch campus in Skopje.
South Serbia (Јужна Србија/Južna Srbija) was a province (pokrajina) of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (Yugoslavia) that existed between 1919 and 1922.
The South Slavic languages are one of three branches of the Slavic languages.
The South Slavs are a subgroup of Slavic peoples who speak the South Slavic languages.
The Southeast European Cooperative Initiative (SECI) was launched in December 1996 to help provide regional peace and stability among the countries of southeastern Europe through cooperative activities, and to help the countries integrate into the rest of Europe.
The Southeastern Statistical Region (Југоисточен регион) is one of eight statistical regions of the Republic of Macedonia.
The Southwestern Statistical Region (Југозападен регион) is one of eight statistical regions of the Republic of Macedonia.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
The Saints Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje (Универзитет „Св.) is the largest university in the Republic of Macedonia.
A standard language or standard variety may be defined either as a language variety used by a population for public purposes or as a variety that has undergone standardization.
State University of Tetovo (Universiteti Shtetëror i Tetovës; Државен универзитет во Тетово), located in Tetovo, is one of four Macedonia's state universities.
Stefan Uroš IV Dušan (Стефан Урош IV Душан), known as Dušan the Mighty (Душан Силни/Dušan Silni; 1308 – 20 December 1355), was the King of Serbia from 8 September 1331 and Emperor of the Serbs and Greeks from 16 April 1346 until his death.
Stobi (Στόβοι, Macedonian: Стоби, Stobi) was an ancient town of Paeonia, later conquered by Macedon, and later turned into the capital of the Roman province of Macedonia Salutaris (now near Gradsko in the Republic of Macedonia).
Struga Poetry Evenings (SPE) (Струшки вечери на поезијата, СВП; tr. Struški večeri na poezijata, SVP) is an international poetry festival held annually in Struga, Macedonia.
Strumica (Струмица) is the largest city in English and Macedonian (PDF) in eastern Republic of Macedonia, near the Novo Selo-Petrich border crossing with Bulgaria.
Succession of states is a theory and practice in international relations regarding successor states.
A supreme court is the highest court within the hierarchy of courts in many legal jurisdictions.
Sveti Nikole (Свети Николе; meaning Saint Nicholas) is a town in the Republic of Macedonia.
Talat Xhaferi (Талат Џафери; born 15 April 1962) is a politician of Albanian descent, former Minister of Defense and currently Speaker of the Parliament.
Tavče gravče (Тавче гравче) or fasoulotavas is a traditional Macedonian dish.
Tea Moderna (Теа Модерна) was a Macedonian woman's weekly magazine women.
The first private television in Republic of Macedonia (and also in former Yugoslavia) was founded in Štip by Mr.
The Macedonian telephone numbering plan, is the system used for assigning telephone numbers in the Republic of Macedonia.
A television channel is a broadcast frequency or virtual number over which a television station or television network is distributed.
Telma TV (Macedonian: Телма Телевизија) is a private channel in Macedonia.
Temperate broadleaf and mixed forest is a temperate climate terrestrial biome, with broadleaf tree ecoregions, and with conifer and broadleaf tree mixed coniferous forest ecoregions.
Tetovo (Тетово,; Tetovë/Tetova; Kalkandelen) is a city in the northwestern part of the Republic of Macedonia, built on the foothills of Šar Mountain and divided by the Pena River.
The Heritage Foundation (abbreviated to Heritage) is an American conservative public policy think tank based in Washington, D.C. The foundation took a leading role in the conservative movement during the presidency of Ronald Reagan, whose policies were taken from Heritage's policy study Mandate for Leadership.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
The Thracians (Θρᾷκες Thrāikes; Thraci) were a group of Indo-European tribes inhabiting a large area in Eastern and Southeastern Europe.
Todor Aleksandrov Poporushov also transliterated as Todor Alexandrov (Bulgarian: Тодор Александров) also spelt Alexandroff (4 March 1881 – 31 August 1924) was a Macedonian Bulgarian freedom fighter and member of the Bulgarian Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Committees (BMARC) and later of the Central Committee of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation (IMRO).
Torlakian, or Torlak (Torlački/Торлачки,; Торлашки, Torlashki), is a group of South Slavic dialects of southeastern Serbia, southern Kosovo (Prizren), northeastern Republic of Macedonia (Kumanovo, Kratovo and Kriva Palanka dialects), western Bulgaria (Belogradchik–Godech–Tran-Breznik), which is intermediate between Serbian, Bulgarian and Macedonian.
Torture (from the Latin tortus, "twisted") is the act of deliberately inflicting physical or psychological pain in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or compel some action from the victim.
Transparency International e.V. (TI) is an international non-governmental organization which is based in Berlin, Germany, and was founded in 1993.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Turkish cuisine (Turkish: Türk mutfağı) is largely the heritage of Ottoman cuisine, which can be described as a fusion and refinement of Central Asian, Middle Eastern, Eastern European and Balkan cuisines.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
Turkish people or the Turks (Türkler), also known as Anatolian Turks (Anadolu Türkleri), are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living mainly in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most widely spoken Turkic language.
Turks in the Republic of Macedonia, also known as Macedonian Turks, (Македонски Турци, Makedonya Türkleri) are the ethnic Turks who constitute the third largest ethnic group in the Republic of Macedonia.
Unemployment is the situation of actively looking for employment but not being currently employed.
In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.
The United Kennel Club (UKC) is the second oldest kennel club in the United States.
United Macedonia (Обединета Македонија, Obedineta Makedonija), or Greater Macedonia (Голема Македонија, Golema Makedonija), is an irredentist concept among ethnic Macedonian nationalists that aims to unify the transnational region of Macedonia in southeastern Europe (which they claim as their homeland and which they assert was wrongfully divided under the Treaty of Bucharest in 1913) into a single state that would be dominated by ethnic Macedonians but all individuals in all ethnic groups, such as Greek Macedonians and Albanian Macedonians, would have equal rights and protection under the law.
The Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (commonly known as the United Nations Convention against Torture (UNCAT)) is an international human rights treaty, under the review of the United Nations, that aims to prevent torture and other acts of cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment around the world.
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the United Nations' global development network.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
United Nations Security Council resolution 817, adopted unanimously on 7 April 1993, after examining the application of the Republic of Macedonia for membership in the United Nations, the Council recommended to the General Assembly that Macedonia be admitted to membership in the United Nations, this State being provisionally referred to for all purposes within the United Nations as "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" pending settlement of the difference that has arisen over the name of the State. However, the Council also noted the differences that had arisen over the name of the state and welcomed the Co-Chairmen of the Steering Committee of the International Conference on the Former Yugoslavia for their efforts to settle the dispute. For this reason, the Council decided that the state should be admitted under the provisional name of the "former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" until the dispute was resolved.
The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is an independent agency of the United States federal government that is primarily responsible for administering civilian foreign aid and development assistance.
The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM) is the United States' official memorial to the Holocaust.
The University of Information Science and Technology (UIST) "St.
Upper Macedonia (Greek: Ἄνω Μακεδονία, Ánō Makedonía) is a geographical and tribal term to describe the upper/western of the two parts in which, together with Lower Macedonia, the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon was roughly divided.
Utrinski vesnik (Утрински весник; meaning The Morning in English) is a daily newspaper in the Republic of Macedonia.
Valandovo (Валандово) is a town in southeastern Republic of Macedonia.
Van Hool NV is a Belgian family-owned coachbuilder and manufacturer of buses, coaches, trolleybuses, and trailers.
The Vardar (Вардар) or Axios is the longest and major river in the Republic of Macedonia and also a major river of Greece.
The Vardar Banovina or Vardar Banate or Banate of Vardar (Вардарската бановина; Вардарска бановина, Vardarska banovina) was a province (banate) of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia between 1929 and 1941.
Vardar Macedonia (Macedonian and Вардарска Македонија, Vardarska Makedonija) was the name given to the territory of Kingdom of Serbia and Kingdom of Yugoslavia roughly corresponding to today's Republic of Macedonia.
The Vardar Statistical Region (Вардарски регион) is one of eight statistical regions of the Republic of Macedonia.
Večer (Вечер) is a daily newspaper in the Republic of Macedonia.
The Vergina Sun (Greek: Ήλιος της Βεργίνας, also known as the "Star of Vergina", "Macedonian Star" or "Argead Star") is a rayed solar symbol appearing in ancient Greek art of the period between the 6th and 2nd centuries BC.
Visteon Corporation (VC) is an American global automotive electronics supplier and Fortune 500 company spun off from the Ford Motor Company in 2000.
The Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization – Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity (Внатрешна македонска револуционерна организација – Демократска партија за македонско национално единство), simplified as VMRO-DPMNE, is one of the two major parties in the Republic of Macedonia, the other being the Social Democratic Union of Macedonia (SDSM).
The Voras Mountains (Όρος Βόρας; also Boras), also known as Nidže (Ниџе, Nice Dağı) are a mountain range situated on the border between Greece and the Republic of Macedonia.
Western Thrace (Θράκη, Thráki; Batı Trakya; Западна Тракия, Zapadna Trakiya or Беломорска Тракия, Belomorska Trakiya) is a geographic and historical region of Greece, between the Nestos and Evros rivers in the northeast of the country; Eastern Thrace, which lies east of the river Evros, forms the European part of Turkey, and the area to the north, in Bulgaria, is known as Northern Thrace.
The Special Operations Regiment (Полк за специјални операции) is the main special operations unit of the Army of the Republic of Macedonia.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
World cinema is not the sum-total of all films made around the world.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
World War II in Yugoslav Macedonia started with the Axis occupation of Yugoslavia. Macedonian communist Partisans of the People's Liberation Army of Macedonia, part of the Yugoslav Partisan movement, started a political and military campaign on 11 October 1941 to resist the occupation of Vardar Macedonia by Bulgarian, German, Italian, and Albanian forces. Officially, the area was called then Vardar Banovina, because the very name Macedonia was prohibited in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Initially it had no real success, starting to grow only in 1943 with the capitulation of Italy and the Soviet victories over Nazi Germany. The role of the Bulgarian communists, which avoided organizing mass armed resistance, was also a key factor. Their influence over the Macedonian Party organization remained dominant until the spring of 1943 when Tito's special emissary Svetozar Vukmanović arrived in Macedonia. This led to the rise of younger generation anti-Bulgarian oriented partisan leaders, who were loyal to Yugoslavia. In the western part of the area, the Albanian Partisans also participated in the resistance movement. After Bulgaria have switched sides in the war in September 1944, the Bulgarian 5th. Army stationed in Macedonia, moved back to the old borders of Bulgaria. In the early October the newly formed Bulgarian People's Army together with the Red Army reentered occupied Yugoslavia to blocking the German forces withdrawing from Greece. Vardar Macedonia was liberated in end of November when communist Yugoslavia was established. The operation was called the National Liberation War of Macedonia (Народноослободителна борба на Македонија, Narodnoosloboditelna borba na Makedonija) by the Partisans, in line with the greater Yugoslav People's Liberation War, but combatants also developed further aspirations over the geographic region of Macedonia. It marked the defeat of Bulgarian nationalism and the victory of Macedonism in the area.
The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization founded in 1961, working in the field of the wilderness preservation, and the reduction of human impact on the environment.
The Manaki brothers, Yanaki and Milton were photography and cinema pioneers who brought the first film camera and created the first motion pictures on the Balkan Peninsula and in the Ottoman Empire.
Yoakim Karchovski (Йоаким Кърчовски, Јоаким Крчовски c. 1750 - c. 1820), was a Bulgarian priest, teacher, writer and an important figure of the Bulgarian National Revival.
The Yugoslav Partisans,Serbo-Croatian, Macedonian, Slovene: Partizani, Партизани or the National Liberation Army,Narodnooslobodilačka vojska (NOV), Народноослободилачка војска (НОВ); Народноослободителна војска (НОВ); Narodnoosvobodilna vojska (NOV) officially the National Liberation Army and Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia,Narodnooslobodilačka vojska i partizanski odredi Jugoslavije (NOV i POJ), Народноослободилачка војска и партизански одреди Југославије (НОВ и ПОЈ); Народноослободителна војска и партизански одреди на Југославија (НОВ и ПОЈ); Narodnoosvobodilna vojska in partizanski odredi Jugoslavije (NOV in POJ) was the Communist-led resistance to the Axis powers (chiefly Germany) in occupied Yugoslavia during World War II.
The Yugoslav Wars were a series of ethnic conflicts, wars of independence and insurgencies fought from 1991 to 1999/2001 in the former Yugoslavia.
Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija/Југославија; Jugoslavija; Југославија; Pannonian Rusyn: Югославия, transcr. Juhoslavija)Jugosllavia; Jugoszlávia; Juhoslávia; Iugoslavia; Jugoslávie; Iugoslavia; Yugoslavya; Югославия, transcr. Jugoslavija.
Yugoslavism (Jugoslavizam / Југославизам, Jugoslavizem) or Yugoslavdom (Jugoslovenstvo / Југословенство, Jugoslovanstvo) refers to the nationalism or patriotism associated with South Slavs and Yugoslavia.
Zoran Zaev (Зоран Заев; born 8 October 1974) is a Macedonian economist and politician who has served as the Prime Minister of Macedonia since 31 May 2017.
.мкд is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Macedonia.
.mk is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the Republic of Macedonia.
The 1944 Bulgarian coup d'état, also known as the 9 September coup d'état (Деветосептемврийски преврат, Devetoseptemvriyski prevrat) and called in pre-1989 Bulgaria the National Uprising of 9 September or the Socialist Revolution of 9 September, was a forcible change in the Kingdom of Bulgaria's administration and government carried out on the eve of 9 September 1944.
The 2001 insurgency in the Republic of Macedonia was an armed conflict which began when the ethnic Albanian National Liberation Army (NLA) militant group attacked the security forces of the Republic of Macedonia at the beginning of February 2001, and ended with the Ohrid Agreement.
The 2008 Bucharest Summit or the 20th NATO Summit was a NATO summit organized in the Palace of the Parliament, Bucharest, Romania on 2 – 4 April 2008.
The 2016–17 EHF Champions League was the 57th edition of Europe's premier club handball tournament and the 24th edition under the current EHF Champions League format.
The meridian 20° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Atlantic and Indian oceans, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The meridian 23° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 40th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 40 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 43rd parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 43 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
Etymology of Macedonia, F. Y. R. of Macedonia, F.Y. Republic of Macedonia, F.Y.R Macedonia, F.Y.R. Macedonia, F.Y.R. of Macedonia, F.Y.R.M., F.Y.R.Macedondia, F.Y.R.O.M, F.Y.R.O.M., FYR Macedonia, FYR of Macedonia, FYRM, FYRMacedondia, FYRO Macedonia, FYROM, FYROM (Macedonia), FYROMacedonia, Former Republic of Macedonia, Former Yougoslavian Republic of Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic Of Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (F.Y.R.O.M.), Former Yugoslavia Republic of Macedonia, Former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia, Former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia (FYROM), Former Yugoslavic Republic of Macedonia, Fyrom, ISO 3166-1:MK, Independent Republic of Macedonia, Macedonia (FYROM), Macedonia (Republic), Macedonia (country), Macedonia (former Yugoslav Republic of), Macedonia (republic), Macedonia (state), Macedonia FYRO, Macedonia, FYR, Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of, Macedonia, Republic, Macedonia, Republic of, Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of, Macedonia, The former Yugoslav Republic of, Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of, Macedonian Republic, Macedonian republic, Makedonska Republika, Mazedonien, Name of Republic of Macedonia, Name of the Republic of Macedonia, North Macedonia, Northern Macedonia, R macedonia, R. Macedonia, REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA, Republic Macedonia, Republic Of Macedonia, Republic of North Macedonia, Republic of Northern Macedonia, Republic of Skopje, Republic of macedonia, Republika Makedonija, RoM, RoMacedonia, Severna Makedonija, Slavomacedonia, Sport in the Republic of Macedonia, TFYR, TFYR Macedonia, TFYR of Macedonia, TFYRM, The Former Yugoslav Republic Of Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, The Republic of Macedonia, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Република Македонија, Фиром.