293 relations: Adige, Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, Aegina, Age of Enlightenment, Agnello Participazio, Albania, Albania under the Ottoman Empire, Alexandria, Alexios I Komnenos, Alfred A. Knopf, Alps, Andrea Gritti, Andronikos I Komnenos, Antonio Grimani, Antonio Vivaldi, Apulia, Arabs, Autocracy, İskenderun, Baldwin I of Jerusalem, Balkans, Baroque, Bassano del Grappa, Battle of Agnadello, Battle of Chioggia, Battle of Lepanto, Battle of Petrovaradin, Battle of Zonchio, Belluno, Benedetto Marcello, Byzantine Empire, Byzantine–Venetian Treaty of 1082, Canaletto, Capriccio (art), Cargo ship, Carolingian dynasty, Catholic Encyclopedia, Chania, Chioggia, Cisalpine Republic, City-state, Commune Veneciarum, Constantinople, Corfu, Corinth, Council of Forty, Council of Ten, Counterintelligence, Cremona, ..., Cretan War (1645–1669), Crete, Crotone, Crusader states, Crusades, Cyprus, Dalmatia, Dardanelles, Devotion of Verona to Venice, Discourse on Inequality, Discourses on Livy, Doge of Venice, Domenico Selvo, Domini di Terraferma, Ducat, Duchy of Amalfi, Duchy of Milan, Duchy of the Archipelago, Durrës, Dux, Early modern period, Early Muslim conquests, Economic history of Venice, Elective monarchy, Emeric, King of Hungary, Enrico Dandolo, Eraclea, Este, Veneto, Euboea, Exarchate of Ravenna, Excommunication, Executive (government), Fall of the Western Roman Empire, Famagusta, Feltre, Feodosia, First Crusade, Fourth Crusade, Francia, Franks, Frederic C. Lane, French rule in the Ionian Islands, Friuli, Full College, Galiot, Galley, Gian Galeazzo Visconti, Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, Giustiniano Participazio, Grado, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Great Council of Venice, Great Turkish War, Habsburg Monarchy, Harvey Mansfield, Hereditary Kingdom of Norway, High Middle Ages, History of the Byzantine Empire, Holy Land, Holy League (1571), Holy See, Horses of Saint Mark, Huns, Hypatos, Interdict, Ionian Islands, Ionian Sea, Istria, Italian language, Italian unification, Italian Wars, Italy, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, John Julius Norwich, John of Austria, John the Deacon (Venetian chronicler), Karpass Peninsula, King of Hungary, Kingdom of Candia, Kingdom of Cyprus, Kingdom of Jerusalem, Koroni, Kotor, Kydonia, Kyrenia, Ladislaus of Naples, Lagoon, Lala Mustafa Pasha, Latin, Lebanon, Levant, Limassol, Lion of Saint Mark, List of Doges of Venice, List of French monarchs, List of historic states of Italy, List of rulers of Milan, Lodi, Lombardy, Lombards, Lombardy, Louis XII of France, Ludovico Manin, Macedonia (theme), Magister militum, Malamocco, Marcello Tegalliano, Marco Polo, Marino Sanuto the Younger, Maritime republics, Mark the Evangelist, Massacre of the Latins, Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, Mediterranean Sea, Mestre, Methoni, Messenia, Michael VIII Palaiologos, Middle Ages, Minor Council, Mixed government, Mongol Empire, Montenotte (department), Morea, Morean War, Most Serene Republic, Nafpaktos, Napoleon, Narentines, Naval ensign, Naval fleet, Navy, New York City, Niccolò Machiavelli, Nicosia, Normans, Northern Italy, Oderzo, Oligarchy, Ordelafo Faliero, Orso Ipato, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman invasion of Otranto, Ottoman wars in Europe, Ottoman–Venetian War (1499–1503), Ottoman–Venetian War (1570–1573), Ottoman–Venetian War (1714–1718), Pactum Warmundi, Padua, Pantalone, Paolo Lucio Anafesto, Paolo Sarpi, Papal States, Parliament, Parliamentary system, Partitio terrarum imperii Romaniae, Patria del Friuli, Patron saint, Paul (exarch), Pax Mongolica, Pax Nicephori, Pepin the Short, Piedmont, Pietro Gradenigo, Pietro II Orseolo, Pietro Tradonico, Piraeus Lion, Po (river), Pope, Pope Julius II, Pope Paul V, Poreč, Promissione ducale, Regatta, Renaissance, Republic of Florence, Republic of Genoa, Republic of Pisa, Republic of San Marco, Revolt of Saint Titus, Romagna, Rovigo, Ruins, Sack of Constantinople (1204), Salt road, Savii del Consiglio, Savii di Terraferma, Sebastiano Venier, Senate, Sestiere, Siege of Constantinople (1203), Siege of Jajce, Siege of Rhodes (1480), Siege of Shkodra, Siege of Sidon, Siege of Zara, Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, Signoria of Venice, Sigurd the Crusader, Slavery, Slavia Friulana, Souda, Sovereign state, Spanish Empire, Spinalonga, Split, Croatia, St Mark's Basilica, Stato da Màr, Surveillance, Syria, Teodato Ipato, Thalassocracy, The Prince, The Social Contract, Thomas Aquinas, Timeline of the Republic of Venice, Tinos, Treaty of Campo Formio, Treaty of Leoben, Treaty of Passarowitz, Treviso, Triarchy of Negroponte, Triveneto, Trogir, Ugo Foscolo, Venetian Albania, Venetian Arsenal, Venetian Crusade, Venetian Dalmatia, Venetian Lagoon, Venetian language, Venetian lira, Venetian navy, Venetian Province, Venetian rule in the Ionian Islands, Venetian Senate, Venetian–Genoese wars, Veneto, Venice, Verona, Vicenza, Vittorio Veneto, War of the League of Cambrai, Wars in Lombardy, Western Roman Empire, Zadar. Expand index (243 more) » « Shrink index
The Adige (Etsch; Àdexe; Adisch; Adesc; Athesis; Ἄθεσις) is the second longest river in Italy after the Po, rising in the Alps in the province of South Tyrol near the Italian border with Austria and Switzerland, flowing through most of North-East Italy to the Adriatic Sea.
The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula.
The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.
Aegina (Αίγινα, Aígina, Αἴγῑνα) is one of the Saronic Islands of Greece in the Saronic Gulf, from Athens.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Agnello Participazio (Angelo Particiaco, Latin: Agnellus Particiacus) was the tenth (traditional) or eighth (historical) Doge of Venice from 811 to 827.
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.
Albania was ruled by the Ottoman Empire in different periods from 1480 to 1912.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
Alexios I Komnenos (Ἀλέξιος Αʹ Κομνηνός., c. 1048 – 15 August 1118) was Byzantine emperor from 1081 to 1118.
Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. is a New York publishing house that was founded by Alfred A. Knopf Sr. and Blanche Knopf in 1915.
The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.
Andrea Gritti (1455 – December 1538) was the Doge of Venice from 1523 to 1538, following a distinguished diplomatic and military career.
Andronikos I Komnenos (Ανδρόνικος Αʹ Κομνηνός, Andrónikos I Komnēnós; – 12 September 1185), usually Latinized as Andronicus I Comnenus, was Byzantine Emperor from 1183 to 1185.
Antonio Grimani (28 December 1434 – 7 May 1523) was the Doge of Venice from 1521 to 1523.
Antonio Lucio Vivaldi (4 March 1678 – 28 July 1741) was an Italian Baroque musical composer, virtuoso violinist, teacher and cleric.
Apulia (Puglia; Pùglia; Pulia; translit) is a region of Italy in Southern Italy bordering the Adriatic Sea to the east, the Ionian Sea to the southeast, and the Strait of Òtranto and Gulf of Taranto to the south.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
An autocracy is a system of government in which supreme power (social and political) is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (except perhaps for the implicit threat of a coup d'état or mass insurrection).
İskenderun (الإسكندرونة, Αλεξανδρέττα "Little Alexandria"), historically known as Alexandretta and Scanderoon, is a city and the largest district in Hatay Province on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey.
Baldwin I, also known as Baldwin of Boulogne (1060s – 2 April 1118), was the first count of Edessa from 1098 to 1100, and the second crusader ruler and first King of Jerusalem from 1100 to his death.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.
Bassano del Grappa (Venetian: Basan // (plain form) or Bassan/Bassàn (italianized form)) is a city and comune, in the Vicenza province, in the region Veneto, in northern Italy.
The Battle of Agnadello, also known as Vailà, was one of the most significant battles of the War of the League of Cambrai and one of the major battles of the Italian Wars.
The Battle of Chioggia was a naval battle during the War of Chioggia that culminated on June 24, 1380 in the lagoon off Chioggia, Italy, between the Venetian and the Genoese fleets.
The Battle of Lepanto was a naval engagement that took place on 7 October 1571 when a fleet of the Holy League, of which the Venetian Empire and the Spanish Empire were the main powers, inflicted a major defeat on the fleet of the Ottoman Empire in the Gulf of Patras, where Ottoman forces sailing westward from their naval station in Lepanto (the Venetian name of ancient Naupactus Ναύπακτος, Ottoman İnebahtı) met the fleet of the Holy League sailing east from Messina, Sicily.
The Battle of Petrovaradin or Peterwardein was a decisive victory for the Imperial Army of the Holy Roman Emperor in the war between the Archduchy of Austria of the Holy Roman Empire and the Ottoman Empire (1716–1718), at Petrovaradin (then part of Military Frontier, Archduchy of Austria; today part of Novi Sad, Vojvodina, Serbia).
The naval Battle of Zonchio (Sapienza Deniz Muharebesi, also known as the Battle of Sapienza or the First Battle of Lepanto) took place on four separate days: 12, 20, 22 and 25 August 1499.
Belluno (Belluno, Belum, Belùn), is a town and province in the Veneto region of northern Italy.
Benedetto Giacomo Marcello ((31 July or 1 August 1686 – 24 July 1739) was an Italian composer, writer, advocate, magistrate, and teacher.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
The Byzantine–Venetian Treaty of 1082 was a trade and defence pact signed between the Byzantine Empire and the Republic of Venice, in the form of an imperial chrysobull, or golden bull, issued by Emperor Alexios I Komnenos.
Giovanni Antonio Canal (18 October 1697 – 19 April 1768), better known as Canaletto, was an Italian painter of city views or vedute, of Venice, Rome, and London.
In painting, a capriccio (plural: capricci; in older English works often anglicized as "caprice") means an architectural fantasy, placing together buildings, archaeological ruins and other architectural elements in fictional and often fantastical combinations, and may include staffage (figures).
A cargo ship or freighter ship is any sort of ship or vessel that carries cargo, goods, and materials from one port to another.
The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolingus, Carolings or Karlings) was a Frankish noble family founded by Charles Martel with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD.
The Catholic Encyclopedia: An International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church, also referred to as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia and the Original Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language encyclopedia published in the United States and designed to serve the Roman Catholic Church.
Chania (Χανιά,, Venetian: Canea, Ottoman Turkish: Hanya) is the second largest city of Crete and the capital of the Chania regional unit.
Chioggia (Venetian: Cióxa, Latin: Clodia) is a coastal town and comune of the Metropolitan City of Venice in the Veneto region of northern Italy.
The Cisalpine Republic (Repubblica Cisalpina) was a sister republic of France in Northern Italy that lasted from 1797 to 1802.
A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories.
The Commune Veneciarum (Latin for "Community of Venice") is the title with which the government of the city of Venice and its Republic was designated from 1143.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
Corfu or Kerkyra (translit,; translit,; Corcyra; Corfù) is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea.
Corinth (Κόρινθος, Kórinthos) is an ancient city and former municipality in Corinthia, Peloponnese, which is located in south-central Greece.
The Council of Forty, or the Supreme Court of Forty, also known as The Quarantia was one of the highest constitutional bodies of the ancient Republic of Venice, with both legal and political functions as the Supreme Court.
The Council of Ten (Consiglio dei Dieci; Consejo de i Diexe), or simply the Ten, was, from 1310 to 1797, one of the major governing bodies of the Republic of Venice whose actions were often secretive.
Counterintelligence is "an activity aimed at protecting an agency's intelligence program against an opposition's intelligence service." It likewise refers to information gathered and activities conducted to counter espionage, other intelligence activities, sabotage, or assassinations conducted for or on behalf of foreign powers, organizations or persons, international terrorist activities, sometimes including personnel, physical, document or communications security programs.
Cremona is a city and comune in northern Italy, situated in Lombardy, on the left bank of the Po River in the middle of the Pianura Padana (Po Valley).
The Cretan War (Κρητικός Πόλεμος, Girit'in Fethi) or War of Candia (Guerra di Candia, Kandijski rat), is the name given to the Fifth Ottoman–Venetian War, a conflict between the Republic of Venice and her allies (chief among them the Knights of Malta, the Papal States and France) against the Ottoman Empire and the Barbary States, because it was largely fought over the island of Crete, Venice's largest and richest overseas possession.
Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.
Crotone (Crotonese: Cutrone or Cutruni) is a city and comune in Calabria.
The Crusader states, also known as Outremer, were a number of mostly 12th- and 13th-century feudal Christian states created by Western European crusaders in Asia Minor, Greece and the Holy Land, and during the Northern Crusades in the eastern Baltic area.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
Dalmatia (Dalmacija; see names in other languages) is one of the four historical regions of Croatia, alongside Croatia proper, Slavonia and Istria.
The Dardanelles (Çanakkale Boğazı, translit), also known from Classical Antiquity as the Hellespont (Ἑλλήσποντος, Hellespontos, literally "Sea of Helle"), is a narrow, natural strait and internationally-significant waterway in northwestern Turkey that forms part of the continental boundary between Europe and Asia, and separates Asian Turkey from European Turkey.
The Devotion of Verona to Venice was a feudal oath of loyalty made by Verona to Venice, via Veronese ambassadors to Venice, pronounced on June 24, 1405.
Discourse on the Origin and Basis of Inequality Among Men (Discours sur l'origine et les fondements de l'inégalité parmi les hommes), also commonly known as the "Second Discourse", is a work by philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
The Discourses on Livy (Discorsi sopra la prima deca di Tito Livio, literally "Discourses on the First Decade of Titus Livy") is a work of political history and philosophy written in the early 16th century (c. 1517) by the Italian writer and political theorist Niccolò Machiavelli, best known as the author of The Prince.
The Doge of Venice (Doxe de Venexia; Doge di Venezia; all derived from Latin dūx, "military leader"), sometimes translated as Duke (compare the Italian Duca), was the chief magistrate and leader of the Most Serene Republic of Venice for 1,100 years (697–1797).
Domenico Selvo (died 1087) was the 31st Doge of Venice, serving from 1071 to 1084.
The Domini di Terraferma (domini de teraferma or stato da tera, literally "mainland domains" or "mainland state") was the name given to the hinterland territories of the Republic of Venice beyond the Adriatic coast in Northeast Italy.
The ducat was a gold or silver coin used as a trade coin in Europe from the later middle ages until as late as the 20th century.
The Duchy of Amalfi (Ducato di Amalfi) or the Republic of Amalfi (Repubblica di Amalfi) was a de facto independent state centered on the Southern Italian city of Amalfi during the 10th and 11th centuries.
The Duchy of Milan was a constituent state of the Holy Roman Empire in northern Italy.
The Duchy of the Archipelago (Ducato dell'arcipelago, Δουκάτο του Αρχιπελάγους), or also Duchy of Naxos (Ducato di Nasso, Δουκάτο της Νάξου) or Duchy of the Aegean (Ducato dell'Egeo, Δουκάτο του Αιγαίου), was a maritime state created by Venetian interests in the Cyclades archipelago in the Aegean Sea, in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade, centered on the islands of Naxos and Paros.
Durrës (Durazzo,, historically known as Epidamnos and Dyrrachium, is the second most populous city of the Republic of Albania. The city is the capital of the surrounding Durrës County, one of 12 constituent counties of the country. By air, it is northwest of Sarandë, west of Tirana, south of Shkodër and east of Rome. Located on the Adriatic Sea, it is the country's most ancient and economic and historic center. Founded by Greek colonists from Corinth and Corfu under the name of Epidamnos (Επίδαμνος) around the 7th century BC, the city essentially developed to become significant as it became an integral part of the Roman Empire and its successor the Byzantine Empire. The Via Egnatia, the continuation of the Via Appia, started in the city and led across the interior of the Balkan Peninsula to Constantinople in the east. In the Middle Ages, it was contested between Bulgarian, Venetian and Ottoman dominions. Following the declaration of independence of Albania, the city served as the capital of the Principality of Albania for a short period of time. Subsequently, it was annexed by the Kingdom of Italy and Nazi Germany in the interwar period. Moreover, the city experienced a strong expansion in its demography and economic activity during the Communism in Albania. Durrës is served by the Port of Durrës, one of the largest on the Adriatic Sea, which connects the city to Italy and other neighbouring countries. Its most considerable attraction is the Amphitheatre of Durrës that is included on the tentative list of Albania for designation as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Once having a capacity for 20,000 people, it is the largest amphitheatre in the Balkan Peninsula.
Dux (plural: ducēs) is Latin for "leader" (from the noun dux, ducis, "leader, general") and later for duke and its variant forms (doge, duce, etc.). During the Roman Republic, dux could refer to anyone who commanded troops, including foreign leaders, but was not a formal military rank.
The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.
The early Muslim conquests (الفتوحات الإسلامية, al-Futūḥāt al-Islāmiyya) also referred to as the Arab conquests and early Islamic conquests began with the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the 7th century.
Venice, which is situated at the far end of the Adriatic Sea, gained large scale profit of the adjacent middle European markets.
An elective monarchy is a monarchy ruled by an elected monarch, in contrast to a hereditary monarchy in which the office is automatically passed down as a family inheritance.
Emeric, also known as Henry or Imre (Imre, Emerik, Imrich; 117430 November 1204), was King of Hungary and Croatia between 1196 and 1204.
Enrico Dandolo (anglicised as Henry Dandolo and Latinized as Henricus Dandulus; 1107 – May 1205) was the 41st Doge of Venice from 1192 until his death.
Location of Eraclea in the province of Venice. Eraclea is a small city and comune in the province of Venice, Veneto, Italy.
Este is a town and comune of the Province of Padua, in the Veneto region of northern Italy.
Euboea or Evia; Εύβοια, Evvoia,; Εὔβοια, Eúboia) is the second-largest Greek island in area and population, after Crete. The narrow Euripus Strait separates it from Boeotia in mainland Greece. In general outline it is a long and narrow island; it is about long, and varies in breadth from to. Its geographic orientation is from northwest to southeast, and it is traversed throughout its length by a mountain range, which forms part of the chain that bounds Thessaly on the east, and is continued south of Euboea in the lofty islands of Andros, Tinos and Mykonos. It forms most of the regional unit of Euboea, which also includes Skyros and a small area of the Greek mainland.
The Exarchate of Ravenna or of Italy (Esarcato d'Italia) was a lordship of the Byzantine Empire in Italy, from 584 to 751, when the last exarch was put to death by the Lombards.
Excommunication is an institutional act of religious censure used to deprive, suspend, or limit membership in a religious community or to restrict certain rights within it, in particular receiving of the sacraments.
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
The Fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called Fall of the Roman Empire or Fall of Rome) was the process of decline in the Western Roman Empire in which it failed to enforce its rule, and its vast territory was divided into several successor polities.
Famagusta (Αμμόχωστος; Mağusa, or Gazimağusa) is a city on the east coast of Cyprus.
Feltre (Fèltre) is a town and comune of the province of Belluno in Veneto, northern Italy.
Feodosia (Феодо́сия, Feodosiya; Феодо́сія, Feodosiia; Crimean Tatar and Turkish: Kefe), also called Theodosia (from), is a port and resort, a town of regional significance in Crimea on the Black Sea coast.
The First Crusade (1095–1099) was the first of a number of crusades that attempted to recapture the Holy Land, called for by Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont in 1095.
The Fourth Crusade (1202–1204) was a Latin Christian armed expedition called by Pope Innocent III.
Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks (Regnum Francorum), or Frankish Empire was the largest post-Roman Barbarian kingdom in Western Europe.
The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.
Frederic C. Lane (born November 23, 1900, in Lansing, Michigan–died October 14, 1984) was a historian who specialized in Medieval history with a particular emphasis on the Italian city and region of Venice.
The French rule in the Ionian Islands (Γαλλοκρατία των Επτανήσων) lasted from June 1797 to March 1799.
Friuli is an area of Northeast Italy with its own particular cultural and historical identity.
The Full College (Pien Collegio) was the main executive body of the Republic of Venice, overseeing day-to-day governance and preparing the agenda for the Venetian Senate.
A galiot, galliot or galiote, was a small galley boat propelled by sail or oars.
A galley is a type of ship that is propelled mainly by rowing.
Gian Galeazzo Visconti (16 October 1351 – 3 September 1402), son of Galeazzo II Visconti and Bianca of Savoy, was the first Duke of Milan (1395) and ruled the late-medieval city just before the dawn of the Renaissance.
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (March 5, 1696 – March 27, 1770), also known as Gianbattista or Giambattista Tiepolo, was an Italian painter and printmaker from the Republic of Venice.
Giustiniano Participazio (Agnellus Iustinianus Particiacus; died 829) was the eleventh (traditional) or ninth (historical) Doge of Venice from 825 to his death.
Grado (Gravo; Grau; Gradus) is a town and comune in the north-eastern Italian region of Friuli-Venezia Giulia, located on an island and adjacent peninsula of the Adriatic Sea between Venice and Trieste.
The Great Council of Venice or Major Council (Maggior Consiglio; Mazor Consegio), originally the Consilium Sapientium (Latin for "Council of Wise Men"), was a political organ of the Republic of Venice between 1172 and 1797 and met in a special large hall of the Palazzo Ducale.
The Great Turkish War (Der Große Türkenkrieg) or the War of the Holy League (Kutsal İttifak Savaşları) was a series of conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and the Holy League consisting of the Habsburg Empire, Poland-Lithuania, Venice and Russia.
The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.
Harvey Claflin Mansfield, Jr. (born March 21, 1932) is an American political philosopher.
The Kingdom of Norway as a unified realm was initiated by King Harald I Fairhair in the 9th century.
The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period of European history that commenced around 1000 AD and lasted until around 1250 AD.
This history of the Byzantine Empire covers the history of the Eastern Roman Empire from late antiquity until the Fall of Constantinople in 1453 AD.
The Holy Land (Hebrew: אֶרֶץ הַקּוֹדֶשׁ, Terra Sancta; Arabic: الأرض المقدسة) is an area roughly located between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea that also includes the Eastern Bank of the Jordan River.
The Holy League (Liga Sancta, Liga Santa, Lega Santa), of 1571 was arranged by Pope Pius V and included the major Catholic maritime states in the Mediterranean except France.
The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.
The Horses of Saint Mark (Cavalli di San Marco), also known as the Triumphal Quadriga, is a set of Roman bronze statues of four horses, originally part of a monument depicting a quadriga (a four-horse carriage used for chariot racing).
The Huns were a nomadic people who lived in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Eastern Europe, between the 4th and 6th century AD.
Hypatos (ὕπατος; plural: ὕπατοι, hypatoi) and the variant apo hypatōn (ἀπὸ ὑπάτων, "former hypatos", literally: "from among the consuls") was a Byzantine court dignity, originally the Greek translation of Latin consul (the literal meaning of hypatos is "the supreme one," which reflects the office, but not the etymology of the Roman consul).
In Catholic canon law, an interdict is an ecclesiastical censure, or ban that prohibits persons, certain active Church individuals or groups from participating in certain rites, or that the rites and services of the church are banished from having validity in certain territories for a limited or extended time.
The Ionian Islands (Modern Greek: Ιόνια νησιά, Ionia nisia; Ancient Greek, Katharevousa: Ἰόνιοι Νῆσοι, Ionioi Nēsoi; Isole Ionie) are a group of islands in Greece.
The Ionian Sea (Ιόνιο Πέλαγος,, Mar Ionio,, Deti Jon) is an elongated bay of the Mediterranean Sea, south of the Adriatic Sea.
Istria (Croatian, Slovene: Istra; Istriot: Eîstria; Istria; Istrien), formerly Histria (Latin), is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Italian unification (Unità d'Italia), or the Risorgimento (meaning "the Resurgence" or "revival"), was the political and social movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy in the 19th century.
The Italian Wars, often referred to as the Great Italian Wars or the Great Wars of Italy and sometimes as the Habsburg–Valois Wars or the Renaissance Wars, were a series of conflicts from 1494 to 1559 that involved, at various times, most of the city-states of Italy, the Papal States, the Republic of Venice, most of the major states of Western Europe (France, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire, England, and Scotland) as well as the Ottoman Empire.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer.
John Julius Cooper, 2nd Viscount Norwich, (15 September 1929 – 1 June 2018), known as John Julius Norwich, was an English popular historian, travel writer and television personality.
John of Austria (Juan, Johann; 24 February 1547 – 1 October 1578) was an illegitimate son of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. He became a military leader in the service of his half-brother, King Philip II of Spain, and is best known for his role as the admiral of the Holy Alliance fleet at the Battle of Lepanto.
John the Deacon (Giovanni Diacono or Giovanni da Venezia; 940–45 – died after 1018) was a Venetian deacon, secretary to the doge of Venice and a chronicler.
The Karpass Peninsula (Καρπασία; Karpaz), also known as the Karpas Peninsula or Karpasia, is a long, finger-like peninsula that is one of the most prominent geographical features of the island of Cyprus.
The King of Hungary (magyar király) was the ruling head of state of the Kingdom of Hungary from 1000 (or 1001) to 1918.
Kingdom of Candia (Regno di Candia) or Duchy of Candia (Ducato di Candia) was the official name of Crete during the island's period as an overseas colony of the Republic of Venice, from the initial Venetian conquest in 1205–1212 to its fall to the Ottoman Empire during the Cretan War (1645–1669).
The Kingdom of Cyprus was a Crusader state that existed between 1192 and 1489.
The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem was a crusader state established in the Southern Levant by Godfrey of Bouillon in 1099 after the First Crusade.
Koroni or Corone (Κορώνη) is a town and a former municipality in Messenia, Peloponnese, Greece.
Kotor (Montenegrin Cyrillic: Котор,; Cattaro) is a coastal town in Montenegro.
Cydonia or Kydonia (Κυδωνία; Cydonia) was an ancient city-state on the northwest coast of the island of Crete.
Kyrenia (Κερύνεια; Girne) is a city on the northern coast of Cyprus, noted for its historic harbour and castle.
Ladislaus the Magnanimous (Ladislao il Magnanimo di Napoli; Nápolyi László; 15 February 1377 – 6 August 1414) was King of Naples and titular King of Jerusalem and Sicily, titular Count of Provence and Forcalquier (1386–1414), and titular King of Hungary and Croatia (1390–1414).
A lagoon is a shallow body of water separated from a larger body of water by barrier islands or reefs.
Lala Mustafa Pasha (1500 – 7 August 1580), also known by the additional epithet Kara, was an Ottoman general and Grand Vizier from the Sanjak of Bosnia.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
Limassol (Λεμεσός; Limasol or Leymosun) is a city on the southern coast of Cyprus and capital of the eponymous district.
The Lion of Saint Mark, representing the evangelist St Mark, pictured in the form of a winged lion holding a Bible, is the symbol of the city of Venice and formerly of the Republic of Venice, as well as of the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria, See of Saint Mark.
The following is a list of all 120 of the Doges of Venice ordered by the dates of their reigns which are put in parentheses.
The monarchs of the Kingdom of France and its predecessors (and successor monarchies) ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of the Franks in 486 until the fall of the Second French Empire in 1870, with several interruptions.
Italy, up until the Italian unification in 1860, was a conglomeration of city-states, republics, and other independent entities.
The following is a list of rulers of Milan from the 13th century to 1814, after which it was incorporated into the Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia by the Congress of Vienna.
Lodi (Lombard: Lòd) is a city and comune in Lombardy, northern Italy, on primarily on the western bank of the River Adda.
The Lombards or Longobards (Langobardi, Longobardi, Longobard (Western)) were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774.
Lombardy (Lombardia; Lumbardia, pronounced: (Western Lombard), (Eastern Lombard)) is one of the twenty administrative regions of Italy, in the northwest of the country, with an area of.
Louis XII (27 June 1462 – 1 January 1515) was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1498 to 1515 and King of Naples from 1501 to 1504.
Ludovico Giovanni Manin (IPA /.ma'niŋ/, 14 May 1725 – 24 October 1802) was a Venetian politician, a Patrician of Venice and the last Doge of Venice.
The Theme of Macedonia (θέμα Μακεδονίας) was a military-civilian province (theme) of the Byzantine Empire established between the late 8th century and the early 9th century.
Magister militum (Latin for "Master of the Soldiers", plural magistri militum) was a top-level military command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of Constantine the Great.
Malamocco (Małamoco) was the first, and for a long time, the only settlement on the Lido of Venice barrier island.
Marcello Tegalliano (Latin: Marcellus Tegalianus; died 726) was, according to tradition, the second Doge of Venice (717–726).
Marco Polo (1254January 8–9, 1324) was an Italian merchant, explorer, and writer, born in the Republic of Venice.
There is also a Marino Sanuto the Elder. Marin Sanudo, italianised as Marino Sanuto or Sanuto the Younger (May 22, 1466 – 1536), was a Venetian historian and diarist.
The maritime republics (repubbliche marinare) of the Mediterranean Basin were thalassocratic city-states which flourished in Italy and Dalmatia during the Middle Ages.
Saint Mark the Evangelist (Mārcus; Μᾶρκος; Ⲙⲁⲣⲕⲟⲥ; מרקוס; مَرْقُس; ማርቆስ; ⵎⴰⵔⵇⵓⵙ) is the traditionally ascribed author of the Gospel of Mark.
The Massacre of the Latins (Massacro dei Latini; Σφαγή των Λατίνων) was a massacre of the Catholic (called "Latin") inhabitants of Constantinople, the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire, by an assorted mob (the supporters of the usurper Andronikos Komnenos) in April 1182.
Maximilian I (22 March 1459 – 12 January 1519) was King of the Romans (also known as King of the Germans) from 1486 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death, though he was never crowned by the Pope, as the journey to Rome was always too risky.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Mestre is the centre and the most populated urban area of the mainland of Venice, part of the territory of the Metropolitan City of Venice, in Veneto, northern Italy.
Methoni (Μεθώνη, Modone, Modon) is a village and a former municipality in Messenia, Peloponnese, Greece.
Michael VIII Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Μιχαὴλ Η΄ Παλαιολόγος, Mikhaēl VIII Palaiologos; 1223 – 11 December 1282) reigned as Byzantine Emperor 1259–1282.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Minor Council was one of the constitutional bodies of the Republic of Venice and, since 1175, had been was composed of six councilors to the Doge.
Mixed government (or a mixed constitution) is a form of government that combines elements of democracy (polity), aristocracy, and monarchy, making impossible their respective degenerations (conceived as anarchy (mob rule), oligarchy and tyranny).
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
Montenotte was a department of the French Consulate and of the First French Empire in present-day Italy.
The Morea (Μορέας or Μοριάς, Moreja, Morée, Morea, Mora) was the name of the Peloponnese peninsula in southern Greece during the Middle Ages and the early modern period.
The Morean War (Guerra di Morea) is the better-known name for the Sixth Ottoman–Venetian War.
Most Serene Republic (Serenissima Respublica in Latin) is a title attached to a number of European states through history.
Nafpaktos (Ναύπακτος) is a town and a former municipality in Aetolia-Acarnania, West Greece, Greece, situated on a bay on the north coast of the Gulf of Corinth, west of the mouth of the river Mornos.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Narentines were a South Slavic tribe that occupied an area of southern Dalmatia centered at the river Neretva (Narenta), active in the 9th and 10th centuries, noted as pirates on the Adriatic.
A naval ensign is an ensign used by naval ships of various countries to denote their nationality.
A fleet or naval fleet is a large formation of warships, which is controlled by one leader and the largest formation in any navy.
A navy or maritime force is the branch of a nation's armed forces principally designated for naval and amphibious warfare; namely, lake-borne, riverine, littoral, or ocean-borne combat operations and related functions.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (3 May 1469 – 21 June 1527) was an Italian diplomat, politician, historian, philosopher, humanist, and writer of the Renaissance period.
Nicosia (Λευκωσία; Lefkoşa) is the largest city on the island of Cyprus.
The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; Normands; Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.
Northern Italy (Italia settentrionale or just Nord) is a geographical region in the northern part of Italy.
Oderzo (Opitergium; Oderso) is a town and comune in the province of Treviso, Veneto, northern Italy.
Oligarchy is a form of power structure in which power rests with a small number of people.
Ordelafo Faliero de Doni (or Dodoni) (d. Zara, 1117) was the 34th Doge of Venice.
Orso Ipato (Latin: Ursus Hypatus; died 737) was the third traditional Doge of Venice (726–737) and the first historically known.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Ottoman invasion of Otranto occurred between 1480 and 1481 at the Italian city of Otranto in Apulia, southern Italy.
The Ottoman wars in Europe were a series of military conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and various European states dating from the Late Middle Ages up through the early 20th century.
The Second Ottoman–Venetian War was fought between the Ottoman Empire and the Republic of Venice for control of the lands that were contested between the two parties in the Aegean Sea, Ionian Sea and the Adriatic Sea.
The Fourth Ottoman–Venetian War, also known as the War of Cyprus (Guerra di Cipro) was fought between 1570 and 1573.
The Seventh Ottoman–Venetian War was fought between the Republic of Venice and the Ottoman Empire between 1714 and 1718.
The Pactum Warmundi was a treaty of alliance established in 1123 between the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Republic of Venice.
Padua (Padova; Pàdova) is a city and comune in Veneto, northern Italy.
Pantalone, spelled Pantaloon in English, is one of the most important principal characters found in commedia dell'arte.
Paolo Lucio Anafesto (Latin: Paulucius Anafestus) was, according to tradition, the first Doge of Venice, serving from 697 to 717.
Paolo Sarpi (14 August 1552 – 15 January 1623) was an Italian historian, prelate, scientist, canon lawyer, and statesman active on behalf of the Venetian Republic during the period of its successful defiance of the papal interdict (1605–1607) and its war (1615–1617) with Austria over the Uskok pirates.
The Papal States, officially the State of the Church (Stato della Chiesa,; Status Ecclesiasticus; also Dicio Pontificia), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the Pope, from the 8th century until 1870.
In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government.
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
The Partitio terrarum imperii Romaniae (Latin for "Partition of the lands of the empire of Romania) was a treaty signed amongst the crusaders after the sack of the Byzantine capital, Constantinople, by the Fourth Crusade in 1204.
The Patria del Friuli (Patria Fori Iulii, Patrie dal Friûl) was the territory under the temporal rule of the Patriarch of Aquileia and one of the ecclesiastical states of the Holy Roman Empire.
A patron saint, patroness saint, patron hallow or heavenly protector is a saint who in Roman Catholicism, Anglicanism, Eastern Orthodoxy, or particular branches of Islam, is regarded as the heavenly advocate of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, clan, family or person.
Paul was a senior Byzantine official under Leo III the Isaurian, serving as the strategos of Sicily, and then as the Exarch of Ravenna from 723 to 727.
The Pax Mongolica (Latin for "Mongol Peace"), less often known as Pax Tatarica ("Tatar Peace"), is a historiographical term modelled after the original phrase Pax Romana which describes the stabilising effects of the conquests of the Mongol Empire on the social, cultural and economic life of the inhabitants of the vast Eurasian territory that the Mongols conquered in the 13th and 14th centuries.
Pax Nicephori, the "Peace of Nicephorus", is a term used to refer to both a peace treaty of 803, tentatively concluded between the Frankish ruler Charlemagne and the Byzantine emperor Nikephoros I, and the outcome of negotiations that took place between the same parties, but were concluded by successor emperors, between 811 and 814.
Pepin the Short (Pippin der Kurze, Pépin le Bref, c. 714 – 24 September 768) was the King of the Franks from 751 until his death.
Piedmont (Piemonte,; Piedmontese, Occitan and Piemont; Piémont) is a region in northwest Italy, one of the 20 regions of the country.
Pietro Gradenigo (1251 – 13 August 1311) was the 49th Doge of Venice, reigning from 1289 to his death.
Pietro II Orseolo (961 − 1009) was the Doge of Venice from 991 to 1009.
Pietro Tradonico (Petrus Tradonicus; c. 800 - 13 September 864) was Doge of Venice from 836 to 864.
The Piraeus Lion (Leone del Pireo; Pireuslejonet); is one of four lion statues on display at the Venetian Arsenal, where it was displayed as a symbol of Venice's patron saint, Saint Mark.
The Po (Padus and Eridanus; Po; ancient Ligurian: Bodincus or Bodencus; Πάδος, Ἠριδανός) is a river that flows eastward across northern Italy.
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Pope Julius II (Papa Giulio II; Iulius II) (5 December 1443 – 21 February 1513), born Giuliano della Rovere, and nicknamed "The Fearsome Pope" and "The Warrior Pope".
Pope Paul V (Paulus V; Paolo V) (17 September 1550 – 28 January 1621), born Camillo Borghese, was Pope from 16 May 1605 to his death in 1621.
Poreč/Parenzo (Latin: Parens or Parentium; Italian: Parenzo; Ancient Greek: Πάρενθος Pàrenthos) is a town and municipality on the western coast of the Istrian peninsula, in Istria County, Croatia.
The promissione ducale (promissio domini ducis) was an oath of office sworn by the incoming Doge of Venice.
A regatta is a series of boat races.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
The Republic of Florence, also known as the Florentine Republic (Repubblica Fiorentina), was a medieval and early modern state that was centered on the Italian city of Florence in Tuscany.
The Republic of Genoa (Repúbrica de Zêna,; Res Publica Ianuensis; Repubblica di Genova) was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean.
The Republic of Pisa (Repubblica di Pisa) was a de facto independent state centered on the Tuscan city of Pisa during the late 10th and 11th centuries.
The Republic of San Marco (Repubblica di San Marco), an Italian revolutionary state, existed for 17 months in 1848–1849.
The Revolt of Saint Titus (Eπανάσταση του Αγίου Τίτου) was a fourteenth-century rebellion against the Republic of Venice in the Venetian colony of Crete.
Romagna (Romagnol: Rumâgna) is an Italian historical region that approximately corresponds to the south-eastern portion of present-day Emilia-Romagna.
Rovigo (Venetian: Rovigo, Emilian: Ruig) is a town and comune in the Veneto region of Northeast Italy, the capital of the eponymous province.
Ruins are the remains of human-made architecture: structures that were once intact have fallen, as time went by, into a state of partial or total disrepair, due to lack of maintenance or deliberate acts of destruction.
The siege and sack of Constantinople occurred in April 1204 and marked the culmination of the Fourth Crusade.
A salt road (also known as a salt route, salt way, saltway, or salt trading route) refers to any of the prehistoric and historical trade routes by which essential salt was transported to regions that lacked it.
The savii del Consiglio ("Wise men of the Council"), also known as the savii grandi ("Great Wise Men"), were senior magistrates of the Republic of Venice.
The savii di Terraferma ("Wise men of the Mainland") were senior magistrates of the Republic of Venice, charged with supervision of the Republic's possessions in the Italian mainland (Domini di Terraferma).
Sebastiano Venier (or Veniero) (c. 1496 – 3 March 1578) was Doge of Venice from 11 June 1577 to 3 March 1578.
A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or chamber of a bicameral legislature or parliament.
A sestiere (plural: sestieri) is a subdivision of certain Italian towns and cities.
The Siege of Constantinople in 1203 was a Crusader siege of the capital of the Byzantine Empire, in support of the deposed emperor Isaac II Angelos and his son Alexios IV Angelos.
The Siege of Jajce was a siege in 1463 and was part of the Ottoman–Hungarian Wars.
In 1480 the small Knights Hospitaller garrison of Rhodes withstood an attack of the Ottoman Empire.
The Siege of Shkodra of 1478–79 was a confrontation between the Ottoman Empire and the Albanians and Venetians at Shkodra (Scutari in Italian) and its Rozafa Castle during the First Ottoman-Venetian War (1463–79).
The Siege of Sidon was an event in the aftermath of the First Crusade.
The Siege of Zara or Siege of Zadar (Opsada Zadra, Zára ostroma; 10–24 November 1202) was the first major action of the Fourth Crusade and the first attack against a Catholic city by Catholic crusaders.
Sigismund of Luxembourg (15 February 1368 in Nuremberg – 9 December 1437 in Znaim, Moravia) was Prince-elector of Brandenburg from 1378 until 1388 and from 1411 until 1415, King of Hungary and Croatia from 1387, King of Germany from 1411, King of Bohemia from 1419, King of Italy from 1431, and Holy Roman Emperor for four years from 1433 until 1437, the last male member of the House of Luxembourg.
The Signoria of Venice (Serenissima Signoria) was the supreme body of government of the Republic of Venice.
Sigurd I Magnusson (c. 1090 – 26 March 1130), also known as Sigurd the Crusader (Old Norse: Sigurðr Jórsalafari, Norwegian: Sigurd Jorsalfar), was King of Norway from 1103 to 1130.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
Slavia Friulana, which means Friulian Slavia (or Beneška Slovenija in Slovenian), is a small mountainous region in northeastern Italy and it is so called because of its Slavic population which settled here in the 8th century AD.
Souda (Σούδα) is a town and former municipality in the Chania regional unit, Crete, Greece.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.
The island of Spinalonga (Σπιναλόγκα), officially known as Kalydon (Καλυδών), is located in the Gulf of Elounda in north-eastern Crete, in Lasithi, next to the town of Plaka.
Split (see other names) is the second-largest city of Croatia and the largest city of the region of Dalmatia. It lies on the eastern shore of the Adriatic Sea and is spread over a central peninsula and its surroundings. An intraregional transport hub and popular tourist destination, the city is linked to the Adriatic islands and the Apennine peninsula. Home to Diocletian's Palace, built for the Roman emperor in 305 CE, the city was founded as the Greek colony of Aspálathos (Aσπάλαθος) in the 3rd or 2nd century BC. It became a prominent settlement around 650 CE when it succeeded the ancient capital of the Roman province of Dalmatia, Salona. After the Sack of Salona by the Avars and Slavs, the fortified Palace of Diocletian was settled by the Roman refugees. Split became a Byzantine city, to later gradually drift into the sphere of the Republic of Venice and the Kingdom of Croatia, with the Byzantines retaining nominal suzerainty. For much of the High and Late Middle Ages, Split enjoyed autonomy as a free city, caught in the middle of a struggle between Venice and the King of Hungary for control over the Dalmatian cities. Venice eventually prevailed and during the early modern period Split remained a Venetian city, a heavily fortified outpost surrounded by Ottoman territory. Its hinterland was won from the Ottomans in the Morean War of 1699, and in 1797, as Venice fell to Napoleon, the Treaty of Campo Formio rendered the city to the Habsburg Monarchy. In 1805, the Peace of Pressburg added it to the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy and in 1806 it was included in the French Empire, becoming part of the Illyrian Provinces in 1809. After being occupied in 1813, it was eventually granted to the Austrian Empire following the Congress of Vienna, where the city remained a part of the Austrian Kingdom of Dalmatia until the fall of Austria-Hungary in 1918 and the formation of Yugoslavia. In World War II, the city was annexed by Italy, then liberated by the Partisans after the Italian capitulation in 1943. It was then re-occupied by Germany, which granted it to its puppet Independent State of Croatia. The city was liberated again by the Partisans in 1944, and was included in the post-war Socialist Yugoslavia, as part of its republic of Croatia. In 1991, Croatia seceded from Yugoslavia amid the Croatian War of Independence.
The Patriarchal Cathedral Basilica of Saint Mark (Basilica Cattedrale Patriarcale di San Marco), commonly known as Saint Mark's Basilica (Basilica di San Marco; Baxéłega de San Marco), is the cathedral church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Venice, northern Italy.
The Stato da Màr or Domini da Mar ("State/Domains of the Sea") was the name given to the Republic of Venice's maritime and overseas possessions, including Istria, Dalmatia, Albania, Negroponte, the Morea (the "Kingdom of the Morea"), the Aegean islands of the Duchy of the Archipelago, and the islands of Crete (the "Kingdom of Candia") and Cyprus.
Surveillance is the monitoring of behavior, activities, or other changing information for the purpose of influencing, managing, directing, or protecting people.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Teodato Ipato (also Diodato or Deusdedit; Theodatus Hypatus) was Doge of Venice from 742 to 755.
A thalassocracy (from Classical Greek θάλασσα (thalassa), meaning "sea", and κρατεῖν (kratein), meaning "power", giving Koine Greek θαλασσοκρατία (thalassokratia), "sea power") is a state with primarily maritime realms, an empire at sea (such as the Phoenician network of merchant cities) or a seaborne empire.
The Prince (Il Principe) is a 16th-century political treatise by the Italian diplomat and political theorist Niccolò Machiavelli.
The Social Contract, originally published as On the Social Contract; or, Principles of Political Rights (Du contrat social; ou Principes du droit politique) by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, is a 1762 book in which Rousseau theorized about the best way to establish a political community in the face of the problems of commercial society, which he had already identified in his Discourse on Inequality (1754).
Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church.
This article presents a detailed timeline of the history of the Republic of Venice from its legendary foundation to its collapse under the efforts of Napoleon.
Tinos (Τήνος) is a Greek island situated in the Aegean Sea.
The Treaty of Campo Formio (today Campoformido) was signed on 18 October 1797 (27 Vendémiaire VI) by Napoleon Bonaparte and Count Philipp von Cobenzl as representatives of the French Republic and the Austrian monarchy, respectively.
The Treaty of Leoben was a general armistice and preliminary peace agreement between the Holy Roman Empire and the First French Republic that ended the War of the First Coalition.
The Treaty of Passarowitz or Treaty of Požarevac was the peace treaty signed in Požarevac (Пожаревац, Passarowitz), a town in the Ottoman Empire (modern Serbia), on 21 July 1718 between the Ottoman Empire on one side and the Habsburg Monarchy of Austria and the Republic of Venice on the other.
Treviso (Venetian: Trevixo) is a city and comune in the Veneto region of northern Italy.
The Triarchy of Negroponte was a crusader state established on the island of Euboea (Negroponte) after the partition of the Byzantine Empire following the Fourth Crusade.
The Triveneto, or Tre Venezie, locally, is a historical region of Italy.
Trogir (Tragurium; Traù; Ancient Greek: Τραγύριον, Tragyrion or Τραγούριον, Tragourion Trogkir) is a historic town and harbour on the Adriatic coast in Split-Dalmatia County, Croatia, with a population of 10,818 (2011) and a total municipality population of 13,260 (2011).
Ugo Foscolo (6 February 1778 in Zakynthos10 September 1827 in Turnham Green), born Niccolò Foscolo, was an Italian writer, freemason, revolutionary and poet.
Venetian Albania (Albania Veneta) was the name for the possessions of the Republic of Venice on the Southeastern Adriatic coast (southernmost Dalmatia) that existed from 1420 to 1797.
The Venetian Arsenal (Arsenale di Venezia) is a complex of former shipyards and armories clustered together in the city of Venice in northern Italy.
The Venetian Crusade of 1122–24 was an expedition to the Holy Land launched by the Republic of Venice that succeeded in capturing Tyre.
Venetian Dalmatia (Dalmatia Veneta) refers to parts of Dalmatia under the rule of the Republic of Venice, mainly from the 16th to the 18th centuries.
The Venetian Lagoon (Laguna di Venezia; Łaguna de Venesia) is an enclosed bay of the Adriatic Sea, in northern Italy, in which the city of Venice is situated.
Venetian or Venetan (Venetian: vèneto, vènet or łéngua vèneta) is a Romance language spoken as a native language by almost four million people in the northeast of Italy,Ethnologue.
The lira (plural lire) was the distinct currency of Venice until 1807.
The Venetian navy (Armada) was the navy of the Venetian Republic, and played an important role in the history of Venice, the Republic and the Mediterranean world.
The Venetian Province (Provincia Veneta, Provinz Venedig) was the name of the territory of former Republic of Venice ceded by the French First Republic to the Habsburg Monarchy under the terms of the 1797 Treaty of Campo Formio that ended the War of the First Coalition.
The Ionian Islands were an overseas possession of the Republic of Venice from the mid-14th century until the late 18th century.
The Venetian Senate (Senato), formally the Consiglio dei Pregadi ("Council of the Invited", Consilium Rogatorum), was the main deliberative and legislative body of the Republic of Venice.
The Venetian–Genoese Wars were a series of struggles between the Republic of Genoa and the Republic of Venice, at times allied with other powers, for dominance in the Mediterranean Sea between 1256 and 1381.
Veneto (or,; Vèneto) is one of the 20 regions of Italy.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
Verona (Venetian: Verona or Veròna) is a city on the Adige river in Veneto, Italy, with approximately 257,000 inhabitants and one of the seven provincial capitals of the region.
Vicenza is a city in northeastern Italy.
Vittorio Veneto is a city and comune situated in the Province of Treviso, in the region of Veneto, Italy, in the northeast of the Italian peninsula, between the Piave and the Livenza rivers.
The War of the League of Cambrai, sometimes known as the War of the Holy League and by several other names, was a major conflict in the Italian Wars.
The Wars in Lombardy were a series of conflicts between the Republic of Venice and the Duchy of Milan and their respective allies, fought in four campaigns in a struggle for hegemony in Northern Italy that ravaged the economy of Lombardy and weakened the power of Venice.
In historiography, the Western Roman Empire refers to the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any one time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court, coequal with that administering the eastern half, then referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire.
Zadar (see other names) is the oldest continuously inhabited Croatian city.
'La Serenissima', Duchy of Venetia, La Serenissima, Most Serene Republic of Venice, Republic Venice, Republic of Venesia, Republic of Venezia, Republic of st. mark, Republic of venice, Repulic of Venice, Savio (office), Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia, The Most Serene Republic of Venice, The Republic of Venice, The Serenissima, Veneta Republic, Venetian Republic, Venetian golden era, Venezia Republic, Venice Republic.