246 relations: Age of Enlightenment, Alexander Hamilton, Algernon Sidney, American Revolution, Ancient Greece, Andreas Volanus, Andrew Holness, Annals (Tacitus), Apartheid, Aristocracy, Aristotle, Athens, Augustus, Australia, Łukasz Górnicki, Barbados, Bastille, Batavian Republic, Battle of Leipzig, Belgium, Benjamin Franklin, Bernard Bailyn, British Empire, Capitalism, Cartel des Gauches, Carthage, Cass Sunstein, Charles de Gaulle, Charles I of England, Charles II of England, Chartism, Christian republic, Cicero, Citizenship, City-state, Civic virtue, Civil war, Classical liberalism, Classical republicanism, Color blindness (race), Common good, Commonwealth men, Commonwealth of England, Commonwealth of Nations, Communitarianism, Consent of the governed, Constitutional monarchy, Constitutional Reform of 1848, Constitutional republic, Coronation of Napoleon I, ..., De re publica, Democracy, Democratic republic, Democratization, Direct democracy, Discourses on Livy, Dithmarschen, Douglas Moggach, Dutch Republic, Economic liberalism, Edmund Burke, Eighty Years' War, Enlightened absolutism, Falloux Laws, Federalist No. 10, Feudalism, First French Empire, First Party System, First Spanish Republic, Florence, Founding Fathers of the United States, France, French First Republic, French Revolution, French Third Republic, French Wars of Religion, Freundel Stuart, Friedrich Engels, Gaullist Party, General will, Genoa, Glorious Revolution, Gordon S. Wood, Hanseatic League, Head of government, Head of state, Henri, Count of Chambord, Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke, House of Lords, House of Orange-Nassau, Huguenots, Identity politics, Ideology, Imperial cult, Individualism, Irish Rebellion of 1798, Irish republicanism, Isaac Kramnick, Islamic republic, J. G. A. Pocock, James Harrington (author), James Madison, Jean Bodin, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, John Adams, John Dryden, John Locke, John Milton, John Milton's politics, John Trenchard (writer), John Wilkes, Joyce Appleby, Juan Carlos I of Spain, Jules Ferry, Jules Ferry laws, Julio-Claudian dynasty, Julius Caesar, Karl Marx, Kemalism, King of Rome, Kingdom of Holland, LacusCurtius, Left-wing politics, Leopold von Ranke, Liberalism, Liberty, Livy, Louis Bonaparte, Lucius Junius Brutus, Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus, Lycurgus of Sparta, Malcolm Turnbull, Mark Antony, Medieval commune, Michael J. Sandel, Middle Ages, Mixed government, Monarch, Monarchism, Monarchy, Monarchy of Sweden, Montesquieu, Napoleon, New Zealand, Niccolò Machiavelli, North America, Numa Pompilius, Oliver Cromwell, Orléanist, Pamphlet, Paradise Lost, Parallel Lives, Patrick Henry, People's Republic, Perseus Project, Philip Pettit, Pieter de la Court, Plato, Plutarch, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Politeia, Polybius, Popular Front (France), Popular sovereignty, Positive law, President, Prime minister, Prime Minister of Jamaica, Project Gutenberg, Publius Valerius Publicola, Quentin Skinner, Radical Party (France), Radical Party (Italy), Radical Party of the Left, Reflections on the Revolution in France, Renaissance, Representative democracy, Republic, Republic (Plato), Republic (political organisation), Republic of Florence, Republican Left of Catalonia, Republican Party, Republicanism in Australia, Republicanism in Barbados, Republicanism in Canada, Republicanism in Morocco, Republicanism in New Zealand, Republicanism in Spain, Republicanism in Sweden, Republicanism in the Netherlands, Republicanism in the United Kingdom, Republicanism in the United States, Republicanism in Turkey, Rerum novarum, Res publica, Restoration (England), Rights of Man, Robert Roswell Palmer, Roman Republic, Rzeczpospolita, Samuel Adams, Second Spanish Republic, Separation of powers, Sister republic, Social contract, Socialism, Socialist Party (France), Solon, South Africa, Sovereign Principality of the United Netherlands, Spain, Spanish Empire, Spanish language, Sparta, Stadtholder, Stanisław Konarski, State (polity), Suffrage, Swedish Republican Association, Tacitean studies, Tacitus, The Machiavellian Moment, The New York Times, The Prince, Thomas Gordon (writer), Thomas Jefferson, Thomas More, Thomas Paine, Thomas Russell (rebel), Thomas Smith (diplomat), Tiberius, Transnational Radical Party, Union for a Popular Movement, United Kingdom, United Left (Spain), Universal suffrage, Upper house, Venice, Venizelism, Virtue, Voltaire, William Everdell, William I of the Netherlands, Wolfe Tone, World War II. Expand index (196 more) » « Shrink index
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757July 12, 1804) was a statesman and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
Algernon Sidney or Sydney (14 or 15 January 1623 – 7 December 1683) was an English politician and member of the middle part of the Long Parliament.
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Andreas Volanus (Andrius Volanas, Andrzej Wolan, 1530 in Poznań – 1610 in Vilnius) was a secretary to the Grand Duke of Lithuania and an eminent Calvinist theologian.
Andrew Michael Holness, ON, MP (born 22 July 1972) is a Jamaican politician who has been the Prime Minister of Jamaica since 3 March 2016, following the 25 February 2016 general election.
The Annals (Annales) by Roman historian and senator Tacitus is a history of the Roman Empire from the reign of Tiberius to that of Nero, the years AD 14–68.
Apartheid started in 1948 in theUnion of South Africa |year_start.
Aristocracy (Greek ἀριστοκρατία aristokratía, from ἄριστος aristos "excellent", and κράτος kratos "power") is a form of government that places strength in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Łukasz Ogończyk Górnicki (1527 in Oświęcim – 22 July 1603 in Lipniki by Tykocin), humanist of the Polish Renaissance, poet, political commentator, secretary and chancellor of Sigismund August of Poland.
Barbados is an island country in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies, in the Caribbean region of North America.
The Bastille was a fortress in Paris, known formally as the Bastille Saint-Antoine.
The Batavian Republic (Bataafse Republiek; République Batave) was the successor of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands.
The Battle of Leipzig or Battle of the Nations (Битва народов, Bitva narodov; Völkerschlacht bei Leipzig; Bataille des Nations, Slaget vid Leipzig) was fought from 16 to 19 October 1813, at Leipzig, Saxony.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Benjamin Franklin (April 17, 1790) was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
Bernard Bailyn (born September 10, 1922) is an American historian, author, and academic specializing in U.S. Colonial and Revolutionary-era History.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.
The Lefts Cartel (Cartel des gauches) was the name of the governmental alliance between the Radical-Socialist Party and the socialist French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO) after World War I (1914–18), which lasted until the end of the Popular Front (1936–38).
Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia.
Cass Robert Sunstein FBA (born September 21, 1954) is an American legal scholar, particularly in the fields of constitutional law, administrative law, environmental law, and law and behavioral economics, who was the Administrator of the White House Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs in the Obama administration from 2009 to 2012.
Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France.
Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.
Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was king of England, Scotland and Ireland.
Chartism was a working-class movement for political reform in Britain that existed from 1838 to 1857.
A Christian republic is a governmental system that comprises both Christianity and republicanism.
Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.
Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or belonging to a nation.
A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories.
Civic virtue is the cultivation of habits important for the success of the community.
A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same state or country.
Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom.
Classical republicanism, also known as civic republicanism or civic humanism, is a form of republicanism developed in the Renaissance inspired by the governmental forms and writings of classical antiquity, especially such classical writers as Aristotle, Polybius, and Cicero.
Color blindness, in sociology, is a concept describing the ideal of a society where racial classifications do not limit a person's opportunities, as well as the kind of deliberately race-neutral governmental policies said to promote the goal of racial equality.
In philosophy, economics, and political science, the common good (also commonwealth, common weal or general welfare) refers to either what is shared and beneficial for all or most members of a given community, or alternatively, what is achieved by citizenship, collective action, and active participation in the realm of politics and public service.
The Commonwealth men, Commonwealth's men, or Commonwealth Party were highly outspoken British Protestant religious, political, and economic reformers during the early 18th century.
The Commonwealth was the period from 1649 to 1660 when England and Wales, later along with Ireland and Scotland, was ruled as a republic following the end of the Second English Civil War and the trial and execution of Charles I. The republic's existence was declared through "An Act declaring England to be a Commonwealth", adopted by the Rump Parliament on 19 May 1649.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
Communitarianism is a philosophy that emphasizes the connection between the individual and the community.
In political philosophy, the phrase consent of the governed refers to the idea that a government's legitimacy and moral right to use state power is only justified and lawful when consented to by the people or society over which that political power is exercised.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
The Constitutional Reform of 1848 (Dutch: Grondwetsherziening van 1848) laid the basis for the present system of parliamentary democracy in the Netherlands.
A Constitutional republic is a republic that operates under a system of separation of powers, where both the chief executive and members of the legislature are elected by the citizens and must govern within an existing written constitution.
The coronation of Napoleon as Emperor of the French took place on Sunday December 2, 1804 (11 Frimaire, Year XIII according to the French Republican Calendar) at Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris.
De re publica (On the Commonwealth; see below) is a dialogue on Roman politics by Cicero, written in six books between 54 and 51 BC.
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
A democratic republic is a form of government operating on principles adopted from a republic and a democracy.
Democratization (or democratisation) is the transition to a more democratic political regime.
Direct democracy or pure democracy is a form of democracy in which people decide on policy initiatives directly.
The Discourses on Livy (Discorsi sopra la prima deca di Tito Livio, literally "Discourses on the First Decade of Titus Livy") is a work of political history and philosophy written in the early 16th century (c. 1517) by the Italian writer and political theorist Niccolò Machiavelli, best known as the author of The Prince.
Dithmarschen (Low Saxon pronunciation:, archaic English: Ditmarsh, Ditmarsken, Medieval Latin: Tedmarsgo) is a district in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.
Douglas Moggach (MA and PhD Princeton) is a professor at the University of Ottawa and life member of Clare Hall, Cambridge.
The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from the Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
Economic liberalism is an economic system organized on individual lines, which means the greatest possible number of economic decisions are made by individuals or households rather than by collective institutions or organizations.
Edmund Burke (12 January 17309 July 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman born in Dublin, as well as an author, orator, political theorist and philosopher, who after moving to London in 1750 served as a member of parliament (MP) between 1766 and 1794 in the House of Commons with the Whig Party.
The Eighty Years' War (Tachtigjarige Oorlog; Guerra de los Ochenta Años) or Dutch War of Independence (1568–1648) was a revolt of the Seventeen Provinces of what are today the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg against the political and religious hegemony of Philip II of Spain, the sovereign of the Habsburg Netherlands.
Enlightened absolutism refers to the conduct and policies of European absolute monarchs during the 18th and 19th centuries who were influenced by the ideas of the Enlightenment.
The Falloux Laws were voted in during the French Second Republic and promulgated on 15 March 1850 and in 1851, following the presidential election of Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte in December 1848 and the May 1849 legislative elections that gave a majority to the conservative Parti de l'Ordre.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
The First French Empire (Empire Français) was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century.
The First Party System is a model of American politics used in history and political science to periodize the political party system that existed in the United States between roughly 1792 and 1824.
The Republic of Spain (officially in Spanish República de España), commonly known as the First Spanish Republic to distinguish it from the Spanish Republic of 1931–39, was the short-lived political regime that existed in Spain between the parliamentary proclamation on 11 February 1873 and 29 December 1874 when General Arsenio Martínez-Campos's pronunciamento marked the beginning of the Bourbon Restoration in Spain.
Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.
The Founding Fathers of the United States led the American Revolution against the Kingdom of Great Britain.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
In the history of France, the First Republic (French: Première République), officially the French Republic (République française), was founded on 22 September 1792 during the French Revolution.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.
The French Wars of Religion refers to a prolonged period of war and popular unrest between Roman Catholics and Huguenots (Reformed/Calvinist Protestants) in the Kingdom of France between 1562 and 1598.
Freundel Jerome Stuart, PC, QC, MP (born 27 April 1951) is a Barbadian politician who is the former Prime Minister of Barbados and Leader of the Democratic Labour Party (DLP) from 23 October 2010 to 21 February 2013; and from 21 February 2013 to incumbent.
Friedrich Engels (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.;, sometimes anglicised Frederick Engels; 28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895) was a German philosopher, social scientist, journalist and businessman.
In France, the Gaullist Party is usually used to refer to the largest party professing to be Gaullist.
In political philosophy, the general will (volonté générale) is the will of the people as a whole.
Genoa (Genova,; Zêna; English, historically, and Genua) is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy.
The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange, who was James's nephew and son-in-law.
Gordon Stewart Wood (born November 27, 1933) is Alva O. Way University Professor and Professor of History Emeritus at Brown University, and the recipient of the 1993 Pulitzer Prize for History for The Radicalism of the American Revolution (1992).
The Hanseatic League (Middle Low German: Hanse, Düdesche Hanse, Hansa; Standard German: Deutsche Hanse; Latin: Hansa Teutonica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe.
A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
Henri, Count of Chambord (Henri Charles Ferdinand Marie Dieudonné d'Artois, duc de Bordeaux, comte de Chambord); 29 September 1820 – 24 August 1883) was disputedly King of France from 2 to 9 August 1830 as Henry V, although he was never officially proclaimed as such. Afterwards, he was the Legitimist pretender to the throne of France from 1844 to 1883. He was nearly received as King in 1871 and 1873. Henri was the posthumous son of Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Berry, younger son of Charles X of France, by his wife, Princess Carolina of Naples and Sicily, daughter of King Francis I of the Two Sicilies. As the grandson of the King Charles X of France, Henri was a Petit-Fils de France. He also was the last legitimate descendant in the male line of Louis XV of France (His grandfather Charles X was a grandson of Louis XV).
Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke (16 September 1678 – 12 December 1751) was an English politician, government official and political philosopher.
The House of Lords of the United Kingdom, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The House of Orange-Nassau (Dutch: Huis van Oranje-Nassau), a branch of the European House of Nassau, has played a central role in the politics and government of the Netherlands and Europe especially since William the Silent organized the Dutch revolt against Spanish rule, which after the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) led to an independent Dutch state.
Huguenots (Les huguenots) are an ethnoreligious group of French Protestants who follow the Reformed tradition.
Identity politics refers to political positions based on the interests and perspectives of social groups with which people identify.
An Ideology is a collection of normative beliefs and values that an individual or group holds for other than purely epistemic reasons.
An imperial cult is a form of state religion in which an emperor or a dynasty of emperors (or rulers of another title) are worshipped as demigods or deities.
Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the moral worth of the individual.
The Irish Rebellion of 1798 (Éirí Amach 1798), also known as the United Irishmen Rebellion (Éirí Amach na nÉireannach Aontaithe), was an uprising against British rule in Ireland lasting from May to September 1798.
Irish republicanism (poblachtánachas Éireannach) is an ideology based on the belief that all of Ireland should be an independent republic.
Isaac Kramnick (born 1938) is an American historian, social scientist and the Richard J. Schwartz Professor of Government at Cornell University.
An Islamic republic is the name given to several states that are officially ruled by Islamic laws, including the Islamic Republics of Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan, and Mauritania.
John Greville Agard Pocock ONZM (born 7 March 1924) is a historian of political thought from New Zealand.
James Harrington (or Harington) (3 January 1611 – 11 September 1677) was an English political theorist of classical republicanism, best known for his controversial work, The Commonwealth of Oceana (1656).
James Madison Jr. (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the fourth President of the United States from 1809 to 1817.
Jean Bodin (1530–1596) was a French jurist and political philosopher, member of the Parlement of Paris and professor of law in Toulouse.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer.
John Adams (October 30 [O.S. October 19] 1735 – July 4, 1826) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the first Vice President (1789–1797) and second President of the United States (1797–1801).
John Dryden (–) was an English poet, literary critic, translator, and playwright who was made England's first Poet Laureate in 1668.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
John Milton (9 December 16088 November 1674) was an English poet, polemicist, man of letters, and civil servant for the Commonwealth of England under its Council of State and later under Oliver Cromwell.
Politics were an important part of John Milton's life.
John Trenchard (1662 – 17 December 1723) was an English writer and Commonwealthman.
John Wilkes (17 October 1725 – 26 December 1797) was an English radical, journalist, and politician.
Joyce Oldham Appleby (April 9, 1929 – December 23, 2016) was an American historian.
Juan Carlos I (Juan Carlos Alfonso Víctor María de Borbón y Borbón-Dos Sicilias, born 5 January 1938) reigned as King of Spain from 1975 until his abdication in 2014.
Jules François Camille Ferry (5 April 183217 March 1893) was a French statesman and republican.
The Jules Ferry Laws are a set of French Laws which established free education (1881), then mandatory and laic (secular) education (1882).
The Julio-Claudian dynasty was the first Roman imperial dynasty, consisting of the first five emperors—Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero—or the family to which they belonged.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
Kemalism (Kemalizm), also known as Atatürkism (Atatürkçülük, Atatürkçü düşünce), or the '''Six Arrows''' (Altı ok), is the founding ideology of the Republic of Turkey.
The King of Rome (Rex Romae) was the chief magistrate of the Roman Kingdom.
The Kingdom of Holland (Koninkrijk Holland, Royaume de Hollande) was set up by Napoléon Bonaparte as a puppet kingdom for his third brother, Louis Bonaparte, in order to better control the Netherlands.
LacusCurtius is a website specializing in ancient Rome, currently hosted on a server at the University of Chicago.
Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy.
Leopold von Ranke (21 December 1795 – 23 May 1886) was a German historian and a founder of modern source-based history.
Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality.
Liberty, in politics, consists of the social, political, and economic freedoms to which all community members are entitled.
Titus Livius Patavinus (64 or 59 BCAD 12 or 17) – often rendered as Titus Livy, or simply Livy, in English language sources – was a Roman historian.
Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (born Luigi Buonaparte; 2 September 1778 – 25 July 1846) was a younger brother of Napoleon I, Emperor of the French.
Lucius Junius Brutus was the founder of the Roman Republic and traditionally one of the first consuls in 509 BC.
Lucius Tarquinius Ar.
Lycurgus (Λυκοῦργος, Lykoûrgos,; 820 BC) was the quasi-legendary lawgiver of Sparta who established the military-oriented reformation of Spartan society in accordance with the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi.
Malcolm Bligh Turnbull (born 24 October 1954) is an Australian politician serving as the 29th and current Prime Minister of Australia and Leader of the Liberal Party since 2015.
Marcus Antonius (Latin:; 14 January 1 August 30 BC), commonly known in English as Mark Antony or Marc Antony, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from an oligarchy into the autocratic Roman Empire.
Medieval communes in the European Middle Ages had sworn allegiances of mutual defense (both physical defense and of traditional freedoms) among the citizens of a town or city.
Michael J. Sandel (born March 5, 1953) is an American political philosopher.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Mixed government (or a mixed constitution) is a form of government that combines elements of democracy (polity), aristocracy, and monarchy, making impossible their respective degenerations (conceived as anarchy (mob rule), oligarchy and tyranny).
A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy.
Monarchism is the advocacy of a monarch or monarchical rule.
A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty.
The Monarchy of Sweden concerns the monarchical head of state of Sweden,See the Instrument of Government, Chapter 1, Article 5.
Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu (18 January 1689 – 10 February 1755), generally referred to as simply Montesquieu, was a French judge, man of letters, and political philosopher.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (3 May 1469 – 21 June 1527) was an Italian diplomat, politician, historian, philosopher, humanist, and writer of the Renaissance period.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
Numa Pompilius (753–673 BC; reigned 715–673 BC) was the legendary second king of Rome, succeeding Romulus.
Oliver Cromwell (25 April 15993 September 1658) was an English military and political leader.
The Orléanists were a French right-wing (except for 1814–1830) faction which arose out of the French Revolution as opposed to Legitimists.
A pamphlet is an unbound booklet (that is, without a hard cover or binding).
Paradise Lost is an epic poem in blank verse by the 17th-century English poet John Milton (1608–1674).
Plutarch's Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans, commonly called Parallel Lives or Plutarch's Lives, is a series of biographies of famous men, arranged in tandem to illuminate their common moral virtues or failings, probably written at the beginning of the second century AD.
Patrick Henry (May 29, 1736June 6, 1799) was an American attorney, planter, and orator well known for his declaration to the Second Virginia Convention (1775): "Give me liberty, or give me death!" A Founding Father, he served as the first and sixth post-colonial Governor of Virginia, from 1776 to 1779 and from 1784 to 1786.
"People's Republic" is a title used by some sovereign states with republican constitutions.
The Perseus Project (version 4 also known as "Perseus Hopper") is a digital library project of Tufts University, which is located in Medford and Somerville, near Boston, in the U.S. state of Massachusetts.
Philip Noel Pettit (born 1945) is an Irish philosopher and political theorist.
Pieter de la Court (1618 – May 28, 1685) was a Dutch economist and businessman, he is the origin of the successful De la Court family.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
Politeia (πολιτεία) is an ancient Greek word used in Greek political thought, especially that of Plato and Aristotle.
Polybius (Πολύβιος, Polýbios; – BC) was a Greek historian of the Hellenistic period noted for his work which covered the period of 264–146 BC in detail.
The Popular Front (Front populaire) was an alliance of left-wing movements, including the French Communist Party (PCF), the French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO) and the Radical and Socialist Party, during the interwar period.
Popular sovereignty, or sovereignty of the peoples' rule, is the principle that the authority of a state and its government is created and sustained by the consent of its people, through their elected representatives (Rule by the People), who are the source of all political power.
Positive laws (ius positum) are human-made laws that oblige or specify an action.
The president is a common title for the head of state in most republics.
A prime minister is the head of a cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system.
The Prime Minister of Jamaica is Jamaica's head of government, currently Andrew Holness.
Project Gutenberg (PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize and archive cultural works, to "encourage the creation and distribution of eBooks".
Publius Valerius Poplicola or Publicola (d. 503 BC) was one of four Roman aristocrats who led the overthrow of the monarchy, and became a Roman consul, the colleague of Lucius Junius Brutus in 509 BC, traditionally considered the first year of the Roman Republic.
Quentin Robert Duthie Skinner (born 26 November 1940, Oldham, Lancashire) is an intellectual historian.
The Radical Party (Parti radical, also Parti radical valoisien, abbreviated to Rad.) was a liberal and social-liberal political party in France.
The Radical Party (Partito Radicale, PR) was a political party in Italy.
The Radical Party of the Left (Parti radical de gauche, PRG) was a social-liberal political party in France.
Reflections on the Revolution in France is a political pamphlet written by the Irish statesman Edmund Burke and published in November 1790.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
The Republic (Πολιτεία, Politeia; Latin: Res Publica) is a Socratic dialogue, written by Plato around 380 BC, concerning justice (δικαιοσύνη), the order and character of the just, city-state, and the just man.
Republic is a British republican pressure group advocating the replacement of the United Kingdom's monarchy with a republic.
The Republic of Florence, also known as the Florentine Republic (Repubblica Fiorentina), was a medieval and early modern state that was centered on the Italian city of Florence in Tuscany.
The Republican Left of Catalonia (Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya, ERC) is a Catalan nationalist and democratic socialist political party in the Spanish autonomous community of Catalonia.
Republican Party may refer to.
Republicanism in Australia is a movement to change Australia's system of government from a constitutional monarchy to a republic.
Republicanism in Barbados is a political proposal for Barbados to transition from a parliamentary constitutional monarchy under a hereditary monarch (currently Elizabeth II) to a republic.
Canadian republicanism is a movement among Canadians for the replacement of the Canadian system of federal constitutional monarchy with a republican form of government.
In the history of Morocco, there have been a few attempts to establish republican forms of government.
Republicanism in New Zealand is a political position that holds that New Zealand's system of government should be changed from a constitutional monarchy to a republic.
There has existed in the Kingdom of Spain a persistent trend of republican thought, especially throughout the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries, that has manifested itself in diverse political parties and movements over the entire course of the history of Spain.
Republicanism in Sweden (Republikanism) is the collective term for the movement in Sweden that seeks to establish a republic and abolish the Swedish constitutional monarchy.
Republicanism in the Netherlands is a movement that strives to abolish the Dutch monarchy, and replacing it with a republic.
Republicanism in the United Kingdom is the political movement that seeks to replace the United Kingdom's monarchy with a republic.
Modern republicanism is a guiding political philosophy of the United States that has been a major part of American civic thought since its founding.
An important influence of Republicanism in Turkey formed a new republic in 1923 after the fall of the Ottoman Empire.
Rerum novarum (from its incipit, with the direct translation of the Latin meaning "of the new things"), or Rights and Duties of Capital and Labor, is an encyclical issued by Pope Leo XIII on 15 May 1891.
Res publica is a Latin phrase, loosely meaning 'public affair'.
The Restoration of the English monarchy took place in the Stuart period.
Rights of Man (1791), a book by Thomas Paine, including 31 articles, posits that popular political revolution is permissible when a government does not safeguard the natural rights of its people.
Robert Roswell Palmer (January 11, 1909 – June 11, 2002), commonly known as R. R.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
Rzeczpospolita Polska is a traditional and official name of the Polish State – Rzeczpospolita Polska (Res Publica Poloniae, Republic of Poland).
Samuel Adams (– October 2, 1803) was an American statesman, political philosopher, and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
The Spanish Republic (República Española), commonly known as the Second Spanish Republic (Segunda República Española), was the democratic government that existed in Spain from 1931 to 1939.
The separation of powers is a model for the governance of a state.
A sister republic (république sœur) was a republic established by the French army that was catalyzed by local revolutionaries and assisted by the First French Republic during the French Revolutionary Wars.
In both moral and political philosophy, the social contract is a theory or model that originated during the Age of Enlightenment.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
The Socialist Party (Parti socialiste, PS) is a social-democratic political party in France, and the largest party of the French centre-left.
Solon (Σόλων Sólōn; BC) was an Athenian statesman, lawmaker and poet.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
The Sovereign Principality of the United Netherlands (Souvereine Vorstendom der Verëenigde Nederlanden) was a short-lived sovereign principality and the precursor of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, in which it was reunited with the Southern Netherlands in 1815.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Sparta (Doric Greek: Σπάρτα, Spártā; Attic Greek: Σπάρτη, Spártē) was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece.
In the Low Countries, stadtholder (stadhouder) was an office of steward, designated a medieval official and then a national leader.
Stanisław Konarski (actual name: Hieronim Konarski; 30 September 1700 – 3 August 1773) was a Polish pedagogue, educational reformer, political writer, poet, dramatist, Piarist priest and precursor of the Enlightenment in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.
Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote).
Swedish Republican Association (in Swedish: Republikanska föreningen - RepF) is a politically and religiously independent association that promotes the abolition of the Monarchy of Sweden and the establishment of a republican form of government.
Tacitean studies, centred on the work of Tacitus (&ndash) the Ancient Roman historian, constitute an area of scholarship extending beyond the field of history.
Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (–) was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire.
The Machiavellian Moment is a work of intellectual history by J. G. A. Pocock (Princeton University Press, 1975).
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Prince (Il Principe) is a 16th-century political treatise by the Italian diplomat and political theorist Niccolò Machiavelli.
Thomas Gordon (c. 1691–1750) was a Scottish writer and Commonwealthman.
Thomas Jefferson (April 13, [O.S. April 2] 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and later served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809.
Sir Thomas More (7 February 14786 July 1535), venerated in the Catholic Church as Saint Thomas More, was an English lawyer, social philosopher, author, statesman, and noted Renaissance humanist.
Thomas Paine (born Thomas Pain; – In the contemporary record as noted by Conway, Paine's birth date is given as January 29, 1736–37. Common practice was to use a dash or a slash to separate the old-style year from the new-style year. In the old calendar, the new year began on March 25, not January 1. Paine's birth date, therefore, would have been before New Year, 1737. In the new style, his birth date advances by eleven days and his year increases by one to February 9, 1737. The O.S. link gives more detail if needed. – June 8, 1809) was an English-born American political activist, philosopher, political theorist and revolutionary.
Thomas Paliser Russell (21 November 1767 – 21 October 1803) was a co-founder and leader of the United Irishmen.
Sir Thomas Smith (23 December 1513 – 12 August 1577) was an English scholar, parliamentarian and diplomat.
Tiberius (Tiberius Caesar Divi Augusti filius Augustus; 16 November 42 BC – 16 March 37 AD) was Roman emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD, succeeding the first emperor, Augustus.
The Transnational Radical Party (TRP), whose official name is Nonviolent Radical Party, Transnational and Transparty (NRPTT), is a political association of citizens, members of parliament and members of government of various national and political backgrounds who intend to adopt nonviolent means to create an effective body of international law with respect for individuals, human, civil and political rights, as well as the affirmation of democracy and political freedom in the world.
The Union for a Popular Movement (Union pour un mouvement populaire; UMP) was a centre-right political party in France that was one of the two major contemporary political parties in France along with the centre-left Socialist Party (PS).
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
United Left (Izquierda Unida, IU) is a political coalition that was organized in 1986, bringing together several left-wing and far-left political organizations.
The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all adult citizens, regardless of property ownership, income, race, or ethnicity, subject only to minor exceptions.
An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature (or one of three chambers of a tricameral legislature), the other chamber being the lower house.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
Venizelism (Βενιζελισμός) was one of the major political movements in Greece from the 1900s until the mid-1970s.
Virtue (virtus, ἀρετή "arete") is moral excellence.
François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on Christianity as a whole, especially the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state.
William Romeyn Everdell is an American teacher and author.
William I (Willem Frederik, Prince of Orange-Nassau; 24 August 1772 – 12 December 1843) was a Prince of Orange and the first King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg.
Theobald Wolfe Tone, posthumously known as Wolfe Tone (20 June 1763 – 19 November 1798), was a leading Irish revolutionary figure and one of the founding members of the United Irishmen, and is regarded as the father of Irish republicanism and leader of the 1798 Irish Rebellion.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Neo-republicanism, Neorepublicanism, Radical Republicans (France), Republicanism (historical), Republicanism and religion, Republicanism in France, Republicanisme, Republicanisms, Republicanist, Roman liberty, Roman republicanism, Républicanisme.