220 relations: Aden, Administration (government), Afghanistan, Alo (Wallis and Futuna), Ambassador, Angola, Anjouan, Annam (French protectorate), Ashanti Empire, Baghdad Eyalet, Bali, Bangladesh, Bauchi Emirate, Belgian Congo, Benin, Benin City, Bida Emirate, Bloemfontein, Boer, Bombay Presidency, British Cameroons, British Malaya, British Raj, British Western Pacific Territories, Brunei, Bukoba, Bulawayo, Burundi, Business administration, Cabinda Province, Cambodia, Caprivi Strip, Central Australia, Cephalonia, Chief commissioner, Colony of Natal, Comoros, Congress of Vienna, Cook Islands, Cox's Bazar, Cox–Forbes theory, Crown colony, Cyrenaica, Delhi, Diplomatic mission, Diplomatic rank, Dominion, Dutch East Indies, East India Company, Edo State, ..., Emirate of Transjordan, Envoy (title), Espionage, Fengu people, Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies, Fezzan, Florence, Frank Swettenham, French Cameroons, French Upper Volta, Gabon, Gerard Lake, 1st Viscount Lake, German East Africa, German South West Africa, Ghana, Grand Duchy of Tuscany, Grande Comore, Guinea, Gwalior, High commissioner, Hiram Cox, Hisar (city), Hyderabad State, Ibadan, Ilorin, India, Indirect rule, Iraq, Itō Hirobumi, Ithaca, Ivory Coast, James Busby, Jean-Paul Harroy, Jelebu District, Jhalawar, Johor, Jordan, Joseon, Kaffraria, Kamerun, Kedah, Kelantan, Kenya, Kingdom of Naples, Kingdom of Sanwi, Klang War, Korea, Kumasi, KwaZulu, Kythira, Lake Victoria, Laos, Laye, Lefkada, Lepel Griffin, Libya, Lieutenant governor, List of chess historians, List of Japanese Residents-General of Korea, List of regencies and cities of Indonesia, List of sultans on the Comoros, Lord high commissioner, Lord William Bentinck, Lucknow, Luhonono, Madagascar, Madras Presidency, Maharaja, Malacca, Maldives, Malik, Mamluk dynasty (Iraq), Mandatory Palestine, Manipur, Maratha Empire, Mayotte, Māori people, Medan, Mewar, Mohéli, Mora, Cameroon, Morocco, Mughal Empire, Muri, Nigeria, Myanmar, Mysore, Nagpur, Negeri Sembilan, Nepal, New Caledonia, New South Wales, New Zealand, Ngaoundéré, Nigeria, North Borneo, Northern Ndebele people, Northern Nigeria Protectorate, Northern Territory, Nzema people, Oman, Orange Free State, Orange River Sovereignty, Ottoman Empire, Oudh State, Ouidah, Pahang, Palembang, Pangkor Treaty of 1874, Paramount chief, Paramount ruler, Paxi, Penang, Penang Island, Peninsular Malaysia, Perak, Perlis, Political officer (British Empire), Political Resident, Presidencies and provinces of British India, Princely state, Protectorate, Rarotonga, Residency (medicine), Resident Commissioner, Ruanda-Urundi, Rwanda, Salute, Saopha, Sarawak, Selangor, Seremban, Sigave, Sikkim, Singapore, South African Republic, Southern Nigeria Protectorate, Sri Lanka, Straits Settlements, Sultan, Sultanate of Deli, Sumatra, Terengganu, Ternate, Thomas McDonnell Sr., Tipu Sultan, Tonkin, Travancore, Tributary state, Tripolitania, Tu'i, Tunisia, United Kingdom, United States of the Ionian Islands, Vadodara, Vakil, Vietnam, Vizier, Wali, Wallis (island), Wallis and Futuna, Western Australia, William Hood Treacher, Wituland, Yang di-Pertuan Agong, Yang di-Pertuan Besar, Yang di-Pertuan Negara, Yemen, Yoruba people, Zakynthos, Zanzibar. Expand index (170 more) » « Shrink index
Aden (عدن Yemeni) is a port city in Yemen, located by the eastern approach to the Red Sea (the Gulf of Aden), some east of Bab-el-Mandeb.
The term administration, as used in the context of government, differs according to jurisdiction.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Alo (also known unofficially as Tu`a or the Kingdom of Futuna) is one of three official chiefdoms of the French territory of Wallis and Futuna (the other two being Uvea and Sigave) in Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean.
An ambassador is an official envoy, especially a high-ranking diplomat who represents a state and is usually accredited to another sovereign state or to an international organization as the resident representative of their own government or sovereign or appointed for a special and often temporary diplomatic assignment.
Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola; Kikongo, Kimbundu and Repubilika ya Ngola), is a country in Southern Africa.
Anjouan (also known as Ndzuwani or Nzwani, and historically as Johanna or Hinzuan) is an autonomous island in the Indian Ocean that forms part of the Union of the Comoros.
Annam (An Nam or Trung Kỳ, alternate spelling: Anam) was a French protectorate encompassing the central region of Vietnam.
The Ashanti Empire (also spelled Asante) was an Akan empire and kingdom in what is now modern-day Ghana from 1670 to 1957.
Baghdad Eyalet (ایالت بغداد; Eyālet-i Baġdād) was an Iraqi eyalet of the Ottoman Empire centered on Baghdad.
Bali (Balinese:, Indonesian: Pulau Bali, Provinsi Bali) is an island and province of Indonesia with the biggest Hindu population.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
The Bauchi Emirate was founded by Fula in the early 19th century in what is now Bauchi State, Nigeria, with its capital in Bauchi.
The Belgian Congo (Congo Belge,; Belgisch-Congo) was a Belgian colony in Central Africa between 1908 and 1960 in what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).
Benin (Bénin), officially the Republic of Benin (République du Bénin) and formerly Dahomey, is a country in West Africa.
Benin City is the capital of Edo State in southern Nigeria.
The Bida Emirate is a traditional state in Nigeria, a successor to the old Nupe Kingdom, with its headquarters in Bida, Niger State.
Bloemfontein (Afrikaans and Dutch "fountain of flowers" or "blooming fountain"; also known as Bloem) is the capital city of the province of Free State of South Africa; and, as the judicial capital of the nation, one of South Africa's three national capitals (the other two being Cape Town, the legislative capital, and Pretoria, the administrative capital) and is the seventh largest city in South Africa.
Boer is the Dutch and Afrikaans noun for "farmer".
The Bombay Presidency, also known as Bombay and Sind from 1843 to 1936 and the Bombay Province, was an administrative subdivision (presidency) of British India.
British Cameroons was a British Mandate territory in British West Africa.
The term British Malaya loosely describes a set of states on the Malay Peninsula and the island of Singapore that were brought under British control between the 18th and the 20th centuries.
The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
The British Western Pacific Territories was the name of a colonial entity, created in 1877, for the administration, under a single representative of the British Crown, styled High Commissioner for the Western Pacific, of a series of Pacific islands in and around Oceania.
Brunei, officially the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace (Negara Brunei Darussalam, Jawi), is a sovereign state located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia.
Bukoba is a city situated in the north west of The United Republic Of Tanzania on the south western shores of Lake Victoria.
Bulawayo is the second-largest city in Zimbabwe after the capital Harare, with, as of the ever disputed 2012 census, a population of 653,337 while Bulawayo Municipal records indicate a population of 1,200,750.
Burundi, officially the Republic of Burundi (Republika y'Uburundi,; République du Burundi, or), is a landlocked country in the African Great Lakes region of East Africa, bordered by Rwanda to the north, Tanzania to the east and south, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west.
Business administration is management of a business.
Cabinda (also spelled Kabinda, formerly called Portuguese Congo, known locally as Tchiowa) is an exclave and province of Angola, a status that has been disputed by several political organizations in the territory.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Caprivi, also called the Caprivi Strip (in German: Caprivizipfel), Okavango Strip, and formerly known as Itenge (this part of the country was anciently known as Lyiyeyi (Diyeyi) then Caprivi and currently Zambezi, Itenge was a political dream that did not get realized), is the northeastern panhandle of Namibia, located north of Botswana, southeast of Angola, and southwest of Zambia.
Central Australia, also known as the Alice Springs Region, is one of the five regions in the Northern Territory of Australia.
Cephalonia or Kefalonia (Κεφαλονιά or Κεφαλλονιά), formerly also known as Kefallinia or Kephallenia (Κεφαλληνία), is the largest of the Ionian Islands in western Greece and the 6th larger island in Greece after Crete, Evoia, Lesvos, Rhodes and Chios.
A chief commissioner is a commissioner of a high rank, usually in chief of several commissioners or similarly styled officers.
The Colony of Natal was a British colony in south-eastern Africa.
The Comoros (جزر القمر), officially the Union of the Comoros (Comorian: Udzima wa Komori, Union des Comores, الاتحاد القمري), is a sovereign archipelago island nation in the Indian Ocean located at the northern end of the Mozambique Channel off the eastern coast of Africa between northeastern Mozambique and northwestern Madagascar.
The Congress of Vienna (Wiener Kongress) also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814.
The Cook Islands (Cook Islands Māori: Kūki 'Āirani) is a self-governing island country in the South Pacific Ocean in free association with New Zealand.
Cox's Bazar (কক্সবাজার) is a city, fishing port, tourism centre and district headquarters in southeastern Bangladesh.
The Cox–Forbes theory is a long-debunked theory on the evolution of chess put forward by Captain Hiram Cox (1760–1799) and extended by Professor Duncan Forbes (1798–1868).
Crown colony, dependent territory and royal colony are terms used to describe the administration of United Kingdom overseas territories that are controlled by the British Government.
Cyrenaica (Cyrenaica (Provincia), Κυρηναία (ἐπαρχία) Kyrēnaíā (eparkhíā), after the city of Cyrene; برقة) is the eastern coastal region of Libya.
Delhi (Dilli), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is a city and a union territory of India.
A diplomatic mission or foreign mission is a group of people from one state or an organisation present in another state to represent the sending state/organisation officially in the receiving state.
Diplomatic rank is a system of professional and social rank used in the world of diplomacy and international relations.
Dominions were semi-independent polities under the British Crown, constituting the British Empire, beginning with Canadian Confederation in 1867.
The Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East-Indies; Nederlands(ch)-Indië; Hindia Belanda) was a Dutch colony consisting of what is now Indonesia.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
Edo is a state in Nigeria.
The Emirate of Transjordan (إمارة شرق الأردن lit. "Emirate of east Jordan"), also hyphenated as Trans-Jordan and previously known as Transjordania or Trans-Jordania, was a British protectorate established in April 1921.
In diplomacy, an envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary, in short an envoy, is, under the terms of the Congress of Vienna of 1815, a diplomat of the second class, ranking between an Ambassador and a Minister Resident.
Espionage or spying, is the act of obtaining secret or confidential information without the permission of the holder of the information.
The Fengu (plural amaFengu) are a Bantu people, originally closely related to the Zulu people, but now often considered to have assimilated to the Xhosa people whose language they now speak.
Ferdinand I (12 January 1751 – 4 January 1825), was the King of the Two Sicilies from 1816, after his restoration following victory in the Napoleonic Wars.
Fezzan (ⴼⴻⵣⵣⴰⵏ, Fezzan; فزان, Fizzān; Fizan; Phasania) or Phazania is the southwestern region of modern Libya.
Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.
Sir Frank Athelstane Swettenham (28 March 1850 – 11 June 1946) was a British colonial administrator who became the first Resident general of the Federated Malay States, which brought the Malay states of Selangor, Perak, Negeri Sembilan and Pahang together under the administration of a Resident-General based in Kuala Lumpur.
French Cameroons (Cameroun), or Cameroun, was a League of Nations Mandate territory in Central Africa.
Upper Volta (Haute-Volta) was a colony of French West Africa established on 1 March 1919, from territories that had been part of the colonies of Upper Senegal and Niger and the Côte d'Ivoire.
Gabon, officially the Gabonese Republic (République gabonaise), is a sovereign state on the west coast of Central Africa.
General Gerard Lake, 1st Viscount Lake (27 July 1744 – 20 February 1808) was a British general.
German East Africa (Deutsch-Ostafrika) (GEA) was a German colony in the African Great Lakes region, which included present-day Burundi, Rwanda, and the mainland part of Tanzania.
German South West Africa (Deutsch-Südwestafrika) was a colony of the German Empire from 1884 until 1919.
Ghana, officially the Republic of Ghana, is a unitary presidential constitutional democracy, located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa.
The Grand Duchy of Tuscany (Granducato di Toscana, Magnus Ducatus Etruriae) was a central Italian monarchy that existed, with interruptions, from 1569 to 1859, replacing the Duchy of Florence.
Grande Comore is an island in the Indian Ocean off the coast of Africa.
Guinea, officially the Republic of Guinea (République de Guinée), is a country on the western coast of Africa.
Gwalior is a major and the northern-most city in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh and one of the Counter-magnet cities.
High commissioner is the title of various high-ranking, special executive positions held by a commission of appointment.
Captain Hiram Cox (1760–1799) was a British diplomat, serving in Bengal and Burma in the 18th century.
Hisar is the administrative headquarters of Hisar district of Hisar division in the state of Haryana in northwestern India.
Hyderabad State was an Indian princely state located in the south-central region of India with its capital at the city of Hyderabad.
Ibadan is the capital and most populous city of Oyo State, Nigeria.
Ilorin is the state capital of Kwara in Western Nigeria.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indirect rule is a system of government used by the British and French to control parts of their colonial empires, particularly in Africa and Asia, through pre-existing local power structures.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Prince was a Japanese statesman and genrō.
Ithaca, Ithaki or Ithaka (Greek: Ιθάκη, Ithakē) is a Greek island located in the Ionian Sea, off the northeast coast of Kefalonia and to the west of continental Greece.
Ivory Coast, also known as Côte d'Ivoire and officially as the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a sovereign state located in West Africa.
James Busby (7 February 1802 – 15 July 1871) is widely regarded as the "father" of the Australian wine industry, as he brought the first collection of vine stock from Spain and France to Australia.
Jean-Paul Harroy (4 May 1909 – 8 July 1995) was a Belgian colonial civil servant who served as the last Governor and only Resident-General of Ruanda-Urundi.
The Jelebu District (Chinese: 日叻务; colloquial Jolobu) is the second largest district in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia after Jempol, with a population over 40,000.
Jhalawar is a city in southeastern Rajasthan.
Johor or Johore is a Malaysian state, located in the southern portion of Peninsular Malaysia.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
The Joseon dynasty (also transcribed as Chosŏn or Chosun, 조선; officially the Kingdom of Great Joseon, 대조선국) was a Korean dynastic kingdom that lasted for approximately five centuries.
Kaffraria was the descriptive name given to the southeast part of what is today the Eastern Cape of South Africa.
German Cameroon (Kamerun) was an African colony of the German Empire from 1884 to 1916 in the region of today's Republic of Cameroon.
Kedah (Jawi: قدح), also known by its honorific Darul Aman or "Abode of Peace", is a state of Malaysia, located in the northwestern part of Peninsular Malaysia.
Kelantan (Jawi: کلنتن;, Kelantanese: Kelate) is a state of Malaysia.
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
The Kingdom of Naples (Regnum Neapolitanum; Reino de Nápoles; Regno di Napoli) comprised that part of the Italian Peninsula south of the Papal States between 1282 and 1816.
Kingdom of Sanwi is a traditional kingdom located in the south-east corner of the Republic of Ivory Coast in West Africa.
The Klang War or Selangor Civil War was a series of conflicts that lasted from 1867 to 1874 in the Malay state of Selangor.
Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.
Kumasi (historically spelled Comassie or Coomassie and usually spelled Kumase in Twi) is a city in Ashanti Region, and is among the largest metropolitan areas in Ghana.
KwaZulu was a bantustan in South Africa, intended by the apartheid government as a semi-independent homeland for the Zulu people.
Kythira (Κύθηρα, also transliterated as Cythera, Kythera and Kithira) is an island in Greece lying opposite the south-eastern tip of the Peloponnese peninsula.
Lake Victoria (Nam Lolwe in Luo; Nalubaale in Luganda; Nyanza in Kinyarwanda and some Bantu languages) is one of the African Great Lakes.
Laos (ລາວ,, Lāo; Laos), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao: ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ, Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao; République démocratique populaire lao), commonly referred to by its colloquial name of Muang Lao (Lao: ເມືອງລາວ, Muang Lao), is a landlocked country in the heart of the Indochinese peninsula of Mainland Southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southwest and Thailand to the west and southwest.
Laye is a commune in the Hautes-Alpes department in southeastern France.
Lefkada (Λευκάδα, Lefkáda), also known as Lefkas or Leukas (Ancient Greek and Katharevousa: Λευκάς, Leukás, modern pronunciation Lefkás) and Leucadia, is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea on the west coast of Greece, connected to the mainland by a long causeway and floating bridge.
Sir Lepel Henry Griffin, KCSI (20 July 1838 – 9 March 1908) was a British administrator and diplomat during the British Raj period in India.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
A lieutenant governor, lieutenant-governor, or vice governor is a high officer of state, whose precise role and rank vary by jurisdiction.
This is a list of chess historians.
This is a list of Japanese Residents-General of Korea when it was a protectorate of Japanese rule.
This is the list of regencies and cities of Indonesia.
Several Sultanates on the Comoros, an archipelago in the Indian Ocean with an ethnically complex mix, were founded after the introduction of Islam into the area in the 15th century.
Lord High Commissioner is the style of High Commissioners, i.e. direct representatives of the monarch, in three cases in the Kingdom of Scotland and the United Kingdom, two of which are no longer extant.
Lieutenant-General Lord William Henry Cavendish-Bentinck (14 September 1774 – 17 June 1839), known as Lord William Bentinck, was a British soldier and statesman.
Lucknow is the capital and largest city of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh and is also the administrative headquarters of the eponymous District and Division.
Luhonono, until 2013 Schuckmannsburg, is a village in the Caprivi Strip in northeastern Namibia with a population of about 800.
Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.
The Madras Presidency, or the Presidency of Fort St.
Mahārāja (महाराज, also spelled Maharajah, Moharaja) is a Sanskrit title for a "great ruler", "great king" or "high king".
Malacca (Melaka; மலாக்கா) dubbed "The Historic State", is a state in Malaysia located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, next to the Strait of Malacca.
The Maldives (or; ދިވެހިރާއްޖެ Dhivehi Raa'jey), officially the Republic of Maldives, is a South Asian sovereign state, located in the Indian Ocean, situated in the Arabian Sea.
Malik, Melik, Malka, Malek or Melekh (𐤌𐤋𐤊; ملك; מֶלֶךְ) is the Semitic term translating to "king", recorded in East Semitic and later Northwest Semitic (e.g. Aramaic, Canaanite, Hebrew) and Arabic.
The Mamluk dynasty of Iraq (Arabic: مماليك العراق) was a dynasty which ruled over Iraq in the 18th and early 19th centuries.
Mandatory Palestine (فلسطين; פָּלֶשְׂתִּינָה (א"י), where "EY" indicates "Eretz Yisrael", Land of Israel) was a geopolitical entity under British administration, carved out of Ottoman Syria after World War I. British civil administration in Palestine operated from 1920 until 1948.
Manipur is a state in Northeast India, with the city of Imphal as its capital.
The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was an Indian power that dominated much of the Indian subcontinent in the 17th and 18th century.
Mayotte (Mayotte,; Shimaore: Maore,; Mahori) is an insular department and region of France officially named the Department of Mayotte (French: Département de Mayotte).
The Māori are the indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand.
Medan; is the capital of North Sumatra province in Indonesia.
Mewar or Mewāḍ is a region of south-central Rajasthan state in western India.
Mohéli, also known as Mwali, is an autonomous island that forms part of the Union of the Comoros.
Mora is a town in northern Cameroon.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.
Muri is a town and traditional emirate in the northwestern Taraba State of eastern Nigeria, approximately between 9° and 11° 40′ E. and 7° 10′ and 9° 40′ N. The Benue River is nearby, and the portion on the southern bank of the river is watered by streams flowing from the Cameroon region to the Benue.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
Mysore, officially Mysuru, is the third most populous city in the state of Karnataka, India.
Nagpur is the winter capital, a sprawling metropolis, and the third largest city of the Indian state of Maharashtra after Mumbai and Pune.
Negeri Sembilan is a state in Malaysia which lies on the western coast of Peninsular Malaysia.
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
New Caledonia (Nouvelle-Calédonie)Previously known officially as the "Territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies" (Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et dépendances), then simply as the "Territory of New Caledonia" (French: Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie), the official French name is now only Nouvelle-Calédonie (Organic Law of 19 March 1999, article 222 IV — see). The French courts often continue to use the appellation Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie.
New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state on the east coast of:Australia.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Ngaoundéré, or N'Gaoundéré, is the capital of the Adamawa Region of Cameroon.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
North Borneo (usually known as British North Borneo, also known as the State of North Borneo) was a British protectorate located in the northern part of the island of Borneo.
The Northern Ndebele people (amaNdebele) are a Bantu nation and ethnic group in Southern Africa, who share a common Ndebele culture and Ndebele language.
Northern Nigeria was a British protectorate which lasted from 1900 until 1914 and covered the northern part of what is now Nigeria.
The Northern Territory (abbreviated as NT) is a federal Australian territory in the central and central northern regions of Australia.
The Nzema are an Akan people numbering about 328,700, of whom 262,000 live in southwestern Ghana and 66,700 live in the southeast of Côte d'Ivoire.
Oman (عمان), officially the Sultanate of Oman (سلطنة عُمان), is an Arab country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.
The Orange Free State (Oranje-Vrijstaat, Oranje-Vrystaat, abbreviated as OVS) was an independent Boer sovereign republic in southern Africa during the second half of the 19th century, which later became a British colony and a province of the Union of South Africa.
The Orange River Sovereignty (1848–1854) was a short-lived political entity between the Orange and Vaal rivers in southern Africa.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Oudh State (also Kingdom of Oudh, or Awadh State) was a princely state in the Awadh region of North India until 1858.
Ouidah or Whydah (Xwéda; Ouidah, Juida, and Juda by the French; Ajudá by the Portuguese; and Fida by the Dutch), formally the Kingdom of Whydah, is a city on the coast of the Republic of Benin.
Pahang (Jawi: ڤهڠ), officially Pahang Darul Makmur with the Arabic honorific Darul Makmur (Jawi: دار المعمور, "The Abode of Tranquility") is a sultanate and a federal state of Malaysia.
Palembang (Indonesian pronunciation: palɛmˈbaŋ) is the capital city of South Sumatra province of Indonesia.
The Pangkor Treaty of 1874 was a treaty signed between the British and the Sultan of Perak.
A paramount chief is the English-language designation for the highest-level political leader in a regional or local polity or country administered politically with a chief-based system.
The term paramount ruler, or sometimes paramount king, is a generic description, though occasionally also used as an actual title, for a number of rulers' position in relative terms, as the summit of a feudalistic pyramid of rulers of lesser polities (such as vassal princes) in a given historical and geographical context, often of different ranks, which all recognize the single paramount ruler as their senior, though not necessarily with effectively commanding authority (as in a true empire), but often rather a notion like the Western suzerainty.
Paxi or Paxoi (Greek: Παξοί, pronounced in English and in Greek) is the smallest island group within the Ionian Islands (the Heptanese).
Penang is a Malaysian state located on the northwest coast of Peninsular Malaysia, by the Malacca Strait.
Penang Island is the main constituent island of the Malaysian state of Penang.
Peninsular Malaysia also known as Malaya or West Malaysia, is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula and surrounding islands.
Perlis, also known by its honorific title Perlis Indera Kayangan (Jawi),The state's constitution simply uses the name "Perlis" and does not include the honorific suffix, "Indera Kayangan".
In the British Empire, a Political Officer or Political Agent was an officer of the imperial civil administration, as opposed to the military administration, usually operating outside imperial territory.
In the British Empire a Political Resident or Political Agent was an official diplomatic position involving both consular duties and liaison function.
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.
A princely state, also called native state (legally, under the British) or Indian state (for those states on the subcontinent), was a vassal state under a local or regional ruler in a subsidiary alliance with the British Raj.
A protectorate, in its inception adopted by modern international law, is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state.
Rarotonga is the most populous island of the Cook Islands, with a population of 10,572 (census 2011), out of the country's total resident population of 14,974.
Residency is a stage of graduate medical training.
Resident Commissioner is the title of several, quite different types of Commissioner in overseas possession or protectorate of the British Crown or of the United States.
Ruanda-Urundi (in Dutch also Roeanda-Oeroendi) was a territory in the African Great Lakes region, once part of German East Africa, which was ruled by Belgium between 1916 and 1962.
Rwanda (U Rwanda), officially the Republic of Rwanda (Repubulika y'u Rwanda; République du Rwanda), is a sovereign state in Central and East Africa and one of the smallest countries on the African mainland.
A salute is a gesture or other action used to display respect.
Saopha, Sao Pha, Chaopha, Jaopha, sawbwa, or saw-bwa (စော်ဘွား,; Shan: ၸဝ်ႈၾႃႉ, literally meaning "lord of the heavens" or "lord of the sky") was a royal title used by the hereditary rulers of the semi-independent Shan States (Mong, မိူင်း) in what today is Eastern Myanmar (Burma).
Sarawak is a state of Malaysia.
Selangor, also known by its Arabic honorific Darul Ehsan, or "Abode of Sincerity", is one of the 13 states of Malaysia.
Seremban (Jawi: سرمبن; j; Tamil: சரம்பன்; Minangkabau: Soghomban or Somban) is a town and the capital of Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia, located within Seremban District.
Sigavé (also Singave or Sigave) is one of the three official chiefdoms of the French territory of Wallis and Futuna (the other two being Uvea and Alo) in Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean.
Sikkim is a state in Northeast India.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
The South African Republic (Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek, ZAR), often referred to as the Transvaal and sometimes as the Republic of Transvaal, was an independent and internationally recognised country in Southern Africa from 1852 to 1902.
Southern Nigeria was a British protectorate in the coastal areas of modern-day Nigeria formed in 1900 from the union of the Niger Coast Protectorate with territories chartered by the Royal Niger Company below Lokoja on the Niger River.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
The Straits Settlements (Negeri-negeri Selat, نݢري٢ سلت) were a group of British territories located in Southeast Asia.
Sultan (سلطان) is a position with several historical meanings.
Sultanate of Deli (Indonesian: Kesultanan Deli Darul Maimoon; Jawi) is a 1,820 km² Malay state in east Sumatra founded in 1630.
Sumatra is an Indonesian island in Southeast Asia that is part of the Sunda Islands.
Terengganu (Jawi:ترڠڬانو, Terengganu Malay: Tranung, Ganu, Teganu, Ganung, Teganung), formerly spelled Trengganu or Tringganu, is a sultanate and constitutive state of federal Malaysia.
Ternate is an island in the Maluku Islands (Moluccas) of eastern Indonesia.
Thomas McDonnell Sr. (1788 in County Antrim, Ireland – 13 September 1864 in Onehunga, Auckland) was a timber trader and Additional British Resident in New Zealand.
Tipu Sultan (born Sultan Fateh Ali Sahab Tipu, 20 November 1750 – 4 May 1799), also known as the Tipu Sahib, was a ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore.
Tonkin (historically Đàng Ngoài), also spelled Tongkin, Tonquin or Tongking, is in the Red River Delta Region of northern Vietnam.
The Kingdom of Travancore was an Indian kingdom from 1729 until 1949.
A tributary state is a term for a pre-modern state in a particular type of subordinate relationship to a more powerful state which involved the sending of a regular token of submission, or tribute, to the superior power.
Tripolitania or Tripolitana (طرابلس, Berber: Ṭrables, from Vulgar Latin *Trapoletanius, from Latin Regio Tripolitana, from Greek Τριπολιτάνια) is a historic region and former province of Libya.
Tu'i, also spelled more simplistically Tui, is a Polynesian traditional title for tribal chiefs or princes.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of the Ionian Islands (Inoménon Krátos ton Ioníon Níson, literally "United State of the Ionian Islands"; Stati Uniti delle Isole Ionie) was a state and amical protectorate of the United Kingdom between 1815 and 1864.
Vadodara (formerly known as Baroda) is the third-largest.
Vakil (وكيل, also Romanized as Vakīl) is a village in Chaldoran-e Shomali Rural District, in the Central District of Chaldoran County, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
A vizier (rarely; وزير wazīr; وازیر vazīr; vezir; Chinese: 宰相 zǎixiàng; উজির ujira; Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu): वज़ीर or وزیر vazeer; Punjabi: ਵਜ਼ੀਰ or وزير vazīra, sometimes spelt vazir, vizir, vasir, wazir, vesir or vezir) is a high-ranking political advisor or minister.
Walī (ولي, plural أولياء) is an Arabic word whose literal meanings include "custodian", "protector", "helper", and "friend".
Wallis (Wallisian: Uvea) is a Polynesian island in the Pacific Ocean belonging to the French overseas collectivity (collectivité d'outre-mer, or COM) of Wallis and Futuna.
Wallis and Futuna, officially the Territory of the Wallis and Futuna Islands (Wallis-et-Futuna or Territoire des îles Wallis-et-Futuna, Fakauvea and Fakafutuna: Uvea mo Futuna), is a French island collectivity in the South Pacific between Tuvalu to the northwest, Fiji to the southwest, Tonga to the southeast, Samoa to the east, and Tokelau to the northeast.
Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia.
Sir William Hood Treacher (1 December 1849 – 3 May 1919) was a British colonial administrator in Borneo and the Straits Settlements.
Wituland (also Witu, Vitu, Witu Protectorate or Swahililand) was a territory of approximately in East Africa centered on the town of Witu just inland from Indian Ocean port of Lamu north of the mouth of the Tana River in what is now Kenya.
The Yang di-Pertuan Agong (literally "He Who Was Made Lord", Jawi: يڠ دڤرتوان اݢوڠ), also known as the King, is the monarch and head of state of Malaysia.
In Malay, Yang di-Pertuan Besar, literally "He Who Is Made Great" or "Great Ruler", is a royal title.
Yang di-Pertuan Negara, translated from Malay as "(he) who is Lord", is a title for the Head of State, and has been used as an official title at various times in Singapore and Brunei.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
The Yoruba people (name spelled also: Ioruba or Joruba;, lit. 'Yoruba lineage'; also known as Àwon omo Yorùbá, lit. 'Children of Yoruba', or simply as the Yoruba) are an ethnic group of southwestern and north-central Nigeria, as well as southern and central Benin.
Zakynthos (Ζάκυνθος, Zákynthos, Zacìnto) or Zante (Τζάντε, Tzánte, Zante; from Venetian), is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea.
Zanzibar is a semi-autonomous region of Tanzania.
British Resident, British Residents, British resident, British residents, Chief Political Resident, General-Resident, Government Resident, Karesidenan, Minister Resident, Minister-Resident, Resident General, Resident Minister, Resident general, Resident minister, Resident-General, Resident-general, Résident, Special Resident.