104 relations: Adama Dieng, Advocacy, African Union, American Enterprise Institute, Anne-Marie Slaughter, Anti-balaka, Balkans, Ban Ki-moon, Bangui, Bernard Kouchner, Bill Clinton, Brookings Institution, Central African Republic, Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, Constitutive Act of the African Union, Crimes against humanity, Customary international law, Economic Community of Central African States, Economic sanctions, Edward Luck, Ethnic cleansing, Ezulwini Consensus, Fatou Bensouda, Foreign Affairs, François Bozizé, François Hollande, Francis Deng, Gareth Evans (politician), Geneva, Genocide, Genocide Convention, George J. Mitchell, Graduate Center, CUNY, Hans Köchler, Hardeep Singh Puri, High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change, Human rights, Human Rights Watch, Human security, Humanitarian intervention, Internally displaced person, International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty, International community, International Criminal Court, International law, International relations, Ivory Coast, Jan Eliasson, Jennifer Welsh, Juan E. Méndez, ..., Kenya, Kofi Annan, Kriegler Commission, Li Baodong, Libya, Louise Arbour, Mass Atrocity crimes, Mediation, Michael Ignatieff, Michel Djotodia, MISCA, Mohamed Sahnoun, Muammar Gaddafi, Mwai Kibaki, NATO, New York City, Newt Gingrich, Non-governmental organization, Orange Democratic Movement, Oxford University Press, Party of National Unity (Kenya), Peace of Westphalia, Peacekeeping, Permanent members of the United Nations Security Council, Raila Odinga, Regime change, Responsibility to protect, Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, Rwanda, Rwandan genocide, Séléka, Secretary-General of the United Nations, Social norm, Sovereignty, Srebrenica massacre, Sudan, Syria, Syrian Civil War, The New York Times, The New York Times International Edition, United Nations, United Nations General Assembly, United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, United Nations Operation in Côte d'Ivoire, United Nations Secretariat, United Nations Security Council, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Vanguard (Nigeria), Vitaly Churkin, Waki Commission, War crime, 2005 World Summit, 2007–08 Kenyan crisis. Expand index (54 more) » « Shrink index
Adama Dieng (born May 22, 1950, Senegal) is the UN Secretary-General's Special Adviser for the Prevention of Genocide and former board member of the International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance and a former registrar of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda.
Advocacy is an activity by an individual or group which aims to influence decisions within political, economic, and social systems and institutions.
The African Union (AU) is a continental union consisting of all 55 countries on the African continent, extending slightly into Asia via the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt.
The American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, known simply as the American Enterprise Institute (AEI), is a conservative think tank based in Washington, D.C. which researches government, politics, economics and social welfare.
Anne-Marie Slaughter (born September 27, 1958) is an American international lawyer, foreign policy analyst, political scientist and public commentator.
The Anti-balaka are militia and terrorist groups based in the Central African Republic said to be composed primarily of Christians.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
Ban Ki-moon (born 13 June 1944) is a South Korean politician and diplomat who was the eighth Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 2007 to December 2016.
Bangui (or Bangî in Sango, formerly written Bangi in English) is the capital and largest city of the Central African Republic.
Bernard Kouchner (born 1 November 1939) is a French politician and physician.
William Jefferson Clinton (born August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
The Brookings Institution is a century-old American research group on Think Tank Row in Washington, D.C. It conducts research and education in the social sciences, primarily in economics, metropolitan policy, governance, foreign policy, and global economy and development.
The Central African Republic (CAR; Sango: Ködörösêse tî Bêafrîka; République centrafricaine, or Centrafrique) is a landlocked country in Central Africa.
Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter sets out the UN Security Council's powers to maintain peace.
The Constitutive Act of the African Union sets out the codified framework under which the African Union is to conduct itself.
Crimes against humanity are certain acts that are deliberately committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack or individual attack directed against any civilian or an identifiable part of a civilian population.
Customary international law is an aspect of international law involving the principle of custom.
The Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS; Communauté Économique des États de l'Afrique Centrale, CEEAC; Comunidad Económica de los Estados de África Central, CEEAC; Comunidade Económica dos Estados da África Central, CEEAC) is an Economic Community of the African Union for promotion of regional economic co-operation in Central Africa.
Economic sanctions are commercial and financial penalties applied by one or more countries against a targeted country, group, or individual.
Edward C. Luck (born 17 October 1948) is a professor, author, and expert in international relations.
Ethnic cleansing is the systematic forced removal of ethnic or racial groups from a given territory by a more powerful ethnic group, often with the intent of making it ethnically homogeneous.
The Ezulwini Consensus is a position on international relations and reform of the United Nations, agreed by the African Union.
Fatou Bom Bensouda (born 31 January 1961) is a Gambian lawyer and international criminal law prosecutor.
Foreign Affairs is an American magazine of international relations and U.S. foreign policy published by the Council on Foreign Relations, a nonprofit, nonpartisan, membership organization and think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs.
François Bozizé Yangouvonda (born 14 October 1946) is a Central African politician who was the President of the Central African Republic from 2003 to 2013.
François Gérard Georges Nicolas Hollande (born 12 August 1954) is a French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 2012 to 2017.
Francis Mading Deng is a politician and diplomat from South Sudan who served as the newly independent country's first ambassador to the United Nations from 2012 to July 2016.
Gareth John Evans AC, QC (born 5 September 1944), is an Australian international policymaker and former politician.
Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.
The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 9 December 1948 as General Assembly Resolution 260.
George John Mitchell Jr. (born August 20, 1933) is an American lawyer, businessman, author, and politician.
The Graduate Center of the City University of New York is a public American research institution and post-graduate university based in New York City.
Hans Köchler (born 18 October 1948) is a retired professor of philosophy at the University of Innsbruck, Austria, and president of the International Progress Organization, a non-governmental organization in consultative status with the United Nations.
Hardeep Singh Puri (ਹਰਦੀਪ ਸਿੰਘ ਪੁਰੀ; born 15 February 1952 in Delhi) is the current Union Minister of State with Independent Charge in the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs.
The United Nations' High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change was created in 2003 to analyse threats and challenges to international peace and security, and to recommend action based on this analysis.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
Human security is an emerging paradigm for understanding global vulnerabilities whose proponents challenge the traditional notion of national security by arguing that the proper referent for security should be the individual rather than the state.
Humanitarian Intervention has been defined as a state's use of "military force (publicly stated that its use is for ending the violation of human rights) against another state."Marjanovic, Marko (2011-04-04), Mises Institute This definition may be too narrow as it precludes non-military forms of intervention such as humanitarian aid and international sanctions.
An internally displaced person (IDP) is someone who is forced to flee his or her home but who remains within his or her country's borders.
The International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS) was an ad hoc commission of participants which in 2001 worked to popularize the concept of humanitarian intervention under the name of "Responsibility to protect".
The international community is a phrase used in geopolitics and international relations to refer to a broad group of people and governments of the world.
The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt) is an intergovernmental organization and international tribunal that sits in The Hague in the Netherlands.
International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.
International relations (IR) or international affairs (IA) — commonly also referred to as international studies (IS) or global studies (GS) — is the study of interconnectedness of politics, economics and law on a global level.
Ivory Coast, also known as Côte d'Ivoire and officially as the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a sovereign state located in West Africa.
Jan Kenneth Eliasson (born 17 September 1940) is a Swedish diplomat who was Deputy Secretary-General of the United Nations from July 2012 to December 2016.
Jennifer Welsh is a Canadian researcher, writer and consultant, currently the United Nations Secretary-General’s Special Adviser on the Responsibility to Protect.
Juan E. Méndez (born December 11, 1944) is an Argentine lawyer, former United Nations Special Rapporteur on Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, and human rights activist known for his work on behalf of political prisoners.
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
Kofi Atta Annan (born 8 April 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1997 to December 2006.
The Kriegler Commission, officially The Independent Review Commission (IREC), was an international commission of inquiry established by the Government of Kenya in February 2008 to Inquire into all aspects of the 2007 General elections with particular emphasis on the presidential elections.
Li Baodong (born April 1955) is a Chinese diplomat who served as the Permanent Representative of the People's Republic of China to the United Nations from 2010 to 2013.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
Louise Arbour, (born February 10, 1947) is a Canadian lawyer, prosecutor and jurist.
Atrocity crimes refer to the three legally defined international crimes of genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity.
Mediation is a dynamic, structured, interactive process where a neutral third party assists disputing parties in resolving conflict through the use of specialized communication and negotiation techniques.
Michael Grant Ignatieff (born May 12, 1947) is a Canadian author, academic and former politician.
Michel Am-Nondokro Djotodia (born c. 1949) is a Central African politician who was President of the Central African Republic from 2013 to 2014.
The African-led International Support Mission to the Central African Republic (MISCA, French acronym for Mission internationale de soutien à la Centrafrique sous conduite africaine) is an African Union peacekeeping mission to the Central African Republic.
Mohamed Sahnoun (محمد سحنون) (born 1931 in Chlef) is an Algerian diplomat who was Algerian ambassador to several key countries such as France, Germany and the United States, served as the Organisation of African Unity's Assistant Secretary General, the Arab League's Assistant Secretary-general, the Secretary-General of the United Nations's Special Representative for Somalia in 1992 and the Secretary-General of the United Nations's Special Representative for the Great Lakes region of Africa in 1997 before continuing to work for peace and reconciliation through various UN-related or independent charities.
Muammar Mohammed Abu Minyar Gaddafi (20 October 2011), commonly known as Colonel Gaddafi, was a Libyan revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
Mwai Kibaki, C.G.H. (born 15 November 1931) is a Kenyan politician who was the third President of Kenya, serving from December 2002 until April 2013.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Newton Leroy Gingrich (né McPherson; born June 17, 1943) is an American politician and author, born in Pennsylvania, later representing Georgia in Congress, and ultimately serving as 50th Speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 1995 to 1999.
Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations, commonly referred to as NGOs, are usually non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations (though often funded by governments) that are active in humanitarian, educational, health care, public policy, social, human rights, environmental, and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives.
The Orange Democratic Movement is a centre-left political party in Kenya.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Party of National Unity (PNU) was founded as a political coalition of parties in Kenya.
The Peace of Westphalia (Westfälischer Friede) was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster that virtually ended the European wars of religion.
Peacekeeping refers to activities intended to create conditions that favour lasting peace.
The permanent members of the United Nations Security Council (also known as the Permanent Five, Big Five, or P5) are the five states which the UN Charter of 1945 grants a permanent seat on the UN Security Council.
Raila Amolo Odinga (born 7 January 1945) is a former prime minister of Kenya.
Regime change is the replacement of one government regime with another.
The Responsibility to Protect (R2P or RtoP) is a global political commitment which was endorsed by all member states of the United Nations at the 2005 World Summit in order to address its four key concerns to prevent genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity.
The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (often referred to as the International Criminal Court Statute or the Rome Statute) is the treaty that established the International Criminal Court (ICC).
Rwanda (U Rwanda), officially the Republic of Rwanda (Repubulika y'u Rwanda; République du Rwanda), is a sovereign state in Central and East Africa and one of the smallest countries on the African mainland.
The Rwandan genocide, also known as the genocide against the Tutsi, was a genocidal mass slaughter of Tutsi in Rwanda by members of the Hutu majority government.
Séléka CPSK-CPJP-UFDR is an alliance of rebel militia factions and terrorist groups that overthrew the Central African Republic (CAR) on March 24, 2013.
The Secretary-General of the United Nations (UNSG or just SG) is the head of the United Nations Secretariat, one of the six principal organs of the United Nations.
From a sociological perspective, social norms are informal understandings that govern the behavior of members of a society.
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
The Srebrenica massacre, also known as the Srebrenica genocide (Masakr u Srebrenici; Genocid u Srebrenici), was the July 1995 genocide of more than 8,000Potocari Memorial Center Preliminary List of Missing Persons from Srebrenica '95 Muslim Bosniaks, mainly men and boys, in and around the town of Srebrenica during the Bosnian War.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The Syrian Civil War (الحرب الأهلية السورية, Al-ḥarb al-ʼahliyyah as-sūriyyah) is an ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria fought primarily between the Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic led by President Bashar al-Assad, along with its allies, and various forces opposing both the government and each other in varying combinations.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The New York Times International Edition is an English-language newspaper printed at 38 sites throughout the world and sold in more than 160 countries and territories.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.
The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) is a United Nations (UN) body formed in December 1991 by General Assembly Resolution 46/182.
The United Nations Operation in Côte d'Ivoire (UNOCI)(Opération des Nations Unies en Côte d'Ivoire, ONUCI) is a peacekeeping mission whose objective is "to facilitate the implementation by the Ivorian parties of the peace agreement signed by them in January 2003" (which aimed to end the Ivorian Civil War).
The United Nations Secretariat (le Secrétariat des Nations unies) is one of the six major organs of the United Nations, with the others being (a) the General Assembly; (b) the Security Council; (c) the Economic and Social Council; (d) the defunct Trusteeship Council; and (e) the International Court of Justice.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973, on the situation in Libya, is a measure that was adopted on 17 March 2011.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a historic document that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly at its third session on 10 December 1948 as Resolution 217 at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris, France.
Vanguard is a daily newspaper published by Vanguard Media, based in Lagos, Nigeria.
Vitaly Ivanovich Churkin (p; 21 February 1952 – 20 February 2017) was a Russian diplomat and former child actor.
The Waki Commission, officially The Commission of Inquiry on Post Election Violence (CIPEV), was an international commission of inquiry established by the Government of Kenya in February 2008 to investigate the clashes in Kenya following the disputed Kenyan presidential election of 2007.
A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.
The 2005 World Summit, 14–16 September 2005, was a follow-up summit meeting to the United Nations' 2000 Millennium Summit, which led to the Millennium Declaration of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
The 2007–08 Kenyan crisis was a political, economic, and humanitarian crisis that erupted in Kenya after former President Mwai Kibaki was declared the winner of the presidential election held on December 27, 2007.
Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect, Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect (non-governmental organization), International Coalition for the Responsibility to Protect, R2P, R2p, Responsbility to protect, Responsibility to Protect, RtoP, The Responsibility to Protect.