511 relations: Aaron Montgomery Ward, Afghanistan, Agora, AIDA (marketing), Albania, Albertsons, Alcoholic beverage control state, Aldi, Alexander Turney Stewart, Algeria, Amazon (company), American English, Americas, Amusement arcade, Anchor store, Ancient Greece, Andorra, Angola, Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Arabber, Arcade (architecture), Archaeology, Argentina, Armenia, Aruba, Australia, Austria, Automated retail, Azerbaijan, Aztecs, Çiçek Pasajı, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Barcelona, Barriers to entry, Barter, Bazaar, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bhutan, Big-box store, Bloomingdale's, Bolivia, Bookselling, Bosnia and Herzegovina, ..., Botswana, Boutique, Brazil, Break-even (economics), Brick and mortar, British Virgin Islands, Brunei, Bulgaria, Bunnings Warehouse, Burkina Faso, Burlington Arcade, Burundi, Byblos, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Car, Carrefour, Carthage, Cash and carry (wholesale), Category killer, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Central Europe, Chad, Chain store, Chester, Chester Rows, Chile, China, Clothing, Colombia, Colony, Common stock, Comoros, Competition (economics), Confectionery store, Consignment, Consumables, Consumer, Consumer behaviour, Consumer spending, Consumers' co-operative, Contemporary art gallery, Convenience store, Cook Islands, Cooperative, Corporation, Cosmetics, Costa Rica, Costco, Costermonger, Croatia, Cuba, Customer relationship management, Customer service, Customer service training, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Czechoslovakia, Dale Carnegie, Delivery (commerce), Demarketing, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Denmark, Department store, Digital distribution, Digital rights management, Direct marketing, Direct selling, Discount store, Distribution (marketing), Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Door-to-door, Download, Drive-through, E-commerce, E. St. Elmo Lewis, East Timor, Economies of scale, Economies of scope, Ecuador, Education in the United States, Edward Filene, Egypt, El Salvador, Electronics, Employee scheduling software, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Everyday low price, Fiji, Final good, Finland, Foodservice, Foot Locker, Footwear, Forum (Roman), France, Fred Lazarus Jr., French Polynesia, Furniture, Gabon, Galeries Lafayette, Galeries Royales Saint-Hubert, Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II, General store, Georgia (country), Germany, Ghana, Gift shop, Give-away shop, Grand Bazaar, Istanbul, Gravity model of trade, Greece, Greenland, Grenada, Grey pound, Grocery store, Gross domestic product, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Handicraft, Hanseatic League, Hardware store, Harry Gordon Selfridge, Hawker (trade), Health food store, Himachal Pradesh, History of marketing, History of the cooperative movement, Hobby shop, Home appliance, Home shopping, Honduras, Hong Kong, Huckster, Hungary, Hypermarket, Iceland, Impulse purchase, India, Indonesia, Inflation, Information Age, International Council of Shopping Centers, Inventory, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Ironmonger Lane, Israel, Istanbul, Italy, Ivory Coast, J. C. Penney, Jamaica, James Cash Penney, Japan, John Stuart Mill, John Wanamaker, Jordan, Joseph Addison, Josiah Wedgwood, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, Kit Kat, Kmart, Kosovo, Kroger, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, L'Enseigne de Gersaint, L'Occitane en Provence, La Boqueria, Laos, Latvia, Le Bon Marché, Lebanon, Lentil as Anything, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Liquor store, List of department stores by country, List of shopping streets and districts by city, Lithuania, Loss leader, Lumber, Luxembourg, Macau, Macy's Herald Square, Macy's, Inc., Madagascar, Mail order, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Market (economics), Market segmentation, Market square, Marketing mix, Marketplace, Marrakesh, Marshall Field, Marshall Islands, Matthew Boulton, Mauritania, Mauritius, Media culture, Medication, Medicine show, Menu, Merchandising, Merchant, Mergers and acquisitions, Mexica, Mexico, Michael Hill Jeweller, Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Montenegro, Montserrat, Morocco, Mozambique, MP3 player, Multi-level marketing, Municipality, Musical instrument, Myanmar, Naggar, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New York City, New Zealand, Newsagent's shop, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, No frills, Nonprofit organization, North Africa, North Korea, North Yemen, Northland Center, Norway, Officeworks, Oman, Online shopping, Operating margin, Outlet store, Pakistan, Palais-Royal, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Part-time contract, Party plan, Pawnbroker, Peddler, Personal care, Personal selling, Peru, Pet store, Peter Alexander (fashion designer), Philippines, Phoenicia, Piccadilly Arcade, Pizza delivery, Point of sale, Poland, Pop-up retail, Portugal, Potter Palmer, Precipitation, Price, Price point, Pricing strategies, Product (business), Product bundling, Product management, Profit margin, Promotional mix, Pryce Pryce-Jones, Psychological pricing, Public relations, Puerto Rico, Qatar, Radial set, Recreation, Redbox, Regulation, Relationship-based pricing, Republic of Macedonia, Republic of the Congo, Reputation, Reservation price, Residential area, Retail, Retail apocalypse, Retail concentration, Retail design, Retail software, Retailtainment, Richard Warren Sears, Rochdale, Roman Empire, Roman Forum, Romania, Roof, Ross Stores, Rowland Hussey Macy, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Saks Fifth Avenue, Sam Walton, Samoa, Sampling (statistics), San Marino, Saudi Arabia, Savile Row tailoring, São Tomé and Príncipe, Schedule (workplace), Schwarz Gruppe, Sears, Self-service, Selfridges, Senegal, Serbia, Service (economics), Services marketing, Servicescape, Seychelles, Shopping, Shopping channel, Shopping mall, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Site selection, Slovakia, Slovenia, Small business, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Souq, South Africa, South Korea, South Sudan, South Yemen, Soviet Union, Spain, Specialist store, Sports equipment, Springer Science+Business Media, Sri Lanka, State of Palestine, Stationery, Store manager, Store-within-a-store, Strategic management, Streaming media, Strip mall, Sudan, Supermarket, Supply chain, Suriname, Surplus store, Survey methodology, Survival store, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Tax law, Telemarketing, Telephone, Television advertisement, Tesco, Textile, Thailand, The Bahamas, The Body Shop, The Gambia, The Home Depot, The May Department Stores Company, Thomas J. Watson, TJX Companies, Tlatelolco (altepetl), Togo, Tonga, Town centre, Town square, Toy store, Toys "R" Us, Trade, Trajan's Forum, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Turks and Caicos Islands, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, United States Census Bureau, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Value-based pricing, Vanuatu, Variety store, Vending machine, Venezuela, Vicenza, Victor Gruen, Vietnam, Vision statement, Visual merchandising, Walgreens Boots Alliance, Walmart, Walter Dill Scott, Wardrobing, Warehouse club, Warehouse store, Wholesaling, William Thomas Rawleigh, Window shopping, Workforce, Yemen, Zambia, Zanzibar, Zimbabwe, Zoom Systems, 3D printing. Expand index (461 more) » « Shrink index
Aaron Montgomery Ward (February 17, 1843 – December 7, 1913) was an American entrepreneur based in Chicago who made his fortune through the use of mail order for retail sales of general merchandise to rural customers.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
The agora (ἀγορά agorá) was a central public space in ancient Greek city-states.
AIDA is an acronym that stands for Attention, Interest, Desire and Action.
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.
Albertsons Companies LLC is an American grocery company founded and headquartered in Boise, Idaho.
Alcoholic beverage control states, generally called control states, are 17 states in the United States that, as of 2016, have state monopoly over the wholesaling or retailing of some or all categories of alcoholic beverages, such as beer, wine, and distilled spirits.
Aldi (stylised as ALDI) is the common brand of two German discount supermarket chains with over 10,000 stores in 20 countries, and an estimated combined turnover of more than €50 billion.
Alexander Turney Stewart (October 12, 1803 – April 10, 1876) was a successful Irish entrepreneur who made his multimillion-dollar fortune in what was at the time the most extensive and lucrative dry goods business in the world.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Amazon.com, Inc., doing business as Amazon, is an American electronic commerce and cloud computing company based in Seattle, Washington that was founded by Jeff Bezos on July 5, 1994.
American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
An amusement arcade (often referred to as "video arcade" or simply "arcade") is a venue where people play arcade games such as video games, pinball machines, electro-mechanical games, redemption games, merchandisers (such as claw cranes), or coin-operated billiards or air hockey tables.
In retail, an anchor store, draw tenant, anchor tenant, or key tenant is one of the larger shops in a shopping centre, usually a department store or a major retail chain that has a broad appeal to a wide customer base.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Andorra, officially the Principality of Andorra (Principat d'Andorra), also called the Principality of the Valleys of Andorra (Principat de les Valls d'Andorra), is a sovereign landlocked microstate on the Iberian Peninsula, in the eastern Pyrenees, bordered by France in the north and Spain in the south.
Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola; Kikongo, Kimbundu and Repubilika ya Ngola), is a country in Southern Africa.
Anguilla is a British overseas territory in the Caribbean.
Antigua and Barbuda is a sovereign state in the West Indies in the Americas, lying between the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean.
An arabber (or a-rabber) is a street vendor (hawker) selling fruits and vegetables from a colorful, horse-drawn cart.
An arcade is a succession of arches, each counter-thrusting the next, supported by columns, piers, or a covered walkway enclosed by a line of such arches on one or both sides.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Aruba (Papiamento) is an island and a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in the southern Caribbean Sea, located about west of the main part of the Lesser Antilles and north of the coast of Venezuela.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
Automated retail is the category of self-service, standalone kiosks in heavily trafficked locations such as airports, malls, resorts and convenience stores.
The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521.
Çiçek Pasajı (literally Flower Passage in Turkish), originally called the Cité de Péra, is a famous historic passage (galleria or arcade) on İstiklal Avenue in the Beyoğlu district of Istanbul, Turkey.
Bahrain (البحرين), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain (مملكة البحرين), is an Arab constitutional monarchy in the Persian Gulf.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
Barbados is an island country in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies, in the Caribbean region of North America.
Barcelona is a city in Spain.
In theories of competition in economics, a barrier to entry, or an economic barrier to entry, is a cost that must be incurred by a new entrant into a market that incumbents do not have or have not had to incur.
In trade, barter is a system of exchange where participants in a transaction directly exchange goods or services for other goods or services without using a medium of exchange, such as money.
A bazaar is a permanently enclosed marketplace or street where goods and services are exchanged or sold.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Belize, formerly British Honduras, is an independent Commonwealth realm on the eastern coast of Central America.
Benin (Bénin), officially the Republic of Benin (République du Bénin) and formerly Dahomey, is a country in West Africa.
Bermuda is a British Overseas Territory in the North Atlantic Ocean.
Bhutan, officially the Kingdom of Bhutan (Druk Gyal Khap), is a landlocked country in South Asia.
A big-box store (also supercenter, superstore, or megastore) is a physically large retail establishment, usually part of a chain of stores.
Bloomingdale's Inc. is an American department store chain; it was founded by Joseph B. and Lyman G. Bloomingdale in 1861.
Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
Bookselling is the commercial trading of books which is the retail and distribution end of the publishing process.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
Botswana, officially the Republic of Botswana (Lefatshe la Botswana), is a landlocked country located in Southern Africa.
A boutique is "a small store that sells stylish clothing, jewelry, or other usually luxury goods".
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
The break-even point (BEP) in economics, business—and specifically cost accounting—is the point at which total cost and total revenue are equal.
Brick and mortar (also bricks and mortar or B&M) refers to a physical presence of an organization or business in a building or other structure.
The British Virgin Islands (BVI), officially simply "Virgin Islands", are a British Overseas Territory in the Caribbean, to the east of Puerto Rico.
Brunei, officially the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace (Negara Brunei Darussalam, Jawi), is a sovereign state located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
Bunnings Group, trading as Bunnings Warehouse, is an international household hardware chain.
Burkina Faso is a landlocked country in West Africa.
The Burlington Arcade is a covered shopping arcade in London, that runs behind Bond Street from Piccadilly through to Burlington Gardens.
Burundi, officially the Republic of Burundi (Republika y'Uburundi,; République du Burundi, or), is a landlocked country in the African Great Lakes region of East Africa, bordered by Rwanda to the north, Tanzania to the east and south, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west.
Byblos, in Arabic Jbail (جبيل Lebanese Arabic pronunciation:; Phoenician: 𐤂𐤁𐤋 Gebal), is a Middle Eastern city on Levant coast in the Mount Lebanon Governorate, Lebanon.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Cape Verde or Cabo Verde (Cabo Verde), officially the Republic of Cabo Verde, is an island country spanning an archipelago of 10 volcanic islands in the central Atlantic Ocean.
A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation.
Carrefour S.A. is a French multinational retailer headquartered in Boulogne Billancourt, France, in the Hauts-de-Seine Department near Paris.
Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia.
Cash and carry wholesale represents a type of operation within the wholesale sector.
A category killer is a retailer that specializes in and carries a deep product assortment within a given category and through selection, pricing and market penetration obtains a massive competitive advantage over other retailers.
The Cayman Islands is an autonomous British Overseas Territory in the western Caribbean Sea.
The Central African Republic (CAR; Sango: Ködörösêse tî Bêafrîka; République centrafricaine, or Centrafrique) is a landlocked country in Central Africa.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
Chad (تشاد; Tchad), officially the Republic of Chad ("Republic of the Chad"), is a landlocked country in Central Africa.
Chain store(s) or retail chain(s) are retail outlets that share a brand and central management, and usually have standardized business methods and practices.
Chester (Caer) is a walled city in Cheshire, England, on the River Dee, close to the border with Wales.
Chester Rows consist of covered walkways at the first floor behind which are entrances to shops and other premises.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Clothing (also known as clothes and attire) is a collective term for garments, items worn on the body.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
In history, a colony is a territory under the immediate complete political control of a state, distinct from the home territory of the sovereign.
Common stock is a form of corporate equity ownership, a type of security.
The Comoros (جزر القمر), officially the Union of the Comoros (Comorian: Udzima wa Komori, Union des Comores, الاتحاد القمري), is a sovereign archipelago island nation in the Indian Ocean located at the northern end of the Mozambique Channel off the eastern coast of Africa between northeastern Mozambique and northwestern Madagascar.
In economics, competition is a condition where different economic firmsThis article follows the general economic convention of referring to all actors as firms; examples in include individuals and brands or divisions within the same (legal) firm.
A confectionery store (more commonly referred to as a sweet shop in the United Kingdom, a candy store in North America, or a lolly shop in Australia) sells confectionery and the intended market is usually children.
Consignment is the act of consigning, the act of giving over to another person or agent's charge, custody or care any material or goods but retaining legal ownership until the material or goods are sold.
Consumables (also known as consumable goods, nondurable goods, or soft goods) are goods that are intended to be consumed.
A consumer is a person or organization that use economic services or commodities.
Consumer behaviour is the study of individuals, groups, or organizations and all the activities associated with the purchase, use and disposal of goods and services, including the consumer's emotional, mental and behavioural responses that precede or follow these activities.
Consumer spending, consumption, or consumption expenditure is the acquisition of goods and services by individuals or families.
Consumers' co-operatives are enterprises owned by consumers and managed democratically which aim at fulfilling the needs and aspirations of their members.
A contemporary art gallery is a place where contemporary art is shown for exhibition and/or for sale.
A convenience store or convenience shop is a small retail business that stocks a range of everyday items such as groceries, snack foods, confectionery, soft drinks, tobacco products, over-the-counter drugs, toiletries, newspapers, and magazines.
The Cook Islands (Cook Islands Māori: Kūki 'Āirani) is a self-governing island country in the South Pacific Ocean in free association with New Zealand.
A cooperative (also known as co-operative, co-op, or coop) is "an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social, and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly-owned and democratically-controlled enterprise".
A corporation is a company or group of people or an organisation authorized to act as a single entity (legally a person) and recognized as such in law.
Cosmetics are substances or products used to enhance or alter the appearance of the face or fragrance and texture of the body.
Costa Rica ("Rich Coast"), officially the Republic of Costa Rica (República de Costa Rica), is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Caribbean Sea to the east, and Ecuador to the south of Cocos Island.
Costco Wholesale Corporation, trading as Costco, is an American multinational corporation which operates a chain of membership-only warehouse clubs.
Costermonger, coster, or costard is a street seller of fruit and vegetables, in London and other British towns.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
Customer relationship management (CRM) is an approach to manage a company's interaction with current and potential customers.
Customer service is the provision of service to customers before, during and after a purchase.
Customer service training (CST) refers to teaching employees the knowledge, skills, and competencies required to increase customer satisfaction.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
Dale Harbison Carnegie (spelled Carnagey until c. 1922; November 24, 1888 – November 1, 1955) was an American writer and lecturer and the developer of famous courses in self-improvement, salesmanship, corporate training, public speaking, and interpersonal skills.
Delivery is the process of transporting goods from a source location to a predefined destination.
Demarketing may be considered “unselling” or “marketing in reverse”, which includes general and selective demarketing.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo), also known as DR Congo, the DRC, Congo-Kinshasa or simply the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
A department store is a retail establishment offering a wide range of consumer goods in different product categories known as "departments".
Digital distribution (also referred to as content delivery, online distribution, or electronic software distribution (ESD), among others) is the delivery or distribution of media content such as audio, video, software and video games.
Digital rights management (DRM) is a set of access control technologies for restricting the use of proprietary hardware and copyrighted works.
Direct marketing is a form of advertising where organizations communicate directly to customers through a variety of media including cell phone text messaging, email, websites, online adverts, database marketing, fliers, catalog distribution, promotional letters, and targeted television, newspaper, and magazine advertisements, as well as outdoor advertising.
Modern direct selling includes sales made through the party plan, one-on-one demonstrations, and other personal contact arrangements as well as internet sales.
A discount store or discount shop is a retail shop which sells products at prices that are lower than the typical market price.
Distribution (or place) is one of the four elements of the marketing mix.
Djibouti (جيبوتي, Djibouti, Jabuuti, Gabuuti), officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
Dominica (Island Carib), officially the Commonwealth of Dominica, is an island republic in the West Indies.
The Dominican Republic (República Dominicana) is a sovereign state located in the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region.
Door-to-door is a canvassing technique that is generally used for sales, marketing, advertising, or campaigning, in which the person or persons walk from the door of one house to the door of another, trying to sell or advertise a product or service to the general public or gather information.
In computer networks, to download (abbreviation DL) is to receive data from a remote system, typically a server such as a web server, an FTP server, an email server, or other similar systems.
A drive-through, or drive-thru, is a type of service provided by a business that allows customers to purchase products without leaving their cars.
E-commerce is the activity of buying or selling of products on online services or over the Internet.
East Timor or Timor-Leste (Tetum: Timór Lorosa'e), officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste (República Democrática de Timor-Leste, Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste), is a sovereign state in Maritime Southeast Asia.
In microeconomics, economies of scale are the cost advantages that enterprises obtain due to their scale of operation (typically measured by amount of output produced), with cost per unit of output decreasing with increasing scale.
Economies of scope are "efficiencies formed by variety, not volume" (the latter concept is "economies of scale").
Ecuador (Ikwadur), officially the Republic of Ecuador (República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"; Ikwadur Ripuwlika), is a representative democratic republic in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Education in the United States is provided by public, private and home schools.
Edward Albert Filene (September 3, 1860 – September 26, 1937) was an American businessman and philanthropist.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
El Salvador, officially the Republic of El Salvador (República de El Salvador, literally "Republic of The Savior"), is the smallest and the most densely populated country in Central America.
Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.
Employee scheduling software automates the process of creating and maintaining a schedule.
Equatorial Guinea (Guinea Ecuatorial, Guinée équatoriale, Guiné Equatorial), officially the Republic of Equatorial Guinea (República de Guinea Ecuatorial, République de Guinée équatoriale, República da Guiné Equatorial), is a country located in Central Africa, with an area of.
Eritrea (ኤርትራ), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa, with its capital at Asmara.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
Everyday low price (also abbreviated as EDLP) is a pricing strategy promising consumers a low price without the need to wait for sale price events or comparison shopping.
Fiji (Viti; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी), officially the Republic of Fiji (Matanitu Tugalala o Viti; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी गणराज्य), is an island country in Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean about northeast of New Zealand's North Island.
In economics, any commodity which is produced and subsequently consumed by the consumer, to satisfy his current wants or needs, is a consumer good or final good.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
Foodservice (US English) or catering industry (British English) defines those businesses, institutions, and companies responsible for any meal prepared outside the home.
Foot Locker Retail, Inc. is an American sportswear and footwear retailer, with its headquarters in Midtown Manhattan, New York City, and operating in 28 countries worldwide.
Footwear refers to garments worn on the feet, which originally serves to purpose of protection against adversities of the environment, usually regarding ground textures and temperature.
A forum (Latin forum "public place outdoors", plural fora; English plural either fora or forums) was a public square in a Roman municipium, or any civitas, reserved primarily for the vending of goods; i.e., a marketplace, along with the buildings used for shops and the stoas used for open stalls.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Fred R. Lazarus Jr. (October 29, 1884 – May 27, 1973) was an American founder of Federated Department Stores, which became Macy's, Inc.
French Polynesia (Polynésie française; Pōrīnetia Farāni) is an overseas collectivity of the French Republic; collectivité d'outre-mer de la République française (COM), sometimes unofficially referred to as an overseas country; pays d'outre-mer (POM).
Furniture refers to movable objects intended to support various human activities such as seating (e.g., chairs, stools, and sofas), eating (tables), and sleeping (e.g., beds).
Gabon, officially the Gabonese Republic (République gabonaise), is a sovereign state on the west coast of Central Africa.
The Galeries Lafayette is an upmarket French department store chain.
The Galeries Royales Saint-Hubert (French) or Koninklijke Sint-Hubertusgalerijen (Dutch) is a glazed shopping arcade in Brussels that preceded other famous 19th-century shopping arcades such as the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II in Milan and The Passage in St Petersburg.
The Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II is Italy's oldest active shopping mall and a major landmark of Milan, Italy.
A general store (also known as general merchandise store, general dealer or village shop) is a rural or small town store that carries a general line of merchandise.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Ghana, officially the Republic of Ghana, is a unitary presidential constitutional democracy, located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa.
A gift shop or souvenir gift shop is a store primarily selling souvenirs relating to a particular topic or theme.
Give-away shops, swap shops, freeshops, or free stores are stores where all goods are free.
The Grand Bazaar (Kapalıçarşı, meaning ‘Covered Market’; also Büyük Çarşı, meaning ‘Grand Market’Müller-Wiener (1977), p. 345.) in Istanbul is one of the largest and oldest covered markets in the world, with 61 covered streets and over 4,000 shopsMüller-Wiener (1977), p. 349.
The gravity model of international trade in international economics is a model that, in its traditional form, predicts bilateral trade flows based on the economic sizes (often using GDP measurements) and distance between two units.
Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat,; Grønland) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
Grenada is a sovereign state in the southeastern Caribbean Sea consisting of the island of Grenada and six smaller islands at the southern end of the Grenadines island chain.
In the United Kingdom, the expression Grey pound is used in the context of marketing and or retail sources and refers to the economic power of the elderly people.
A grocery store or grocer's shop is a retail shop that primarily sells food.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala (República de Guatemala), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, Honduras to the east and El Salvador to the southeast.
Guinea, officially the Republic of Guinea (République de Guinée), is a country on the western coast of Africa.
Guinea-Bissau, officially the Republic of Guinea-Bissau (República da Guiné-Bissau), is a sovereign state in West Africa.
Guyana (pronounced or), officially the Co-operative Republic of Guyana, is a sovereign state on the northern mainland of South America.
Haiti (Haïti; Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a sovereign state located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.
A handicraft, sometimes more precisely expressed as artisanal handicraft or handmade, is any of a wide variety of types of work where useful and decorative objects are made completely by hand or by using only simple tools.
The Hanseatic League (Middle Low German: Hanse, Düdesche Hanse, Hansa; Standard German: Deutsche Hanse; Latin: Hansa Teutonica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe.
Hardware stores (in a number of countries, "shops"), sometimes known as DIY stores, sell household hardware for home improvement including: fasteners, building materials, hand tools, power tools, keys, locks, hinges, chains, plumbing supplies, electrical supplies, cleaning products, housewares, tools, utensils, paint, and lawn and garden products directly to consumers for use at home or for business.
Harry Gordon Selfridge, Sr. (11 January 1858 – 8 May 1947) was an American-British retail magnate who founded the London-based department store Selfridges.
A hawker is a vendor of merchandise that can be easily transported; the term is roughly synonymous with peddler or costermonger.
A health food store or health food shop is a type of grocery store that primarily sells health foods, organic foods, local produce, and often nutritional supplements.
Himachal Pradesh (literally "snow-laden province") is a Indian state located in North India.
The study of the history of marketing, as a discipline, is meaningful because it helps to define the baselines upon which change can be recognised and understand how the discipline evolves in response to those changes.
The history of the cooperative movement concerns the origins and history of cooperatives.
A hobby shop (or hobby store) sells recreational items for hobbyists.
Home appliances are electrical/mechanical machines which accomplish some household functions, such as cooking, cleaning, or food preservation.
Home shopping is the electronic retailing and home shopping channels industry, which includes such billion dollar television-based and e-commerce companies as Shop LC, HSN, TJC, QVC, eBay, ShopHQ, Buy.com and Amazon.com, as well as traditional mail order and brick and mortar retailers as Hammacher Schlemmer and Sears, Roebuck and Co. Home shopping allows consumers to shop for goods from the privacy of their own home, as opposed to traditional shopping, which requires one to visit brick and mortar stores and shopping malls.
Honduras, officially the Republic of Honduras (República de Honduras), is a republic in Central America.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
The term huckster describes a person who sells something or serves biased interests, using pushy or showy tactics.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
In commerce, a hypermarket is a superstore combining a supermarket and a department store.
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
An impulse purchase or impulse buying is an unplanned decision to buy a product or service, made just before a purchase.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.
The Information Age (also known as the Computer Age, Digital Age, or New Media Age) is a 21st century period in human history characterized by the rapid shift from traditional industry that the Industrial Revolution brought through industrialization, to an economy based on information technology.
The International Council of Shopping Centers (ICSC) is the global trade association of the shopping center industry.
Inventory (American English) or stock (British English) is the goods and materials that a business holds for the ultimate goal of resale (or repair).
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
Ironmonger Lane is a narrow one-way street in the City of London running southbound between Gresham Street and Cheapside.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Ivory Coast, also known as Côte d'Ivoire and officially as the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a sovereign state located in West Africa.
Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea.
James Cash "J.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
John Stuart Mill, also known as J.S. Mill, (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant.
John Wanamaker (July 11, 1838 – December 12, 1922) was an American merchant and religious, civic and political figure, considered by some to be a proponent of advertising and a "pioneer in marketing".
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
Joseph Addison (1 May 1672 – 17 June 1719) was an English essayist, poet, playwright, and politician.
Josiah Wedgwood (12 July 1730 – 3 January 1795) was an English potter and entrepreneur.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
Kiribati, officially the Republic of Kiribati (Gilbertese: Ribaberiki Kiribati),.
Kit Kat is a chocolate-covered wafer bar confection created by Rowntree's of York, United Kingdom, and is now produced globally by Nestlé, which acquired Rowntree in 1988, with the exception of the United States where it is made under license by H.B. Reese Candy Company, a division of The Hershey Company.
Kmart Corporation (simply known as Kmart and stylized as kmart) is an American big box department store chain headquartered in Hoffman Estates, Illinois, United States.
Kosovo (Kosova or Kosovë; Косово) is a partially recognised state and disputed territory in Southeastern Europe that declared independence from Serbia in February 2008 as the Republic of Kosovo (Republika e Kosovës; Република Косово / Republika Kosovo).
The Kroger Company, or simply Kroger, is an American retailing company founded by Bernard Kroger in 1883 in Cincinnati, Ohio.
Kuwait (الكويت, or), officially the State of Kuwait (دولة الكويت), is a country in Western Asia.
The Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz Respublikasy; r; Қирғиз Республикаси.), or simply Kyrgyzstan, and also known as Kirghizia (Kyrgyzstan; r), is a sovereign state in Central Asia.
L'Enseigne de Gersaint, or "The Shop Sign of Gersaint", (1720–21) is a painting by Jean-Antoine Watteau, which is considered to be his last masterpiece.
L'Occitane en Provence and commonly known as L'Occitane, is an international retailer of body, face, fragrances and home products based in Manosque, France.
The Mercat de Sant Josep de la Boqueria, often simply referred to as La Boqueria, is a large public market in the Ciudad Vieja district of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, and one of the city's foremost tourist landmarks, with an entrance from La Rambla, not far from the Liceo, Barcelona's opera house.
Laos (ລາວ,, Lāo; Laos), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao: ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ, Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao; République démocratique populaire lao), commonly referred to by its colloquial name of Muang Lao (Lao: ເມືອງລາວ, Muang Lao), is a landlocked country in the heart of the Indochinese peninsula of Mainland Southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southwest and Thailand to the west and southwest.
Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
Le Bon Marché (lit. "the good market", or "the good deal" in French) is a department store in Paris.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
Lentil As Anything Inc.
Lesotho officially the Kingdom of Lesotho ('Muso oa Lesotho), is an enclaved country in southern Africa.
Liberia, officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the West African coast.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
Liechtenstein, officially the Principality of Liechtenstein (Fürstentum Liechtenstein), is a doubly landlocked German-speaking microstate in Central Europe.
A liquor store is a retail shop that predominantly sells prepackaged alcoholic beverages — typically in bottles — intended to be consumed off the store's premises.
This is a list of department stores.
This page lists shopping streets and districts by city.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
A loss leader (also leader) is a pricing strategy where a product is sold at a price below its market cost to stimulate other sales of more profitable goods or services.
Lumber (American English; used only in North America) or timber (used in the rest of the English speaking world) is a type of wood that has been processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production.
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.
Macau, officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory on the western side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Macy's Herald Square (originally named the R. H. Macy and Company Store) is the flagship of the Macy's department store chain; it is located on Herald Square in Manhattan, New York City.
Macy's, Inc. (originally Federated Department Stores, Inc.) is an American holding company; it was founded by Xavier Warren in 1929.
Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.
Mail order is the buying of goods or services by mail delivery.
Malawi (or; or maláwi), officially the Republic of Malawi, is a landlocked country in southeast Africa that was formerly known as Nyasaland.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
The Maldives (or; ދިވެހިރާއްޖެ Dhivehi Raa'jey), officially the Republic of Maldives, is a South Asian sovereign state, located in the Indian Ocean, situated in the Arabian Sea.
Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali), is a landlocked country in West Africa, a region geologically identified with the West African Craton.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
A market is one of the many varieties of systems, institutions, procedures, social relations and infrastructures whereby parties engage in exchange.
Market segmentation is the process of dividing a broad consumer or business market, normally consisting of existing and potential customers, into sub-groups of consumers (known as segments) based on some type of shared characteristics.
The market square (or sometimes, the market place) is a feature of many European and colonial towns.
The marketing mix (also known as the 4 Ps) is a foundation model in marketing.
A market, or marketplace, is a location where people regularly gather for the purchase and sale of provisions, livestock, and other goods.
Marrakesh (or; مراكش Murrākuš; ⴰⵎⵓⵔⴰⴽⵓⵛ Meṛṛakec), also known by the French spelling Marrakech, is a major city of the Kingdom of Morocco.
Marshall Field (August 18, 1834January 16, 1906) was an American entrepreneur and the founder of Marshall Field and Company, the Chicago-based department stores.
The Marshall Islands, officially the Republic of the Marshall Islands (Aolepān Aorōkin M̧ajeļ), is an island country located near the equator in the Pacific Ocean, slightly west of the International Date Line.
Matthew Boulton (3 September 1728 – 17 August 1809) was an English manufacturer and business partner of Scottish engineer James Watt.
Mauritania (موريتانيا; Gànnaar; Soninke: Murutaane; Pulaar: Moritani; Mauritanie), officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country in the Maghreb region of Northwestern Africa.
Mauritius (or; Maurice), officially the Republic of Mauritius (République de Maurice), is an island nation in the Indian Ocean about off the southeast coast of the African continent.
In cultural studies, media culture refers to the current Western capitalist society that emerged and developed from the 20th century, under the influence of mass media.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Medicine shows were touring acts (traveling by truck, horse, or wagon teams) which peddled "miracle cure" patent medicines and other products between various entertainments.
In a restaurant, a menu is a list of food and beverage offered to the customer.
In the broadest sense, merchandising is any practice which contributes to the sale of products to a retail consumer.
A merchant is a person who trades in commodities produced by other people.
Mergers and acquisitions (M&A) are transactions in which the ownership of companies, other business organizations, or their operating units are transferred or consolidated with other entities.
The Mexica (Nahuatl: Mēxihcah,; the singular is Mēxihcatl Nahuatl Dictionary. (1990). Wired Humanities Project. University of Oregon. Retrieved August 29, 2012, from) or Mexicas were a Nahuatl-speaking indigenous people of the Valley of Mexico, known today as the rulers of the Aztec Empire.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Michael Hill International Ltd. is a specialty retailer of jewellery in North America and Oceania.
Micronesia ((); from μικρός mikrós "small" and νῆσος nêsos "island") is a subregion of Oceania, composed of thousands of small islands in the western Pacific Ocean.
Moldova (or sometimes), officially the Republic of Moldova (Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south (by way of the disputed territory of Transnistria).
Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco (Principauté de Monaco), is a sovereign city-state, country and microstate on the French Riviera in Western Europe.
Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.
Montenegro (Montenegrin: Црна Гора / Crna Gora, meaning "Black Mountain") is a sovereign state in Southeastern Europe.
Montserrat is a Caribbean island in the Leeward Islands, which is part of the chain known as the Lesser Antilles, in the West Indies.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique) is a country in Southeast Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and Swaziland and South Africa to the southwest.
An MP3 player or Digital Audio Player is an electronic device that can play digital audio files.
Multi-level marketing (MLM) also called pyramid selling, network marketing, and referral marketing, is a marketing strategy for the sale of products or services where the revenue of the MLM company is derived from a non-salaried workforce selling the company's products/services, while the earnings of the participants are derived from a pyramid-shaped or binary compensation commission system.
A municipality is usually a single urban or administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and state laws to which it is subordinate.
A musical instrument is an instrument created or adapted to make musical sounds.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
Situated on the left bank of river Beas at an altitude of 2,047 meters, Naggar is an ancient town in Kullu district of Himachal Pradesh, India.
Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia (German:; Republiek van Namibië), is a country in southern Africa whose western border is the Atlantic Ocean.
Nauru (Naoero, or), officially the Republic of Nauru (Repubrikin Naoero) and formerly known as Pleasant Island, is an island country in Micronesia, a subregion of Oceania, in the Central Pacific.
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
The Netherlands Antilles (Nederlandse Antillen,; Papiamentu: Antia Hulandes) was a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
New Caledonia (Nouvelle-Calédonie)Previously known officially as the "Territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies" (Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et dépendances), then simply as the "Territory of New Caledonia" (French: Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie), the official French name is now only Nouvelle-Calédonie (Organic Law of 19 March 1999, article 222 IV — see). The French courts often continue to use the appellation Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
A newsagent's shop or simply newsagent's (British English), newsagency (Australian English) or newsstand (American and Canadian English) is a business that sells newspapers, magazines, cigarettes, snacks and often items of local interest.
Nicaragua, officially the Republic of Nicaragua, is the largest country in the Central American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the north, the Caribbean to the east, Costa Rica to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Niger, also called the Niger officially the Republic of the Niger, is a landlocked country in Western Africa named after the Niger River.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
A no-frills or no frills service or product is one for which the non-essential features have been removed to keep the price low.
A non-profit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity or non-profit institution, is dedicated to furthering a particular social cause or advocating for a shared point of view.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
North Yemen is the geographic area named the Yemen Arab Republic (1962–1990), its predecessor, the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen (1918–1962), and their predecessors that exercised sovereignty over the territory that is now the north-western part of the state of Yemen in southern Arabia.
Northland Center was a shopping mall on an approximately site located near the intersection of M-10 and Greenfield Road in Southfield, Michigan, an inner-ring suburb of Detroit, Michigan, United States.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
Officeworks is a chain of Australian office supplies stores operated under parent company Wesfarmers.
Oman (عمان), officially the Sultanate of Oman (سلطنة عُمان), is an Arab country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.
Online shopping is a form of electronic commerce which allows consumers to directly buy goods or services from a seller over the Internet using a web browser.
In business, operating margin—also known as operating income margin, operating profit margin and return on sales (ROS)—is the ratio of operating income ("operating profit" in the UK) to net sales, usually presented in percent.
An outlet store, factory outlet or factory shop is a brick and mortar or online store in which manufacturers sell their stock directly to the public, cutting out the middle-men.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Palais-Royal, originally called the Palais-Cardinal, is a former royal palace located in the 1st arrondissement of Paris, France.
Palau (historically Belau, Palaos, or Pelew), officially the Republic of Palau (Beluu er a Belau), is an island country located in the western Pacific Ocean.
Panama (Panamá), officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá), is a country in Central America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south.
Papua New Guinea (PNG;,; Papua Niugini; Hiri Motu: Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia.
Paraguay (Paraguái), officially the Republic of Paraguay (República del Paraguay; Tetã Paraguái), is a landlocked country in central South America, bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest.
A part-time contract is a form of employment that carries fewer hours per week than a full-time job.
The party plan is a method of marketing products by hosting what is presented as a social event at which products will be offered for sale.
A pawnbroker is an individual or business (pawnshop or pawn shop) that offers secured loans to people, with items of personal property used as collateral.
A peddler, in British English pedlar, also known as a canvasser, chapman, cheapjack, hawker, higler, huckster, monger, or solicitor, is a traveling vendor of goods.
Personal care or toiletries are consumer products used in personal hygiene and for beautification.
Personal selling occurs when a sales representative meets with a potential client for the purpose of transacting a sale.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
A pet store or pet shop is a retail business which sells different kinds of animals to the public.
Peter Alexander is an Australian fashion designer known for pyjamas, loungewear and giftware.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.
The Piccadilly Arcade runs between Piccadilly and Jermyn Street in central London.
Pizza delivery is a service in which a pizzeria or pizza chain delivers a pizza to a customer.
The point of sale (POS) or point of purchase (POP) is the time and place where a retail transaction is completed.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Pop-up retail, also known as pop-up store (pop-up shop in the UK, Australia and Ireland) or flash retailing, is a trend of opening short-term sales spaces that started in Los Angeles and now pop up all over the United States, Canada, China, Japan, Mexico, France, Germany, the United Kingdom and Australia.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
Potter Palmer (May 20, 1826 – May 4, 1902) was an American businessman who was responsible for much of the development of State Street in Chicago.
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.
In ordinary usage, a price is the quantity of payment or compensation given by one party to another in return for one unit of goods or services.
Price points are prices at which demand for a given product is supposed to stay relatively high.
A business can use a variety of pricing strategies when selling a product or service.
In marketing, a product is anything that can be offered to a market that might satisfy a want or need.
In marketing, product bundling is offering several products or services for sale as one combined product or service package.
Product management is an organizational lifecycle function within a company dealing with the planning, forecasting, and production, or marketing of a product or products at all stages of the product lifecycle.
Profit margin, net margin, net profit margin or net profit ratio is a measure of profitability.
In marketing, the promotional mix describes a blend of promotional variables chosen by marketers to help a firm reach its goals.
Sir Pryce Pryce-Jones (16 October 1834 – 11 January 1920) was a Welsh entrepreneur who was one of the first to succeed in the mail order business.
Psychological pricing (also price ending, charm pricing) is a pricing/marketing strategy based on the theory that certain prices have a psychological impact.
Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing the spread of information between an individual or an organization (such as a business, government agency, or a nonprofit organization) and the public.
Puerto Rico (Spanish for "Rich Port"), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, "Free Associated State of Puerto Rico") and briefly called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea.
Qatar (or; قطر; local vernacular pronunciation), officially the State of Qatar (دولة قطر), is a sovereign country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.
In mathematics, given a linear space X, a set A \subseteq X is radial at the point x_0 \in A if for every x \in X there exists a t_x > 0 such that for every t \in, x_0 + tx \in A. Geometrically, this means A is radial at x_0 if for every x \in X a line segment emanating from x_0 in the direction of x lies in A, where the length of the line segment is required to be non-zero but can depend on x. The set of all points at which A \subseteq X is radial is equal to the algebraic interior.
Recreation is an activity of leisure, leisure being discretionary time.
Redbox Automated Retail LLC is an American company specializing in DVD, Blu-ray, 4K UHD and video game rentals via automated retail kiosks.
Regulation is an abstract concept of management of complex systems according to a set of rules and trends.
Relationship-Based Pricing (RBP), also known as Relationship based Pricing is a concept in the banking industry.
Macedonia (translit), officially the Republic of Macedonia, is a country in the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Republic of the Congo (République du Congo), also known as the Congo-Brazzaville, the Congo Republic or simply the Congo, is a country in Central Africa.
Reputation or image of a social entity (a person, a social group, or an organization) is an opinion about that entity, typically as a result of social evaluation on a set of criteria.
Reservation (or reserve) price is a limit on the price of a good or a service.
A residential area is a land used in which housing predominates, as opposed to industrial and commercial areas.
Retail is the process of selling consumer goods or services to customers through multiple channels of distribution to earn a profit.
The term retail apocalypse refers to the closing of a large number of North American brick-and-mortar retail stores, especially those of large chains, starting in the 2010s and continuing through 2018.
Retail concentration refers to the market-share generally belonging to the top 4 or 5 mass distribution firms present in a regional market, as a percentage of the total.
Retail design is a creative and commercial discipline that combines several different areas of expertise together in the design and construction of retail space.
Retail software is computer software typically installed on PC type computers or more recently (past 2005) delivered via the Internet (also known as cloud-based).
Retailtainment is retail marketing as entertainment.
Richard Warren Sears (December 7, 1863 – September 28, 1914) was an American manager, businessman, and the founder of Sears, Roebuck and Company with his partner Alvah Curtis Roebuck.
Rochdale is a town in Greater Manchester, England, at the foothills of the South Pennines on the River Roch, northwest of Oldham and northeast of Manchester.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Roman Forum, also known by its Latin name Forum Romanum (Foro Romano), is a rectangular forum (plaza) surrounded by the ruins of several important ancient government buildings at the center of the city of Rome.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
A roof is part of a building envelope.
Ross is an American chain of "off-price" (i.e., deeply discounted) department stores headquartered in Dublin, California, officially operating under the brandname, Ross Dress for Less.
Rowland Hussey Macy Sr. (August 30, 1822 – March 29, 1877) was an American businessman who founded the department store chain R.H. Macy and Company.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Rwanda (U Rwanda), officially the Republic of Rwanda (Repubulika y'u Rwanda; République du Rwanda), is a sovereign state in Central and East Africa and one of the smallest countries on the African mainland.
Saint Kitts and Nevis, also known as the Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis, is an island country in the West Indies.
Saint Lucia (Sainte-Lucie) is a sovereign island country in the West Indies in the eastern Caribbean Sea on the boundary with the Atlantic Ocean.
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is a sovereign state in the Lesser Antilles island arc, in the southern portion of the Windward Islands, which lies in the West Indies at the southern end of the eastern border of the Caribbean Sea where the latter meets the Atlantic Ocean.
Saks Fifth Avenue is an American luxury department store owned by the oldest commercial corporation in North America, the Hudson's Bay Company.
Samuel Moore Walton (March 29, 1918 – April 5, 1992) was an American businessman and entrepreneur best known for founding the retailers Walmart and Sam's Club.
Samoa, officially the Independent State of Samoa (Malo Saʻoloto Tutoʻatasi o Sāmoa; Sāmoa) and, until 4 July 1997, known as Western Samoa, is a unitary parliamentary democracy with eleven administrative divisions.
In statistics, quality assurance, and survey methodology, sampling is the selection of a subset (a statistical sample) of individuals from within a statistical population to estimate characteristics of the whole population.
San Marino, officially the Republic of San Marino (Repubblica di San Marino), also known as the Most Serene Republic of San Marino (Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino), is an enclaved microstate surrounded by Italy, situated on the Italian Peninsula on the northeastern side of the Apennine Mountains.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
Savile Row tailoring is traditional and modern, men and women's bespoke tailoring that takes place on Savile Row and neighbouring streets in Mayfair, Central London.
São Tomé and Príncipe, officially the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe, is an island nation in the Gulf of Guinea, off the western equatorial coast of Central Africa.
A schedule, often called a rota or roster, is a list of employees, and associated information e.g. location, working times, responsibilities for a given time period e.g. week, month or sports season.
Schwarz Gruppe is a private family-owned German retail group that owns and operates the Lidl and Kaufland brands.
Sears, Roebuck and Company, colloquially known as Sears, is an American chain of department stores founded by Richard Warren Sears and Alvah Curtis Roebuck in 1892, reincorporated (a formality for a history-making consumer sector initial public offering) by Richard Sears and new partner Julius Rosenwald in 1906.
Self-service is the practice of serving oneself, usually when purchasing items.
Selfridges, also known as Selfridges & Co., is a chain of high end department stores in the United Kingdom, operated by Selfridges Retail Limited.
Senegal (Sénégal), officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
In economics, a service is a transaction in which no physical goods are transferred from the seller to the buyer.
Services marketing is a specialised branch of marketing.
Servicescape is a model developed by Booms and Bitner to emphasize the impact of the physical environment in which a service process takes place.
Seychelles (French), officially the Republic of Seychelles (République des Seychelles; Creole: Repiblik Sesel), is an archipelago and sovereign state in the Indian Ocean.
Shopping is an activity in which a customer browses the available goods or services presented by one or more retailers with the potential intent to purchase a suitable selection of them.
TV Shopping channels are dedicated television specialty channels that broadcast products by demonstration or explanation targeted towards home shopping audiences some of who become consumers.
A shopping mall is a modern, chiefly North American, term for a form of shopping precinct or shopping center, in which one or more buildings form a complex of shops representing merchandisers with interconnecting walkways that enable customers to walk from unit to unit.
Sierra Leone, officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
Site selection indicates the practice of new facility location, both for business and government.
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.
Small businesses are privately owned corporations, partnerships, or sole proprietorships that have fewer employees and/or less annual revenue than a regular-sized business or corporation.
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia or SFRY) was a socialist state led by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars.
Solomon Islands is a sovereign country consisting of six major islands and over 900 smaller islands in Oceania lying to the east of Papua New Guinea and northwest of Vanuatu and covering a land area of.
Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.
A souq or souk (سوق, שוק shuq, Spanish: zoco, also spelled shuk, shooq, soq, esouk, succ, suk, sooq, suq, soek) is a marketplace or commercial quarter in Western Asian, North African and some Horn African cities (ሱቅ sooq).
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
South Sudan, officially known as the Republic of South Sudan, is a landlocked country in East-Central Africa.
South Yemen is the common English name for the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (جمهورية اليمن الديمقراطية الشعبية), which existed from 1967 to 1990 as a state in the Middle East in the southern and eastern provinces of the present-day Republic of Yemen, including the island of Socotra.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
A specialist store is a shop that caters to one specific retail market.
Sporting equipment, also called sporting goods, has various forms depending on the sport, but it is essential to complete the sport.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
Palestine (فلسطين), officially the State of Palestine (دولة فلسطين), is a ''de jure'' sovereign state in the Middle East claiming the West Bank (bordering Israel and Jordan) and Gaza Strip (bordering Israel and Egypt) with East Jerusalem as the designated capital, although its administrative center is currently located in Ramallah.
Stationery is a mass noun referring to commercially manufactured writing materials, including cut paper, envelopes, writing implements, continuous form paper, and other office supplies.
A retail manager (or store manager) is the person ultimately responsible for the day-to-day operations (or management) of a retail store.
A store-within-a-store, also referred to as shop-in-shop, is an agreement in which a retailer rents a part of the retail space to be used by a different company to run another, independent shop.
In the field of management, strategic management involves the formulation and implementation of the major goals and initiatives taken by an organization's top management on behalf of owners, based on consideration of resources and an assessment of the internal and external environments in which the organization operates.
Streaming media is multimedia that is constantly received by and presented to an end-user while being delivered by a provider.
A strip mall (also called a shopping plaza, shopping center, or mini-mall) is an open-air shopping mall where the stores are arranged in a row, with a sidewalk in front.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
A supermarket is a self-service shop offering a wide variety of food and household products, organized into aisles.
A supply chain is a system of organizations, people, activities, information, and resources involved in moving a product or service from supplier to customer.
Suriname (also spelled Surinam), officially known as the Republic of Suriname (Republiek Suriname), is a sovereign state on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America.
A surplus store or disposals store in the British Commonwealth sells items that are used, or purchased but unused, and no longer needed.
A field of applied statistics of human research surveys, survey methodology studies the sampling of individual units from a population and associated techniques of survey data collection, such as questionnaire construction and methods for improving the number and accuracy of responses to surveys.
A survival store, outdoors store, preparedness store or wilderness store is a retail outlet where survival or preparedness equipment can be purchased.
Swaziland, officially the Kingdom of Eswatini since April 2018 (Swazi: Umbuso weSwatini), is a landlocked sovereign state in Southern Africa.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Tajikistan (or; Тоҷикистон), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Jumhuriyi Tojikiston), is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an estimated population of million people as of, and an area of.
Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region.
Tax law is an area of legal study dealing with the constitutional, common-law, statutory, tax treaty, and regulatory rules that constitute the law applicable to taxation.
Telemarketing (sometimes known as inside sales, or telesales in the UK and Ireland) is a method of direct marketing in which a salesperson solicits prospective customers to buy products or services, either over the phone or through a subsequent face to face or Web conferencing appointment scheduled during the call.
A telephone, or phone, is a telecommunications device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far apart to be heard directly.
A television advertisement (also called a television commercial, commercial or ad in American English, and known in British English as a TV advert or simply an advert) is a span of television programming produced and paid for by an organization.
Tesco plc, trading as Tesco, is a British multinational groceries and general merchandise retailer with headquarters in Welwyn Garden City, Hertfordshire, England, United Kingdom.
A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread).
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
The Bahamas, known officially as the Commonwealth of The Bahamas, is an archipelagic state within the Lucayan Archipelago.
The Body Shop International Limited, trading as The Body Shop, is a British cosmetics, skin care and perfume company that was founded in 1976 by Dame Anita Roddick.
The Home Depot Inc. or Home Depot is an American home improvement supplies retailing company that sells tools, construction products, and services.
The May Department Stores Company was an American department store holding company, formerly headquartered in downtown St. Louis, Missouri.
Thomas John Watson Sr. (February 17, 1874 – June 19, 1956) was an American businessman.
The TJX Companies, Inc. is an American multinational off-price department store corporation, headquartered in Framingham, Massachusetts.
Tlatelolco (tɬateˈloːɬko) (also called Mexico Tlatelolco) was a prehispanic altepetl or city-state, in the Valley of Mexico.
Togo, officially the Togolese Republic (République Togolaise), is a sovereign state in West Africa bordered by Ghana to the west, Benin to the east and Burkina Faso to the north.
Tonga (Tongan: Puleʻanga Fakatuʻi ʻo Tonga), officially the Kingdom of Tonga, is a Polynesian sovereign state and archipelago comprising 169 islands, of which 36 are inhabited.
A town centre is the commercial or geographical centre or core area of a town.
A town square is an open public space commonly found in the heart of a traditional town used for community gatherings.
A toy store or toy shop, is a retail business specializing in selling toys.
Toys "R" Us, Inc. was an American toy, clothing, video game, and baby product retailer founded in April 1948, with its headquarters located in Wayne, New Jersey.
Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money.
Trajan's Forum (Forum Traiani; Foro di Traiano) was the last of the Imperial fora to be constructed in ancient Rome.
Trinidad and Tobago, officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is a twin island sovereign state that is the southernmost nation of the West Indies in the Caribbean.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Turkmenistan (or; Türkmenistan), (formerly known as Turkmenia) is a sovereign state in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.
The Turks and Caicos Islands (and), or TCI for short, are a British Overseas Territory consisting of the larger Caicos Islands and smaller Turks Islands, two groups of tropical islands in the Lucayan Archipelago of the Atlantic Ocean and northern West Indies.
Tuvalu, formerly known as the Ellice Islands, is a Polynesian island nation located in the Pacific Ocean, about midway between Hawaii and Australia, lying east-northeast of the Santa Cruz Islands (belonging to the Solomons), southeast of Nauru, south of Kiribati, west of Tokelau, northwest of Samoa and Wallis and Futuna and north of Fiji.
Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda (Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked country in East Africa.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Census Bureau (USCB; officially the Bureau of the Census, as defined in Title) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy.
Uruguay, officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay (República Oriental del Uruguay), is a sovereign state in the southeastern region of South America.
Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.
Value-based price (also value optimized pricing) is a pricing strategy which sets prices primarily, but not exclusively, according to the perceived or estimated value of a product or service to the customer rather than according to the cost of the product or historical prices.
Vanuatu (or; Bislama, French), officially the Republic of Vanuatu (République de Vanuatu, Bislama: Ripablik blong Vanuatu), is a Pacific island nation located in the South Pacific Ocean.
A variety store (also pound shop, dollar store, and other names) is a retail store that sells a wide range of inexpensive household goods.
A vending machine is an automated machine that provides items such as snacks, beverages, cigarettes and lottery tickets to consumers after money, a credit card, or specially designed card is inserted into the machine.
Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).
Vicenza is a city in northeastern Italy.
Victor David Gruen, born Viktor David Grünbaum retrieved 25 February 2012 (July 18, 1903 – February 14, 1980), was an Austrian-born architect best known as a pioneer in the design of shopping malls in the United States.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
A vision statement is a declaration of an organization's objectives, intended to guide its internal decision-making.
Visual merchandising is the practice in the retail industry of developing floor plans and three-dimensional displays in order to maximize sales.
Walgreens Boots Alliance, Inc. is an American holding company headquartered in Deerfield, Illinois, that owns Walgreens, Boots, and a number of pharmaceutical manufacturing, wholesale, and distribution companies.
Walmart Inc. (formerly branded as Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.) is an American multinational retail corporation that operates a chain of hypermarkets, discount department stores, and grocery stores.
Walter Dill Scott (May 1, 1869 – September 24, 1955) was one of the first applied psychologists.
Wardrobing is a form of return fraud.
A warehouse club (or wholesale club) is a retail store, usually selling a wide variety of merchandise, in which customers may buy large, wholesale quantities of the store's products, which makes these clubs attractive to both bargain hunters and small business owners.
A warehouse store or warehouse supermarket is a food and grocery retailer that operates stores geared toward offering deeper discounted prices than a traditional supermarket.
Wholesaling, jobbing, or distributing is the sale of goods or merchandise to retailers; to industrial, commercial, institutional, or other professional business users; or to other wholesalers and related subordinated services.
William Thomas Rawleigh (December 3, 1870 – January 23, 1951) was a businessman and politician in the state of Illinois.
Window shopping, sometimes called browsing, refers to an activity in which a consumer browses through or examines a store's merchandise as a form of leisure or external search behaviour without a current intent to buy.
The workforce or labour force (labor force in American English; see spelling differences) is the labour pool in employment.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
Zambia, officially the Republic of Zambia, is a landlocked country in south-central Africa, (although some sources prefer to consider it part of the region of east Africa) neighbouring the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the north-east, Malawi to the east, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia to the south, and Angola to the west.
Zanzibar is a semi-autonomous region of Tanzania.
Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of roughly million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980. Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then government and from which it withdrew from in December 2003. It is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule; he was the President of Zimbabwe from 1987 until his resignation in 2017. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, who was burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator". The country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état. On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed.
ZoomSystems specializes in the design, technology, software development, and operation of automated retail stores.
3D printing is any of various processes in which material is joined or solidified under computer control to create a three-dimensional object, with material being added together (such as liquid molecules or powder grains being fused together).
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