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The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs. [1]

199 relations: Action potential, Adaptive optics, Adeno-associated virus, Algorithm, Amacrine cell, Angiogenesis, Anti–vascular endothelial growth factor therapy, Axon, Bandwidth (computing), Basic helix-loop-helix, BioMed Central, Bipolar neuron, Bird, Blind spot (vision), Blood–retinal barrier, Blue field entoptic phenomenon, Brain, Brain mapping, Bruch's membrane, Camera, Cancer, Capillary, Capillary lamina of choroid, Central nervous system, Central retinal artery, Cephalopod, Charge-coupled device, Charles Schepens, Chemical synapse, Choroid, Citizen science, Color blindness, Colorfulness, Columbidae, Cone cell, Cone dystrophy, Contrast (vision), Corticosteroid, Cryotherapy, Cyclic guanosine monophosphate, Cyclic nucleotide–gated ion channel, Decorrelation, Diabetes mellitus, Diabetic retinopathy, Diencephalon, Difference of Gaussians, Dimension, Dog, Drosophila, Duplex retina, ..., Edge detection, Electroretinography, Embryogenesis, Endoplasmic reticulum, Entrainment (chronobiology), Evolution of the eye, External limiting membrane, Eye, Eye surgery, Eyewire, Floating-point arithmetic, Forkhead box d1, Fovea centralis, FOXG1, Friedrich Gustav Jakob Henle, Fundus (eye), Fundus photography, G protein, Ganglion cell, Ganglion cell layer, Gene therapy, Gene therapy of the human retina, George Wald, Golgi apparatus, Growth factor, Guinea pig, Haldan Keffer Hartline, Histology, Homeobox, Homology (biology), Human eye, Hypertension, Hypertensive retinopathy, Ignipuncture, Information theory, Inner limiting membrane, Inner nuclear layer, Inner plexiform layer, Intravitreal administration, Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells, Ion channel, Isomer, Laser coagulation, Lateral geniculate nucleus, Layer of rods and cones, Leber's congenital amaurosis, LHX2, Lipoprotein lipase deficiency, List of xanthoma variants associated with hyperlipoproteinemia subtypes, Macula of retina, Macular degeneration, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Matrix (mathematics), Mesopic vision, Microtubule, MIT Technology Review, Mitochondrion, Mollusca, Moorfields Eye Hospital, Muller glia, Nerve, Nerve fiber layer, Neuron, Neuropil, Neurotrophic factors, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Non-invasive procedure, Ophthalmic artery, Ophthalmoscopy, Opsin, Optic chiasm, Optic disc, Optic nerve, Optical coherence tomography, Optical fiber, Ora serrata, Organ transplantation, Outer nuclear layer, Outer plexiform layer, Parafovea, PAX6, Pecten oculi, PEDF, Photon, Photopic vision, Photopigment, Photoreceptor cell, Pixel, Plural, Posterior vitreous detachment, Primate, Progressive retinal atrophy, Ragnar Granit, Receptive field, Reflectance, Reptile, Retina bipolar cell, Retina horizontal cell, Retinal, Retinal detachment, Retinal dysplasia, Retinal ganglion cell, Retinal mosaic, Retinal pigment epithelium, Retinal scan, Retinitis pigmentosa, Retinoblastoma, Retinopathy of prematurity, Rhodopsin, Ribbon synapse, Ribosome, Robert MacLaren, Rod cell, Santiago Ramón y Cajal, Scholarpedia, Scleral buckle, Scotopic vision, Sebastian Seung, Serotype, SIX3, Sonic hedgehog, Sudden acquired retinal degeneration syndrome, Superior colliculus, Suprachiasmatic nucleus, Synapse, The New England Journal of Medicine, Tight junction, Tomography, Transcriptome, Transgene, Trichromacy, United States National Library of Medicine, University College London, University of Groningen, University of New South Wales, University of Pennsylvania, University of Utah, University of Würzburg, Utrecht University, Vascular endothelial growth factor, VAX1, Vertebrate, Visual angle, Visual cortex, Visual perception, Visual system, Vitrectomy, Vitreous body, White blood cell. Expand index (149 more) »

Action potential

In physiology, an action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a specific axon location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarise.

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Adaptive optics

Adaptive optics (AO) is a technology used to improve the performance of optical systems by reducing the effect of incoming wavefront distortions by deforming a mirror in order to compensate for the distortion.

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Adeno-associated virus

Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a small virus which infects humans and some other primate species.

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Algorithm

In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.

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Amacrine cell

Amacrine cells are interneurons in the retina.

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Angiogenesis

Angiogenesis is the physiological process through which new blood vessels form from pre-existing vessels.

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Anti–vascular endothelial growth factor therapy

Anti–vascular endothelial growth factor therapy, also known as anti-VEGF therapy or anti-VEGF medication, is the use of medications that block vascular endothelial growth factor.

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Axon

An axon (from Greek ἄξων áxōn, axis) or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses known as action potentials, away from the nerve cell body.

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Bandwidth (computing)

In computing, bandwidth is the maximum rate of data transfer across a given path.

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Basic helix-loop-helix

A basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) is a protein structural motif that characterizes one of the largest families of dimerizing transcription factors.

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BioMed Central

BioMed Central (BMC) is a United Kingdom-based, for-profit scientific open access publisher.

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Bipolar neuron

A bipolar neuron or bipolar cell, is a type of neuron which has two extensions.

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Bird

Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.

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Blind spot (vision)

A blind spot, scotoma, is an obscurity of the visual field.

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Blood–retinal barrier

The blood–retinal barrier, or the BRB, is part of the blood–ocular barrier that consists of cells that are joined tightly together to prevent certain substances from entering the tissue of the retina.

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Blue field entoptic phenomenon

The blue field entoptic phenomenon or Scheerer's phenomenon (after the German ophthalmologist Richard Scheerer, who first drew clinical attention to it in 1924) is the appearance of tiny bright dots (nicknamed blue-sky sprites) moving quickly along squiggly lines in the visual field, especially when looking into bright blue light such as the sky.

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Brain

The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.

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Brain mapping

Brain mapping is a set of neuroscience techniques predicated on the mapping of (biological) quantities or properties onto spatial representations of the (human or non-human) brain resulting in maps.

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Bruch's membrane

Bruch's membrane is the innermost layer of the choroid.

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Camera

A camera is an optical instrument for recording or capturing images, which may be stored locally, transmitted to another location, or both.

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Cancer

Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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Capillary

A capillary is a small blood vessel from 5 to 10 micrometres (µm) in diameter, and having a wall one endothelial cell thick.

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Capillary lamina of choroid

The capillary lamina of choroid or choriocapillaris is a layer of capillaries that is immediately adjacent to Bruch's membrane in the choroid.

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Central nervous system

The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.

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Central retinal artery

The central retinal artery (retinal artery) branches off the ophthalmic artery, running inferior to the optic nerve within its dural sheath to the eyeball.

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Cephalopod

A cephalopod is any member of the molluscan class Cephalopoda (Greek plural κεφαλόποδα, kephalópoda; "head-feet") such as a squid, octopus or nautilus.

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Charge-coupled device

A charge-coupled device (CCD) is a device for the movement of electrical charge, usually from within the device to an area where the charge can be manipulated, for example conversion into a digital value.

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Charles Schepens

Charles Louis Schepens (March 13, 1912 - March 28, 2006) was an influential Belgian (later American) ophthalmologist, regarded by many in the profession as "the father of modern retinal surgery",American Academy of Ophthalmology.

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Chemical synapse

Chemical synapses are biological junctions through which neurons' signals can be exchanged to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands.

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Choroid

The choroid, also known as the choroidea or choroid coat, is the vascular layer of the eye, containing connective tissues, and lying between the retina and the sclera.

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Christmas

Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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Christmas and holiday season

The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.

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Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.

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Christmas traditions

Christmas traditions vary from country to country.

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Citizen science

Citizen science (CS; also known as community science, crowd science, crowd-sourced science, civic science, volunteer monitoring, or networked science) is scientific research conducted, in whole or in part, by amateur (or nonprofessional) scientists.

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Color blindness

Color blindness, also known as color vision deficiency, is the decreased ability to see color or differences in color.

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Colorfulness

Colorfulness, chroma and saturation are attributes of perceived color relating to chromatic intensity.

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Columbidae

Pigeons and doves constitute the animal family Columbidae and the order Columbiformes, which includes about 42 genera and 310 species.

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Cone cell

Cone cells, or cones, are one of three types of photoreceptor cells in the retina of mammalian eyes (e.g. the human eye).

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Cone dystrophy

A cone dystrophy is an inherited ocular disorder characterized by the loss of cone cells, the photoreceptors responsible for both central and color vision.

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Contrast (vision)

Contrast is the difference in luminance or colour that makes an object (or its representation in an image or display) distinguishable.

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Corticosteroid

Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones.

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Cryotherapy

Cryotherapy, sometimes known as cold therapy, is the local or general use of low temperatures in medical therapy.

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Cyclic guanosine monophosphate

Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a cyclic nucleotide derived from guanosine triphosphate (GTP).

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Cyclic nucleotide–gated ion channel

Cyclic nucleotide–gated ion channels or CNG channels are ion channels that function in response to the binding of cyclic nucleotides.

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Decorrelation

Decorrelation is a general term for any process that is used to reduce autocorrelation within a signal, or cross-correlation within a set of signals, while preserving other aspects of the signal.

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Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.

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Diabetic retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy, also known as diabetic eye disease, is a medical condition in which damage occurs to the retina due to diabetes mellitus.

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Diencephalon

The diencephalon is a division of the forebrain (embryonic prosencephalon), and is situated between the telencephalon and the midbrain (embryonic mesencephalon).

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Difference of Gaussians

In imaging science, difference of Gaussians is a feature enhancement algorithm that involves the subtraction of one blurred version of an original image from another, less blurred version of the original.

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Dimension

In physics and mathematics, the dimension of a mathematical space (or object) is informally defined as the minimum number of coordinates needed to specify any point within it.

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Dog

The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris when considered a subspecies of the gray wolf or Canis familiaris when considered a distinct species) is a member of the genus Canis (canines), which forms part of the wolf-like canids, and is the most widely abundant terrestrial carnivore.

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Drosophila

Drosophila is a genus of flies, belonging to the family Drosophilidae, whose members are often called "small fruit flies" or (less frequently) pomace flies, vinegar flies, or wine flies, a reference to the characteristic of many species to linger around overripe or rotting fruit.

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Duplex retina

A duplex retina is a retina consisting of both rod cells and cone cells.

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Edge detection

Edge detection includes a variety of mathematical methods that aim at identifying points in a digital image at which the image brightness changes sharply or, more formally, has discontinuities.

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Electroretinography

Electroretinography measures the electrical responses of various cell types in the retina, including the photoreceptors (rods and cones), inner retinal cells (bipolar and amacrine cells), and the ganglion cells.

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Embryogenesis

Embryogenesis is the process by which the embryo forms and develops.

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Endoplasmic reticulum

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.

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Entrainment (chronobiology)

Entrainment, within the study of chronobiology, occurs when rhythmic physiological or behavioral events match their period to that of an environmental oscillation.

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Evolution of the eye

The evolution of the eye is attractive to study, because the eye distinctively exemplifies an analogous organ found in many animal forms.

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External limiting membrane

The external limiting membrane (or outer limiting membrane) is one of the ten distinct layers of the retina of the eye.

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Eye

Eyes are organs of the visual system.

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Eye surgery

Eye surgery, also known as ocular surgery, is surgery performed on the eye or its adnexa, typically by an ophthalmologist.

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Eyewire

Eyewire is a game to map the brain from Sebastian Seung's Lab at Princeton University.

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Floating-point arithmetic

In computing, floating-point arithmetic is arithmetic using formulaic representation of real numbers as an approximation so as to support a trade-off between range and precision.

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Forkhead box d1

Forkhead box D1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FOXD1 gene.

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Fovea centralis

The fovea centralis is a small, central pit composed of closely packed cones in the eye.

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FOXG1

Forkhead box protein G1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FOXG1 gene.

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Friedrich Gustav Jakob Henle

Friedrich Gustav Jakob Henle (9 July 1809 – 13 May 1885) was a German physician, pathologist, and anatomist.

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Fundus (eye)

The fundus of the eye is the interior surface of the eye opposite the lens and includes the retina, optic disc, macula, fovea, and posterior pole.

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Fundus photography

Fundus photography involves capturing a photograph of the back of the eye i.e. fundus.

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G protein

G proteins, also known as guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside cells, and are involved in transmitting signals from a variety of stimuli outside a cell to its interior.

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Ganglion cell

A ganglion cell is a cell found in a ganglion.

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Ganglion cell layer

The ganglion cell layer (ganglionic layer) is a layer of the retina that consists of retinal ganglion cells and displaced amacrine cells.

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Gene therapy

In the medicine field, gene therapy (also called human gene transfer) is the therapeutic delivery of nucleic acid into a patient's cells as a drug to treat disease.

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Gene therapy of the human retina

Retinal gene therapy holds a promise in treating different forms of non-inherited and inherited blindness.

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George Wald

George David Wald (November 18, 1906 – April 12, 1997) was an American scientist who studied pigments in the retina.

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Golgi apparatus

The Golgi apparatus, also known as the Golgi complex, Golgi body, or simply the Golgi, is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.

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Growth factor

A growth factor is a naturally occurring substance capable of stimulating cellular growth, proliferation, healing, and cellular differentiation.

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Guinea pig

The guinea pig or domestic guinea pig (Cavia porcellus), also known as cavy or domestic cavy, is a species of rodent belonging to the family Caviidae and the genus Cavia.

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Haldan Keffer Hartline

Haldan Keffer Hartline (December 22, 1903 – March 17, 1983) was an American physiologist who was a co-recipient (with George Wald and Ragnar Granit) of the 1967 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work in analyzing the neurophysiological mechanisms of vision.

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Histology

Histology, also microanatomy, is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy.

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Homeobox

A homeobox is a DNA sequence, around 180 base pairs long, found within genes that are involved in the regulation of patterns of anatomical development (morphogenesis) in animals, fungi and plants.

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Homology (biology)

In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.

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Human eye

The human eye is an organ which reacts to light and pressure.

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Hypertension

Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.

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Hypertensive retinopathy

Hypertensive retinopathy is damage to the retina and retinal circulation due to high blood pressure (i.e. hypertension).

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Ignipuncture

Ignipuncture (Latin: Ignis (fire) + puncture) is the procedure of closing a retinal separation by transfixation of the break via cauterization.

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Information theory

Information theory studies the quantification, storage, and communication of information.

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Inner limiting membrane

The inner limiting membrane is the boundary between the retina and the vitreous body, formed by astrocytes and the end feet of Müller cells.

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Inner nuclear layer

The inner nuclear layer or layer of inner granules, of the retina, is made up of a number of closely packed cells, of which there are three varieties, viz.: bipolar cells, horizontal cells, and amacrine cells.

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Inner plexiform layer

The inner plexiform layer is an area of the retina that is made up of a dense reticulum of fibrils formed by interlaced dendrites of retinal ganglion cells and cells of the inner nuclear layer.

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Intravitreal administration

Intravitreal is a route of administration of a drug or other substance, in which the substance is delivered into the eye.

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Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells

Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), also called photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGC), or melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs), are a type of neuron in the retina of the mammalian eye.

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Ion channel

Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins that allow ions to pass through the channel pore.

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Isomer

An isomer (from Greek ἰσομερής, isomerès; isos.

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Laser coagulation

Laser coagulation or laser photocoagulation surgery is used to treat a number of eye diseases and has become widely used in recent decades.

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Lateral geniculate nucleus

The lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN; also called the lateral geniculate body or lateral geniculate complex) is a relay center in the thalamus for the visual pathway.

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Layer of rods and cones

The elements composing the Layer of Rods and Cones (Jacob’s membrane) in the retina of the eye are of two kinds, rod cells and cone cells, the former being much more numerous than the latter except in the macula lutea.

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Leber's congenital amaurosis

Leber's congenital amaurosis (LCA) is a rare inherited eye disease that appears at birth or in the first few months of life.

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LHX2

LIM/homeobox protein Lhx2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LHX2 gene.

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Lipoprotein lipase deficiency

Lipoprotein lipase deficiency (also known as "familial chylomicronemia syndrome", "chylomicronemia", "chylomicronemia syndrome" and "hyperlipoproteinemia type Ia") is a rare autosomal recessive lipid disorder caused by a mutation in the gene which codes lipoprotein lipase.

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List of xanthoma variants associated with hyperlipoproteinemia subtypes

When the cholesterol levels in the body rise above the normal level a number of skin lesions can occur.

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Macula of retina

The macula or macula lutea is an oval-shaped pigmented area near the center of the retina of the human eye and some other animalian eyes.

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Macular degeneration

Macular degeneration, also known as age-related macular degeneration (AMD or ARMD), is a medical condition which may result in blurred or no vision in the center of the visual field.

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Massachusetts Institute of Technology

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.

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Matrix (mathematics)

In mathematics, a matrix (plural: matrices) is a rectangular array of numbers, symbols, or expressions, arranged in rows and columns.

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Mesopic vision

Mesopic vision is a combination of photopic vision and scotopic vision in low but not quite dark lighting situations.

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Microtubule

Microtubules are tubular polymers of tubulin that form part of the cytoskeleton that provides the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells and some bacteria with structure and shape.

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MIT Technology Review

MIT Technology Review is a magazine published by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

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Mitochondrion

The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.

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Mollusca

Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.

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Moorfields Eye Hospital

Moorfields Eye Hospital is a specialist NHS eye hospital in London, England run by Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust.

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Muller glia

Müller glia, or Müller cells, are a type of retinal glial cells, first recognized and described by Heinrich Müller.

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Nerve

A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (nerve fibers, the long and slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system.

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Nerve fiber layer

The retinal nerve fiber layer (nerve fiber layer, stratum opticum, RNFL) is formed by the expansion of the fibers of the optic nerve; it is thickest near the optic disc, gradually diminishing toward the ora serrata.

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Neuron

A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.

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Neuropil

Neuropil (or "neuropile") is any area in the nervous system composed of mostly unmyelinated axons, dendrites and glial cell processes that forms a synaptically dense region containing a relatively low number of cell bodies.

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Neurotrophic factors

Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) are a family of biomolecules – nearly all of which are peptides or small proteins – that support the growth, survival, and differentiation of both developing and mature neurons.

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New Year

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

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New Year's Day

New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.

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New Year's Eve

In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.

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Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.

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Non-invasive procedure

A medical procedure is defined as non-invasive when no break in the skin is created and there is no contact with the mucosa, or skin break, or internal body cavity beyond a natural or artificial body orifice.

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Ophthalmic artery

The ophthalmic artery (OA) is the first branch of the internal carotid artery distal to the cavernous sinus.

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Ophthalmoscopy

Ophthalmoscopy, also called funduscopy, is a test that allows a health professional to see inside the fundus of the eye and other structures using an ophthalmoscope (or funduscope).

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Opsin

Opsins are a group of proteins, made light-sensitive, via the chromophore retinal found in photoreceptor cells of the retina.

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Optic chiasm

The optic chiasm or optic chiasma (Greek χίασμα, "crossing", from the Greek χιάζω 'to mark with an X', after the Greek letter 'Χ', chi) is the part of the brain where the optic nerves partially cross.

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Optic disc

The optic disc or optic nerve head is the point of exit for ganglion cell axons leaving the eye.

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Optic nerve

The optic nerve, also known as cranial nerve II, is a paired nerve that transmits visual information from the retina to the brain.

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Optical coherence tomography

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging technique that uses coherent light to capture micrometer-resolution, two- and three-dimensional images from within optical scattering media (e.g., biological tissue).

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Optical fiber

An optical fiber or optical fibre is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair.

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Ora serrata

The ora serrata is the serrated junction between the retina and the ciliary body.

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Organ transplantation

Organ transplantation is a medical procedure in which an organ is removed from one body and placed in the body of a recipient, to replace a damaged or missing organ.

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Outer nuclear layer

The outer nuclear layer (or layer of outer granules or external nuclear layer), is one of the layers of the vertebrate retina, the light-detecting portion of the eye.

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Outer plexiform layer

The outer plexiform layer (external plexiform layer) is a layer of neuronal synapses in the retina of the eye.

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Parafovea

Parafovea or the parafoveal belt is a region in the retina that circumscribes the fovea and is part of the macula lutea.

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PAX6

Paired box protein Pax-6, also known as aniridia type II protein (AN2) or oculorhombin, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PAX6 gene.

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Pecten oculi

The pecten or pecten oculi is a comb-like structure of blood vessels belonging to the choroid in the eye of a bird.

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PEDF

Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) also known as serpin F1 (SERPINF1), is a multifunctional secreted protein that has anti-angiogenic, anti-tumorigenic, and neurotrophic functions.

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Photon

The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).

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Photopic vision

Photopic vision is the vision of the eye under well-lit conditions (luminance level 10 to 108 cd/m2).

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Photopigment

Photopigments are unstable pigments that undergo a chemical change when they absorb light.

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Photoreceptor cell

A photoreceptor cell is a specialized type of neuroepithelial cell found in the retina that is capable of visual phototransduction.

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Pixel

In digital imaging, a pixel, pel, dots, or picture element is a physical point in a raster image, or the smallest addressable element in an all points addressable display device; so it is the smallest controllable element of a picture represented on the screen.

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Plural

The plural (sometimes abbreviated), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical category of number.

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Posterior vitreous detachment

A posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) is a condition of the eye in which the vitreous membrane separates from the retina.

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Primate

A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").

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Progressive retinal atrophy

Progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) is a group of genetic diseases seen in certain breeds of dogs and, more rarely, cats.

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Ragnar Granit

Ragnar Arthur Granit (October 30, 1900 – March 12, 1991) was a Swedish-speaking Finnish and later Swedish scientist who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1967 along with Haldan Keffer Hartline and George Wald "for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye".

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Receptive field

The receptive field of an individual sensory neuron is the particular region of the sensory space (e.g., the body surface, or the visual field) in which a stimulus will modify the firing of that neuron.

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Reflectance

Reflectance of the surface of a material is its effectiveness in reflecting radiant energy.

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Reptile

Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.

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Retina bipolar cell

As a part of the retina, bipolar cells exist between photoreceptors (rod cells and cone cells) and ganglion cells.

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Retina horizontal cell

Horizontal cells are the laterally interconnecting neurons having cell bodies in the inner nuclear layer of the retina of vertebrate eyes.

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Retinal

Retinal is also known as retinaldehyde.

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Retinal detachment

Retinal detachment is a disorder of the eye in which the retina separates from the layer underneath.

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Retinal dysplasia

Retinal dysplasia is an eye disease affecting the retina of animals and, less commonly, humans.

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Retinal ganglion cell

A retinal ganglion cell (RGC) is a type of neuron located near the inner surface (the ganglion cell layer) of the retina of the eye.

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Retinal mosaic

Retinal mosaic is the name given to the distribution of any particular type of neuron across any particular layer in the retina.

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Retinal pigment epithelium

The pigmented layer of retina or retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is the pigmented cell layer just outside the neurosensory retina that nourishes retinal visual cells, and is firmly attached to the underlying choroid and overlying retinal visual cells.

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Retinal scan

A retinal scan is a biometric technique that uses the unique patterns on a person's retina blood vessels.

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Retinitis pigmentosa

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a genetic disorder of the eyes that causes loss of vision.

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Retinoblastoma

Retinoblastoma (Rb) is a rare form of cancer that rapidly develops from the immature cells of a retina, the light-detecting tissue of the eye.

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Retinopathy of prematurity

Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), also called retrolental fibroplasia (RLF) and Terry syndrome, is a disease of the eye affecting prematurely born babies generally having received intensive neonatal care, in which oxygen therapy is used on them due to the premature development of their lungs.

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Rhodopsin

Rhodopsin (also known as visual purple) is a light-sensitive receptor protein involved in visual phototransduction.

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Ribbon synapse

The ribbon synapse is a type of neuronal synapse characterized by the presence of an electron-dense structure, the synaptic ribbon, that holds vesicles close to the active zone.

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Ribosome

The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation).

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Robert MacLaren

Robert Elvis MacLaren FMedSci FRCOphth FRCS FACS VR is a British ophthalmologist who has led pioneering work in the treatment of blindness caused by diseases of the retina.

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Rod cell

Rod cells are photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye that can function in less intense light than the other type of visual photoreceptor, cone cells.

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Santiago Ramón y Cajal

Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1 May 1852 – 17 October 1934) was a Spanish neuroscientist and pathologist, specializing in neuroanatomy, particularly the histology of the central nervous system.

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Scholarpedia

Scholarpedia is an English-language online wiki-based encyclopedia with features commonly associated with open-access online academic journals, which aims to have quality content.

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Scleral buckle

A scleral buckle is one of several ophthalmologic procedures that can be used to repair a retinal detachment.

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Scotopic vision

Scotopic vision is the vision of the eye under low-light levels.

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Sebastian Seung

Hyunjune Sebastian Seung is a Korean American multi-disciplinary expert whose research efforts have spanned the fields of neuroscience, physics and bioinformatics.

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Serotype

A serotype or serovar is a distinct variation within a species of bacteria or virus or among immune cells of different individuals.

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SIX3

Homeobox protein SIX3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SIX3 gene.

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Sonic hedgehog

Sonic hedgehog is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SHH ("sonic hedgehog") gene.

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Sudden acquired retinal degeneration syndrome

Sudden acquired retinal degeneration syndrome (SARDS) is a disease in dogs causing sudden blindness.

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Superior colliculus

The superior colliculus (Latin, upper hill) is a paired structure of the mammalian midbrain.

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Suprachiasmatic nucleus

The suprachiasmatic nucleus or nuclei (SCN) is a tiny region of the brain in the hypothalamus, situated directly above the optic chiasm.

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Synapse

In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.

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The New England Journal of Medicine

The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) is a weekly medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society.

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Tight junction

Tight junctions, also known as occluding junctions or zonulae occludentes (singular, zonula occludens) are multiprotein junctional complex whose general function is to prevent leakage of transported solutes and water and seals the paracellular pathway.

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Tomography

Tomography is imaging by sections or sectioning, through the use of any kind of penetrating wave.

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Transcriptome

The transcriptome is the set of all RNA molecules in one cell or a population of cells.

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Transgene

A transgene is a gene or genetic material that has been transferred naturally, or by any of a number of genetic engineering techniques from one organism to another.

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Trichromacy

Trichromacy or trichromatism is the possessing of three independent channels for conveying color information, derived from the three different types of cone cells in the eye.

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United States National Library of Medicine

The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), operated by the United States federal government, is the world's largest medical library.

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University College London

University College London (UCL) is a public research university in London, England, and a constituent college of the federal University of London.

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University of Groningen

The University of Groningen (abbreviated as UG; Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, abbreviated as RUG) is a public research university in the city of Groningen in the Netherlands.

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University of New South Wales

The University of New South Wales (UNSW; branded as UNSW Sydney) is an Australian public research university located in the Sydney suburb of Kensington.

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University of Pennsylvania

The University of Pennsylvania (commonly known as Penn or UPenn) is a private Ivy League research university located in University City section of West Philadelphia.

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University of Utah

The University of Utah (also referred to as the U, U of U, or Utah) is a public coeducational space-grant research university in Salt Lake City, Utah, United States.

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University of Würzburg

The Julius Maximilian University of Würzburg (also referred to as the University of Würzburg, in German Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg) is a public research university in Würzburg, Germany.

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Utrecht University

Utrecht University (UU; Universiteit Utrecht, formerly Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht) is a university in Utrecht, the Netherlands.

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Vascular endothelial growth factor

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), originally known as vascular permeability factor (VPF), is a signal protein produced by cells that stimulates the formation of blood vessels.

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VAX1

Ventral anterior homeobox 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the VAX1 gene.

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Vertebrate

Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).

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Visual angle

The visual angle is the angle a viewed object subtends at the eye, usually stated in degrees of arc.

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Visual cortex

The visual cortex of the brain is a part of the cerebral cortex that processes visual information.

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Visual perception

Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment using light in the visible spectrum reflected by the objects in the environment.

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Visual system

The visual system is the part of the central nervous system which gives organisms the ability to process visual detail, as well as enabling the formation of several non-image photo response functions.

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Vitrectomy

Vitrectomy is surgery to remove some or all of the vitreous humor from the eye.

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Vitreous body

The vitreous body is the clear gel that fills the space between the lens and the retina of the eyeball of humans and other vertebrates.

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White blood cell

White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.

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2018

2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.

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2019

2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.

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Human retina, Lipemia retinalis, Nervous tunic, Retina disorder, Retinae, Retinal arteries and veins, Retinal circulation, Retinal disease, Retinal diseases, Retinal disorder, Retinal layers, Retinal lipemia, Retinal lipid, Retinal pigments, Retinal veins and arteries, Retinas, Tunica nervosa oculi, Tunica nervose oculi.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Retina

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