17 relations: Circadian rhythm, Entrainment (chronobiology), Glutamic acid, Hypothalamus, Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells, Mammal, Melanopsin, Melatonin, Nature Neuroscience, Optic chiasm, Optic nerve, Phase (waves), Pineal gland, Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide, Retinal ganglion cell, Suprachiasmatic nucleus, Zeitgeber.
A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours.
Entrainment, within the study of chronobiology, occurs when rhythmic physiological or behavioral events match their period to that of an environmental oscillation.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.
Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), also called photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGC), or melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs), are a type of neuron in the retina of the mammalian eye.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
Melanopsin is a type of photopigment belonging to a larger family of light-sensitive retinal proteins called opsins and encoded by the gene Opn4.
Melatonin, also known as N-acetyl-5-methoxy tryptamine, is a hormone that is produced by the pineal gland in animals and regulates sleep and wakefulness.
Nature Neuroscience is a monthly scientific journal published by Nature Publishing Group.
The optic chiasm or optic chiasma (Greek χίασμα, "crossing", from the Greek χιάζω 'to mark with an X', after the Greek letter 'Χ', chi) is the part of the brain where the optic nerves partially cross.
The optic nerve, also known as cranial nerve II, is a paired nerve that transmits visual information from the retina to the brain.
Phase is the position of a point in time (an instant) on a waveform cycle.
The pineal gland, also known as the conarium, kônarion or epiphysis cerebri, is a small endocrine gland in the vertebrate brain.
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide also known as PACAP is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ADCYAP1 gene.
A retinal ganglion cell (RGC) is a type of neuron located near the inner surface (the ganglion cell layer) of the retina of the eye.
The suprachiasmatic nucleus or nuclei (SCN) is a tiny region of the brain in the hypothalamus, situated directly above the optic chiasm.
A zeitgeber is any external or environmental cue that entrains or synchronizes an organism's biological rhythms to the Earth's 24-hour light/dark cycle and 12-month cycle.