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Retinol is one of the animal forms of vitamin A. It is a diterpenoid and an alcohol. [1]

112 relations: Acne vulgaris, Acute myeloid leukemia, Acute promyelocytic leukemia, Alcohol, Aldehyde, Antarctica, B cell, Bioavailability, Biochemist, Bone, Butter, Butterfat, Carboxylic acid, Carotene, Carotenoid, Carotenosis, Carrot, Cellular differentiation, Cheese, Chemical synthesis, Chromophore, Chylomicron, Cis–trans isomerism, Cochrane Collaboration, Cod liver oil, Color vision, Cornea, Dairy product, David Adriaan van Dorp, Dendritic cell, Developing country, Dietary Reference Intake, Diterpene, Double bond, Egg (food), Elmer McCollum, Embryonic stem cell, Epithelium, Ester, Food Standards Agency, Fruit, Genetically modified organism, George Wald, Glycoprotein, Golden rice, Growth hormone, Haematopoiesis, Hepatocyte, Human gastrointestinal tract, Human iron metabolism, ..., Hydrolysis, Hypervitaminosis A, International unit, Intracellular, Isotretinoin, JAMA (journal), Keratin, Keratomalacia, Keratosis pilaris, Lafayette Mendel, Leaf vegetable, Liver, Liver (food), Lung cancer, Lymphocyte, Macrophage, Margarine, Marguerite Davis, Microgram, Milk, Motor neuron, Natural killer cell, Neutrophil granulocyte, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Nutrition, Nyctalopia, Ommochrome, Opsin, Osteoporosis, Photopsin, Photoreceptor protein, Plant, Polyene, Postpartum depression, Protein precursor, Provitamin, Retina, Retinal, Retinoic acid, Retinoic acid receptor, Retinoid, Retinol binding protein, Retinyl acetate, Retinyl palmitate, Rhodopsin, Saturation (chemistry), Schiff base, Solubility, Spinach, Switzerland, T cell, Teratology, Terpenoid, Tooth, Tretinoin, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Vertebrate, Visual system, Vitamin A, Xavier Mertz, Xeroderma, Yale University. Expand index (62 more) »

Acne vulgaris

Acne vulgaris (or simply acne) is a long-term skin condition characterized by areas of blackheads, whiteheads, pimples, greasy skin, and possibly scarring.

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Acute myeloid leukemia

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML), also known as acute myelogenous leukemia or acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL), is a cancer of the myeloid line of blood cells, characterized by the rapid growth of abnormal white blood cells that accumulate in the bone marrow and interfere with the production of normal blood cells.

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Acute promyelocytic leukemia

Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APML, APL) is the M3 subtype of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), a cancer of the white blood cells.

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In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a saturated carbon atom.

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An aldehyde or alkanal is an organic compound containing a formyl group.

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Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent, containing the geographic South Pole.

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B cell

B cells, also known as B lymphocytes, are a type of white blood cell of the lymphocyte subtype.

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In pharmacology, bioavailability (BA) is a subcategory of absorption and is the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs.

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Biochemists are scientists that are trained in biochemistry.

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A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebral skeleton.

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Butter is a solid dairy product made by churning fresh or fermented cream or milk, to separate the butterfat from the buttermilk.

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Butterfat or milkfat is the fatty portion of milk.

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Carboxylic acid

A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(O)OH).

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The term carotene (also carotin, from the Latin carota, "carrot") is used for many related unsaturated hydrocarbon substances having the formula C40Hx, which are synthesized by plants but in general cannot be made by animals (with the sole known exception of some aphids and spider mites which acquired the synthetic genes from fungi).

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Carotenoids are organic pigments that are found in the chloroplasts and chromoplasts of plants and some other photosynthetic organisms, including some bacteria and some fungi.

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Carotenemia or carotenaemia (xanthaemia) is the presence of the orange pigment carotene in blood from excessive intake of carrots or other vegetables containing the pigment resulting in increased serum carotenoids.

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The carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus) is a root vegetable, usually orange in colour, though purple, red, white, and yellow varieties exist.

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Cellular differentiation

In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is Most commonly this is a less specialized type becoming a more specialized type, such as during cell growth.

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Cheese is a food derived from milk that is produced in a wide range of flavors, textures, and forms by coagulation of the milk protein casein.

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Chemical synthesis

In chemistry, chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.

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A chromophore is the part of a molecule responsible for its color.

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Chylomicrons (from the Greek chylø, meaning juice or milky fluid, and micron, meaning small particle) are lipoprotein particles that consist of triglycerides (85–92%), phospholipids (6–12%), cholesterol (1–3%), and proteins (1–2%).

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Cis–trans isomerism

Cis/trans isomerism (geometric isomerism, configurational isomerism) is a term used in organic chemistry to refer to the stereoisomerism engendered in the relative orientation of functional groups within a molecule.

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Cochrane Collaboration

The Cochrane Collaboration is an independent, non-profit, non-governmental organization consisting of a group of more than 37,000 volunteers in more than 130 countries.

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Cod liver oil

Cod liver oil is a nutritional supplement derived from liver of cod fish.

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Color vision

Color vision is the ability of an organism or machine to distinguish objects based on the wavelengths (or frequencies) of the light they reflect, emit, or transmit.

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The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber.

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Dairy product

A dairy product or milk product is food produced from the milk of mammals.

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David Adriaan van Dorp

David 'Davy' Adriaan van Dorp (April 27, 1915 in Amsterdam – February 19, 1995 in Vlaardingen) was a Dutch chemist.

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Dendritic cell

Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells (also known as accessory cells) of the mammalian immune system.

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Developing country

A developing country, also called a less developed country or underdeveloped country, is a nation with an underdeveloped industrial base, and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.

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Dietary Reference Intake

The Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) is a system of nutrition recommendations from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academies (United States).

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Diterpene, a type of terpene, is an organic compound composed of four isoprene units and has the molecular formula C20H32.

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Double bond

A double bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two chemical elements involving four bonding electrons instead of the usual two.

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Egg (food)

Eggs are laid by female animals of many different species, including birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish, and have been eaten by humans for thousands of years.

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Elmer McCollum

Elmer Verner McCollum ForMemRS (March 3, 1879 – November 15, 1967) was an American biochemist known for his work on the influence of diet on health.

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Embryonic stem cell

Embryonic stem cells (ES cells) are pluripotent stem cells derived from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst, an early-stage preimplantation embryo.

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Epithelium (''epi-'' + ''thele'' + ''-ium'') is one of the four basic types of animal tissue.

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In chemistry, esters are chemical compounds derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one -OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an -O-alkyl (alkoxy) group.

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Food Standards Agency

The Food Standards Agency is a non-ministerial government department of the Government of the United Kingdom.

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In botany, a fruit is a part of a flowering plant that derives from specific tissues of the flower, one or more ovaries, and in some cases accessory tissues.

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Genetically modified organism

A genetically modified organism (GMO), also known as a transgenic organism, is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques.

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George Wald

George Wald (November 18, 1906 – April 12, 1997) was an American scientist who is best known for his work with pigments in the retina.

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Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to polypeptide side-chains.

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Golden rice


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Growth hormone

Growth hormone (GH or HGH), also known as somatotropin or somatropin, is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction and regeneration in humans and other animals.

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Haematopoiesis (from Greek αἷμα, "blood" and ποιεῖν "to make"; also hematopoiesis in American English; sometimes also haemopoiesis or hemopoiesis) is the formation of blood cellular components.

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A hepatocyte is a cell of the main parenchymal tissue of the liver.

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Human gastrointestinal tract

The human gastrointestinal tract, or GI tract, or GIT is an organ system responsible for consuming and digesting foodstuffs, absorbing nutrients, and expelling waste.

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Human iron metabolism

Human iron metabolism is the set of chemical reactions maintaining human homeostasis of iron at both the systemic and cellular level.

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Hydrolysis usually means the cleavage of chemical bonds by the addition of water.

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Hypervitaminosis A

Hypervitaminosis A refers to the toxic effects of ingesting too much preformed vitamin A. Symptoms arise as a result of altered bone metabolism and altered metabolism of other fat-soluble vitamins.

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International unit

In pharmacology, the international unit is a unit of measurement for the amount of a substance; the mass or volume that constitutes one international unit varies based on which substance is being measured, and the variance is based on the biological activity or effect, for the purpose of easier comparison across substances.

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In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word intracellular means "inside the cell".

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Isotretinoin (INN) (etymology and pronunciation), also known as 13-cis retinoic acid and first marketed as Accutane by Hoffmann-La Roche, is an oral pharmaceutical drug primarily used to treat cystic acne.

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JAMA (journal)

JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association is a peer-reviewed medical journal published 48 times a year by the American Medical Association.

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Keratin is a family of fibrous structural proteins.

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Keratomalacia is an eye disorder that results from vitamin A deficiency.

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Keratosis pilaris

Keratosis pilaris (KP) (also follicular keratosis, lichen pilaris, or colloquially "chicken skin") is a common, autosomal dominant, genetic follicular condition characterized by the appearance of rough, slightly red, bumps on the skin.

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Lafayette Mendel

Lafayette Benedict Mendel (February 5, 1872 – December 9, 1935) was an American biochemist known for his work in nutrition including the study of Vitamin A, Vitamin B, lysine and tryptophan.

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Leaf vegetable

Leaf vegetables, also called potherbs, greens, vegetable greens, leafy greens or salad greens, are plant leaves eaten as a vegetable, sometimes accompanied by tender petioles and shoots.

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The liver is a vital organ of vertebrates and some other animals.

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Liver (food)

The liver of mammals, fowl, and fish is commonly eaten as food by humans.

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Lung cancer

Lung cancer, also known as carcinoma of the lung or pulmonary carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.

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A lymphocyte is one of the three subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system.

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Macrophages (big eaters, from makros "large" + phagein "eat"; abbr. MΦ) are a type of white blood cell that engulfs and digests cellular debris, foreign substances, microbes, cancer cells, and anything else that does not have the types of proteins specific to the surface of healthy body cells on its surface in a process called phagocytosis.

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Margarine is an imitation butter spread used for spreading, baking, and cooking.

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Marguerite Davis

Marguerite Davis (September 16, 1887, Racine, Wisconsin - September 19, 1967, Racine, Wisconsin) was the co-discoverer of vitamins A and B with Elmer Verner McCollum in 1913.

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In the metric system, a microgram (µg; in the U.S. recommended when communicating medical information: mcg) is a unit of mass equal to one billionth of a kilogram, one millionth of a gram, or one thousandth of a milligram.

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Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals.

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Motor neuron

A motor neuron (or motoneuron) is a nerve cell (neuron) whose cell body is located in the spinal cord and whose fiber (axon) projects outside the spinal cord to directly or indirectly control muscles.

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Natural killer cell

Natural killer cells or NK cells are a type of cytotoxic lymphocyte critical to the innate immune system.

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Neutrophil granulocyte

Neutrophil granulocytes (also known as neutrophils) are the most abundant (40% to 75%) type of white blood cells in most mammals and form an essential part of the innate immune system.

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Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin) administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.

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Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food (e.g. phytonutrients, anthocyanins, tannins, etc.) in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism.

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Nyctalopia (from Greek νύκτ-, nykt- "night"; αλαός, alaos "blind, not seeing", and ὄψ, ops "eye"), also called night-blindness, is a condition making it difficult or impossible to see in relatively low light.

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Ommochrome (or visual pigment) refers to several biological pigments that occur in the eyes of crustaceans and insects.

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Opsins are a group of light-sensitive proteins found in photoreceptor cells of the retina.

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Osteoporosis is a disease where decreased bone strength increases the risk of a broken bone.

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Photopsins (also known as Cone opsins) are the photoreceptor proteins found in the cone cells of the retina that are the basis of color vision.

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Photoreceptor protein

Photoreceptor proteins are light-sensitive proteins involved in the sensing and response to light in a variety of organisms.

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Plants, also called green plants, are multicellular eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.

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Polyenes are poly-unsaturated organic compounds that contain one or more sequences of alternating double and single carbon–carbon bonds.

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Postpartum depression

Postpartum depression (PPD), also called postnatal depression, is a type of clinical depression which can affect both sexes after childbirth.

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Protein precursor

A protein precursor, also called a pro-protein or pro-peptide, is an inactive protein (or peptide) that can be turned into an active form by posttranslational modification.

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A provitamin is a substance that may be converted within the body to a vitamin.

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The retina (pl. retinae,; from Latin rēte, meaning "net") is the third and inner coat of the eye which is a light-sensitive layer of tissue.

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Retinal, also called retinaldehyde or vitamin A aldehyde, is one of the many forms of vitamin A (the number of which varies from species to species).

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Retinoic acid

Retinoic acid is a metabolite of vitamin A (retinol) that mediates the functions of vitamin A required for growth and development.

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Retinoic acid receptor

The retinoic acid receptor (RAR) is a type of nuclear receptor which can also act as a transcription factor that is activated by both all-trans retinoic acid and 9-cis retinoic acid.

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The retinoids are a class of chemical compounds that are vitamers of vitamin A or are chemically related to it.

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Retinol binding protein

Retinol-binding proteins (RBP) are a family of proteins with diverse functions.

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Retinyl acetate

Retinyl acetate (retinol acetate, vitamin A acetate) is a natural form of vitamin A which is the acetate ester of retinol.

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Retinyl palmitate

Retinyl palmitate, or vitamin A palmitate, is the ester of retinol (vitamin A) and palmitic acid, with formula C36H60O2.

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Rhodopsin, also known as visual purple, from Ancient Greek ῥόδον (rhódon, “rose”), due to its pinkish color, and ὄψις (ópsis, “sight”), is a light-sensitive receptor protein.

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Saturation (chemistry)

In chemistry, saturation (from the Latin word saturare, meaning to fill) has diverse meanings, all based on reaching a maximum capacity.

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Schiff base

A Schiff base, named after Hugo Schiff, is a compound with the general structure R2C.

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Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid, or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid, or gaseous solvent to form a solution of the solute in the solvent.

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Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) is an edible flowering plant in the family Amaranthaceae native to central and western Asia.

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Switzerland (Schweiz;Swiss Standard German spelling and pronunciation. The Swiss German name is sometimes spelled as Schwyz or Schwiiz. Schwyz is also the standard German (and international) name of one of the Swiss cantons. Suisse; Svizzera; Svizra or),The latter is the common Sursilvan pronunciation.

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T cell

T cells or T lymphocytes are a type of lymphocyte (in turn, a type of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.

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Teratology is the study of abnormalities of physiological development.

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The terpenoids, sometimes called isoprenoids, are a large and diverse class of naturally occurring organic chemicals similar to terpenes, derived from five-carbon isoprene units assembled and modified in thousands of ways.

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A tooth (plural teeth) is a small, calcified, whitish structure found in the jaws (or mouths) of many vertebrates and used to break down food.

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Tretinoin (etymology and pronunciation) is retinoic acid in pharmaceutical form.

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University of Wisconsin–Madison

The University of Wisconsin–Madison (also known as University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin, "UW", or regionally as, UW–Madison, or simply Madison) is a public research university located in Madison, Wisconsin, United States.

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Vertebrates comprise any species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).

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Visual system

The visual system is the part of the central nervous system which gives organisms the ability to process visual detail, as well as enabling the formation of several non-image photo response functions.

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Vitamin A

Vitamin A is a group of unsaturated nutritional organic compounds, that includes retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, and several provitamin A carotenoids, and beta-carotene.

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Xavier Mertz

Xavier Mertz (6 October 1882 – 8 January 1913) was a Swiss explorer, mountaineer and skier, from Basel.

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Xeroderma or xerodermia (also known as xerosis cutis), derived from the Greek words for "dry skin", is a condition involving the integumentary system, which in most cases can safely be treated with emollients or moisturizers.

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Yale University

Yale University is a private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.

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Redirects here:

ATC code A11CA01, ATC code D10AD02, ATC code R01AX02, ATC code S01XA02, ATCvet code QA11CA01, ATCvet code QD10AD02, ATCvet code QR01AX02, ATCvet code QS01XA02, Afaxin, Alphalin, Polar bear liver, Retinol equivalent, Retinol metabolism, Retinol-binding proteins, Trans retinol, Vi-dom-a, Vitamin A1, Vitamin a solubilized.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Retinol

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