37 relations: Action potential, Amino acid, Amphetamine, Aquifex aeolicus, Aspartic acid, Astrocyte, Autoreceptor, Axon terminal, Cell membrane, Chloride, Citalopram, Cytoplasm, Desipramine, Dopamine, Dopamine transporter, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, Glutamic acid, Glycine, Knockout mouse, Membrane transport protein, Monoamine neurotransmitter, Neuroglia, Neuron, Neurotransmitter, Neurotransmitter transporter, Norepinephrine, Proline, Reuptake inhibitor, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Serotonin, Serotonin transporter, SLC1A2, Sodium, Symporter, Synapse, TAAR1, Transport protein.
In physiology, an action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a specific axon location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarise.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.
"Aquifex aeolicus" is a rod-shaped bacterium with a length of 2 to 6 micrometers and a diameter of around half a micrometer.
Aspartic acid (symbol Asp or D; salts known as aspartates), is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Astrocytes (Astro from Greek astron.
An autoreceptor is a type of receptor located in the membranes of presynaptic nerve cells.
Axon terminals (also called synaptic boutons or terminal boutons) are distal terminations of the telodendria (branches) of an axon.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.
Citalopram (brand names: Celexa, Cipramil and others) is an antidepressant drug of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.
Desipramine, sold under the brand name Norpramin and Pertofrane among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) which is used in the treatment of depression.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
The dopamine transporter (also dopamine active transporter, DAT, SLC6A3) is a membrane-spanning protein that pumps the neurotransmitter dopamine out of the synaptic cleft back into cytosol.
gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Glycine (symbol Gly or G) is the amino acid that has a single hydrogen atom as its side chain.
A knockout mouse or knock-out mouse is a genetically modified mouse (Mus musculus) in which researchers have inactivated, or "knocked out", an existing gene by replacing it or disrupting it with an artificial piece of DNA.
A membrane transport protein (or simply transporter) is a membrane protein involved in the movement of ions, small molecules, or macromolecules, such as another protein, across a biological membrane.
Monoamine neurotransmitters are neurotransmitters and neuromodulators that contain one amino group that is connected to an aromatic ring by a two-carbon chain (such as -CH2-CH2-). All monoamines are derived from aromatic amino acids like phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, and the thyroid hormones by the action of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase enzymes.
Neuroglia, also called glial cells or simply glia, are non-neuronal cells in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Neurotransmitter transporters are a class of membrane transport proteins that span the cellular membranes of neurons.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
Proline (symbol Pro or P) is a proteinogenic amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
A reuptake inhibitor (RI) is a type of drug known as a reuptake modulator that inhibits the plasmalemmal transporter-mediated reuptake of a neurotransmitter from the synapse into the pre-synaptic neuron.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
The serotonin transporter (SERT or 5-HTT) also known as the sodium-dependent serotonin transporter and solute carrier family 6 member 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC6A4 gene.
Excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2) also known as solute carrier family 1 member 2 (SLC1A2) and glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC1A2 gene.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
A symporter is an integral membrane protein that is involved in the transport of many differing types of molecules across the cell membrane.
In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.
Trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) is a trace amine-associated receptor (TAAR) protein that in humans is encoded by the TAAR1 gene.
A transport protein (variously referred to as a transmembrane pump, transporter, escort protein, acid transport protein, cation transport protein, or anion transport protein) is a protein that serves the function of moving other materials within an organism.