107 relations: Acetylcholine, Active ingredient, Active site, Active transport, Adenosine, Adenosine reuptake inhibitor, Adhyperforin, Adrenaline, Allosteric regulation, Allosteric serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Amino acid reuptake inhibitor, Antidepressant, Aspartic acid, Benocyclidine, Benzatropine, Binding site, Calcium, Cell (biology), Cell membrane, Choline, Citalopram, Cocaine, Competitive inhibition, Concentration, Conformational change, Cytoplasm, Dizocilpine, Dopamine, Dopamine reuptake inhibitor, Drug, Enantiomer, Endocannabinoid reuptake inhibitor, Endocannabinoid system, Enzyme, Escitalopram, Excitatory amino acid reuptake inhibitor, Extracellular, GABA reuptake inhibitor, Glutamic acid, Glycine, Glycine reuptake inhibitor, Hemicholinium-3, Hyperforin, Hypericum perforatum, Indatraline, Intracellular, Ion channel, Irreversible process, Ketamine, Ligand (biochemistry), ..., Marketing, Mazindol, Medication, Medicinal plants, Membrane transport protein, Metabolism, Molecular binding, Monoamine neurotransmitter, Monoamine oxidase, Monoamine releasing agent, Monoamine reuptake inhibitor, Monoamine transporter, Nerve, Neuron, Neurotransmission, Neurotransmitter, Neurotransmitter transporter, Non-competitive inhibition, Norepinephrine, Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Norepinephrine–dopamine reuptake inhibitor, Phencyclidine, Phosphorylation, Physiology, Precursor (chemistry), Psychology, Receptor antagonist, Receptor theory, Research chemical, Reserpine, Reuptake, Reuptake modulator, Reverse transport, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Serotonin, Serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Serotonin transporter, Serotonin–dopamine reuptake inhibitor, Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Serotonin–norepinephrine–dopamine reuptake inhibitor, Sodium, Stimulant, Substrate (chemistry), Synapse, Synaptic vesicle, Tenocyclidine, Tetrabenazine, Transient receptor potential channel, Transport protein, Triethylcholine, TRPC6, Vanoxerine, Vesamicol, Vesicle (biology and chemistry), Vesicular acetylcholine transporter, Vesicular monoamine transporter, Vesicular monoamine transporter 2. Expand index (57 more) » « Shrink index
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
An active ingredient (AI) is the ingredient in a pharmaceutical drug that is biologically active.
In biology, the active site is the region of an enzyme where substrate molecules bind and undergo a chemical reaction.
Active transport is the movement of molecules across a membrane from a region of their lower concentration to a region of their higher concentration—in the direction against the concentration gradient.
Adenosine is both a chemical found in many living systems and a medication.
An adenosine reuptake inhibitor (AdoRI) is a type of drug which acts as a reuptake inhibitor for the purine nucleoside and neurotransmitter adenosine by blocking the action of one or more of the equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs).
Adhyperforin is a phytochemical found in the members of the plant genus Hypericum including St. John's Wort.
Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.
In biochemistry, allosteric regulation (or allosteric control) is the regulation of an enzyme by binding an effector molecule at a site other than the enzyme's active site.
Allosteric serotonin reuptake inhibitor is a type of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI).
An amino acid reuptake inhibitor (AARI) is a type of drug which inhibits the reuptake of one or more amino acid neurotransmitters (i.e., glutamate, aspartate, GABA, and/or glycine) by blocking one or more of their respective transporters.
Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.
Aspartic acid (symbol Asp or D; salts known as aspartates), is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Benocyclidine, also known as benzothiophenylcyclohexylpiperidine (BTCP), is a psychoactive recreational drug of the arylcyclohexylamine class which is related to phencyclidine (PCP).
Benzatropine, also known as benztropine, is an anticholinergic marketed under the trade name Cogentin which is used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, Parkinsonism, and dystonia.
In biochemistry, a binding site is a region on a protein or piece of DNA or RNA to which ligands (specific molecules and/or ions) may form a chemical bond.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
Choline is a water-soluble vitamin-like essential nutrient.
Citalopram (brand names: Celexa, Cipramil and others) is an antidepressant drug of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
Competitive inhibition is a form of enzyme inhibition where binding of an inhibitor prevents binding of the target molecule of the enzyme, also known as the substrate.
In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.
In biochemistry, a conformational change is a change in the shape of a macromolecule, often induced by environmental factors.
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.
Dizocilpine (INN), also known as MK-801, is a noncompetitive antagonist of the ''N''-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, a glutamate receptor, discovered by a team at Merck in 1982.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
A dopamine reuptake inhibitor (DRI) is a class of drug which acts as a reuptake inhibitor of the monoamine neurotransmitter dopamine by blocking the action of the dopamine transporter (DAT).
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.
In chemistry, an enantiomer, also known as an optical isomer (and archaically termed antipode or optical antipode), is one of two stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other that are non-superposable (not identical), much as one's left and right hands are the same except for being reversed along one axis (the hands cannot be made to appear identical simply by reorientation).
Endocannabinoid reuptake inhibitors (eCBRIs), also called cannabinoid reuptake inhibitors (CBRIs), are drugs which limit the reabsorption of endocannabinoid neurotransmitters by the releasing neuron.
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a biological system composed of endocannabinoids, which are endogenous lipid-based retrograde neurotransmitters that bind to cannabinoid receptors, and cannabinoid receptor proteins that are expressed throughout the mammalian central nervous system (including the brain) and peripheral nervous system.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Escitalopram, sold under the brand names Cipralex and Lexapro among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.
An excitatory amino acid reuptake inhibitor (EAARI) is a type of drug which inhibits the reuptake of the excitatory neurotransmitters glutamate and aspartate by blocking one or more of the excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs).
In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word extracellular (or sometimes extracellular space) means "outside the cell".
A GABA reuptake inhibitor (GRI) is a type of drug which acts as a reuptake inhibitor for the neurotransmitter gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) by blocking the action of the gamma-Aminobutyric acid transporters (GATs).
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Glycine (symbol Gly or G) is the amino acid that has a single hydrogen atom as its side chain.
A glycine reuptake inhibitor (GRI) is a type of drug which inhibits the reuptake of the neurotransmitter glycine by blocking one or more of the glycine transporters (GlyTs).
Hemicholinium-3 (HC3), also known as hemicholine, is a drug which blocks the reuptake of choline by the high-affinity choline transporter (ChT; encoded in humans by the gene SLC5A7) at the presynapse.
Hyperforin is a phytochemical produced by some of the members of the plant genus Hypericum, notably Hypericum perforatum (St John's wort).
Hypericum perforatum, known as perforate St John's-wort, common Saint John's wort and St John's wort, is a flowering plant in the family Hypericaceae.
Indatraline (Lu 19-005) is a non-selective monoamine transporter inhibitor that has been shown to block the reuptake of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin with effects similar to those of cocaine.
In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word intracellular means "inside the cell".
Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins that allow ions to pass through the channel pore.
In science, a process that is not reversible is called irreversible.
Ketamine, sold under the brand name Ketalar among others, is a medication mainly used for starting and maintaining anesthesia.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.
Marketing is the study and management of exchange relationships.
Mazindol (brand names Mazanor, Sanorex) is a stimulant drug which is used as an appetite suppressant.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Medicinal plants, also called medicinal herbs, have been discovered and used in traditional medicine practices since prehistoric times.
A membrane transport protein (or simply transporter) is a membrane protein involved in the movement of ions, small molecules, or macromolecules, such as another protein, across a biological membrane.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Molecular binding is an attractive interaction between two molecules that results in a stable association in which the molecules are in close proximity to each other.
Monoamine neurotransmitters are neurotransmitters and neuromodulators that contain one amino group that is connected to an aromatic ring by a two-carbon chain (such as -CH2-CH2-). All monoamines are derived from aromatic amino acids like phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, and the thyroid hormones by the action of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase enzymes.
L-Monoamine oxidases (MAO) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of monoamines.
A monoamine releasing agent (MRA), or simply monoamine releaser, is a drug that induces the release of a monoamine neurotransmitter from the presynaptic neuron into the synapse, leading to an increase in the extracellular concentrations of the neurotransmitter.
A monoamine reuptake inhibitor (MRI) is a drug that acts as a reuptake inhibitor of one or more of the three major monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine by blocking the action of one or more of the respective monoamine transporters (MATs), which include the serotonin transporter (SERT), norepinephrine transporter (NET), and dopamine transporter (DAT).
Monoamine transporters (MATs) are protein structures that function as integral plasma-membrane transporters to regulate concentrations of extracellular monoamine neurotransmitters.
A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (nerve fibers, the long and slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neurotransmission (Latin: transmissio "passage, crossing" from transmittere "send, let through"), also called synaptic transmission, is the process by which signaling molecules called neurotransmitters are released by the axon terminal of a neuron (the presynaptic neuron), and bind to and activate the receptors on the dendrites of another neuron (the postsynaptic neuron).
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Neurotransmitter transporters are a class of membrane transport proteins that span the cellular membranes of neurons.
Non-competitive inhibition is a type of enzyme inhibition where the inhibitor reduces the activity of the enzyme and binds equally well to the enzyme whether or not it has already bound the substrate.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
A norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NRI, NERI) or adrenergic reuptake inhibitor (ARI), is a type of drug that acts as a reuptake inhibitor for the neurotransmitters norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline) by blocking the action of the norepinephrine transporter (NET).
A norepinephrine–dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI) is a drug that acts as a reuptake inhibitor for the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine by blocking the action of the norepinephrine transporter (NET) and the dopamine transporter (DAT), respectively.
Phencyclidine (PCP), also known as angel dust among other names, is a drug used for its mind altering effects.
In chemistry, phosphorylation of a molecule is the attachment of a phosphoryl group.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
In chemistry, a precursor is a compound that participates in a chemical reaction that produces another compound.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist.
Receptor theory is the application of receptor models to explain drug behavior.
Research chemicals are chemical substances used by scientists for medical and scientific research purposes.
Reserpine (also known by trade names Raudixin, Serpalan, Serpasil) is an indole alkaloid, Major Types Of Chemical Compounds In Plants & Animals Part II: Phenolic Compounds, Glycosides & Alkaloids. Wayne's Word: An On-Line Textbook of Natural History.
Reuptake is the reabsorption of a neurotransmitter by a neurotransmitter transporter located along the plasma membrane of an axon terminal (i.e., the pre-synaptic neuron at a synapse) or glial cell after it has performed its function of transmitting a neural impulse.
A reuptake modulator, or transporter modulator, is a type of drug which modulates the reuptake of one or more neurotransmitters via their respective neurotransmitter transporters.
Reverse transport, or transporter reversal, is a phenomenon in which the substrates of a membrane transport protein are moved in the opposite direction to that of their typical movement by the transporter.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
A serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) is a type of drug which acts as a reuptake inhibitor of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)) by blocking the action of the serotonin transporter (SERT).
The serotonin transporter (SERT or 5-HTT) also known as the sodium-dependent serotonin transporter and solute carrier family 6 member 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC6A4 gene.
A serotonin–dopamine reuptake inhibitor (SDRI) is a type of drug which acts as a reuptake inhibitor of the monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine by blocking the actions of the serotonin transporter (SERT) and dopamine transporter (DAT), respectively.
Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are a class of antidepressant drugs that treat major depressive disorder (MDD) and can also treat anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), chronic neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), and menopausal symptoms.
A serotonin–norepinephrine–dopamine reuptake inhibitor (SNDRI), also known as a triple reuptake inhibitor (TRI), is a type of drug that acts as a combined reuptake inhibitor of the monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
In chemistry, a substrate is typically the chemical species being observed in a chemical reaction, which reacts with a reagent to generate a product.
In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.
In a neuron, synaptic vesicles (or neurotransmitter vesicles) store various neurotransmitters that are released at the synapse.
Tenocyclidine (TCP) was discovered by a team at Parke-Davis in the late 1950s.
Tetrabenazine is a drug for the symptomatic treatment of hyperkinetic movement disorders.
Transient receptor potential channels (TRP channels) are a group of ion channels located mostly on the plasma membrane of numerous animal cell types.
A transport protein (variously referred to as a transmembrane pump, transporter, escort protein, acid transport protein, cation transport protein, or anion transport protein) is a protein that serves the function of moving other materials within an organism.
Triethylcholine is a drug which mimics choline, and causes failure of cholinergic transmission by interfering with synthesis of acetylcholine in nerve endings.
Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 6, also known as TRPC6, is a human gene encoding a protein of the same name.
Vanoxerine (GBR-12909) is a piperazine derivative which is a potent and selective dopamine reuptake inhibitor (DRI).
Vesamicol is an experimental drug, acting presynaptically by inhibiting acetylcholine (ACh) uptake into synaptic vesicles and reducing its release.
In cell biology, a vesicle is a small structure within a cell, or extracellular, consisting of fluid enclosed by a lipid bilayer.
The Vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) is a neurotransmitter transporter which is responsible for loading acetylcholine (ACh) into secretory organelles in neurons making acetylcholine available for secretion.
The vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT) is a transport protein integrated into the membrane of synaptic vesicles of presynaptic neurons.
The vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) also known as solute carrier family 18 member 2 (SLC18A2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC18A2 gene.
Neurotransmitter reuptake inhibitor, Neurotransmitter uptake inhibitor, Neurotransmitter uptake inhibitors, Non-selective monoamine reuptake inhibitors, Plasmalemmal reuptake inhibitor, Plasmalemmal uptake inhibitor, Re-uptake inhibitor, Reuptake inhibition, Transporter blocker, Transporter inhibitor, Uptake inhibitor, Vesicular reuptake blocker, Vesicular reuptake inhibitor, Vesicular transporter blocker, Vesicular transporter inhibitor, Vesicular uptake blocker, Vesicular uptake inhibitor.