159 relations: Adeline (rocket stage), Aerospaceplane, Air launch, Air turborocket, Airbus Defence and Space, Ansari X Prize, ARCA Space Corporation, Armadillo Aerospace, Atmosphere, Atmospheric entry, Autogyro, Autonomous spaceport drone ship, BAC Mustard, Baikal (rocket booster), BFR (rocket), Blue Origin, Boeing, Boeing X-20 Dyna-Soar, Boeing X-37, Brilliant Pebbles, British Aerospace, British Aircraft Corporation, Buran (spacecraft), Canadian Arrow, Centaur (rocket stage), Classified information, Commercial Crew Development, Commercial Orbital Transportation Services, Composite aircraft, CORONA (SSTO), Delta wing, Delta-v, Douglas Aircraft Company, Douglas SASSTO, Dream Chaser, Eugen Sänger, Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle, Expendable launch system, Exploration of Mars, Falcon 9, Falcon Heavy, Federal Aviation Administration, Grasshopper (rocket), Hafnium diboride, Helicopter, High-altitude balloon, HL-20 Personnel Launch System, HOTOL, Human spaceflight, Hypersonic speed, ..., Iridium Communications, Iridium satellite constellation, Kármán line, Kliper, Krafft Arnold Ehricke, Launch loop, Lifting body, Liquid air cycle engine, Liquid fly-back booster, List of orbits, List of private spaceflight companies, Lockheed Martin X-33, Low Earth orbit, Maglev, Makeyev Rocket Design Bureau, MAKS (spacecraft), Mass ratio, Masten Space Systems, McDonnell Douglas, McDonnell Douglas DC-X, Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-105, Multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle, Multistage rocket, NASA, New Shepard, NEXUS (rocket), Non-rocket spacelaunch, North American Aviation, North American X-15, NPO Molniya, Orbcomm (satellite), Orbital Sciences X-34, Orbital spaceflight, Orbital speed, Outer space, Pegasus (rocket), Philip Bono, PlanetSpace, Plug nozzle, Precooled jet engine, Prometheus (spacecraft), Propellant mass fraction, Propulsion, Reaction Engines Limited, Reinforced carbon–carbon, Research and development, Reusable launch system, Rigid frame, Robert Zubrin, Rocket sled launch, Rocketplane Kistler, Rocketplane Limited, Inc., Rocketplane XP, Rockwell International, Rockwell X-30, Ronald Reagan, Rotary Rocket, Russia, SABRE (rocket engine), Satellite constellation, Scaled Composites, Scaled Composites Tier One, Scaled Composites White Knight, Scramjet, Sea Dragon (rocket), Shenlong (spacecraft), Silbervogel, Single-stage-to-orbit, Skylon (spacecraft), SOAR (spaceplane), Solid-propellant rocket, Soviet Union, Space elevator, Space launch market competition, Space Shuttle, Space Shuttle Challenger, Space Shuttle Columbia disaster, Space Shuttle external tank, Space Shuttle retirement, Space Shuttle thermal protection system, Space tether, Space-based solar power, Spacecraft propulsion, Spaceflight, SpaceLiner, Spaceplane, SpaceShipOne, SpaceShipTwo, SpaceX, SpaceX Dragon, SpaceX reusable launch system development program, Sphere, Strategic Defense Initiative, Sub-orbital spaceflight, Swiss Space Systems, Takeoff and landing, The Spaceship Company, Tsiolkovsky rocket equation, Two-stage-to-orbit, Ukraine, V-2 rocket, VentureStar, Virgin Galactic, VTVL, Wet wing, XCOR Aerospace, XCOR Lynx, Zero 2 Infinity, Zirconium diboride. Expand index (109 more) » « Shrink index
Adeline (Advanced Expendable Launcher with Innovative engine Economy) is a concept for a reusable rocket first-stage that would fly itself back to Earth after a launch using drone technology for horizontal landing on a runway.
The US Air Force's aerospaceplane project encompassed a variety of projects from 1958 until 1963 to study a fully reusable spaceplane.
Air launching is the practice of releasing a rocket, missile, parasite aircraft or other aircraft payload from a mother ship or launch aircraft.
The air turborocket is a form of combined-cycle jet engine.
Airbus Defence and Space is a division of Airbus responsible for defence and aerospace products and services.
The Ansari X Prize was a space competition in which the X Prize Foundation offered a US$10,000,000 prize for the first non-government organization to launch a reusable manned spacecraft into space twice within two weeks.
ARCA Space Corporation is an aerospace company based in Las Cruces, New Mexico United States, that builds space rockets and other manned and unmanned aircraft intended for space exploration.
Armadillo Aerospace was an aerospace startup company based in Mesquite, Texas.
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
Atmospheric entry is the movement of an object from outer space into and through the gases of an atmosphere of a planet, dwarf planet or natural satellite.
An autogyro (from Greek αὐτός and γύρος, "self-turning"), also known as a gyroplane or gyrocopter, is a type of rotorcraft that uses an unpowered rotor in free autorotation to develop lift.
An autonomous spaceport drone ship (ASDS) is an ocean-going vessel derived from a deck barge, outfitted with station-keeping engines and a large landing platform.
The Multi-Unit Space Transport And Recovery Device or MUSTARD, usually written as Mustard, was a concept explored by the British Aircraft Corporation (BAC) during the mid-1960s for launching payloads weighing as much as into orbit.
The Baikal booster (russ. Байкал) was a proposed reusable flyback booster for the Angara rocket family based on the Angara Universal Rocket Module in 2001.
BFR is a privately funded next-generation reusable launch vehicle and spacecraft system developed by SpaceX.
Blue Origin, LLC is an American privately funded aerospace manufacturer and spaceflight services company headquartered in Kent, Washington.
The Boeing Company is an American multinational corporation that designs, manufactures, and sells airplanes, rotorcraft, rockets, satellites, and missiles worldwide.
The Boeing X-20 Dyna-Soar ("Dynamic Soarer") was a United States Air Force (USAF) program to develop a spaceplane that could be used for a variety of military missions, including aerial reconnaissance, bombing, space rescue, satellite maintenance, and as a space interceptor to sabotage enemy satellites.
The Boeing X-37, also known as the Orbital Test Vehicle (OTV), is a reusable uncrewed spacecraft.
Brilliant Pebbles was a ballistic missile defense (BMD) system proposed by Lowell Wood and Edward Teller of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in 1987, near the end of Cold War.
British Aerospace plc (BAe) was a British aircraft, munitions and defence-systems manufacturer.
The British Aircraft Corporation (BAC) was a British aircraft manufacturer formed from the government-pressured merger of English Electric Aviation Ltd., Vickers-Armstrongs (Aircraft), the Bristol Aeroplane Company and Hunting Aircraft in 1960.
Buran (Бура́н,, meaning "Snowstorm" or "Blizzard"; GRAU index serial number: "11F35 K1") was the first spaceplane to be produced as part of the Soviet/Russian Buran programme.
The Canadian Arrow was a privately funded, early-2000s rocket and space tourism project concept founded by London, Ontario, Canada entrepreneurs Geoff Sheerin, Dan McKibbon and Chris Corke.
Centaur has been designed to be the upper stage of space launch vehicles and is used on the Atlas V. Centaur was the world's first high-energy upper stage, burning liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LOX).
Classified information is material that a government body deems to be sensitive information that must be protected.
Commercial Crew Development (CCDev) is a multiphase, space technology development program that is funded by the U.S. government and administered by NASA.
Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) was a NASA program to coordinate the delivery of crew and cargo to the International Space Station by private companies.
A composite aircraft is made up of multiple component craft.
CORONA is an unmanned prototype of a reusable single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle developed by Makeyev Rocket Design Bureau from 1992 to 2012.
The delta wing is a wing shaped in the form of a triangle.
Delta-v (literally "change in velocity"), symbolised as ∆v and pronounced delta-vee, as used in spacecraft flight dynamics, is a measure of the impulse that is needed to perform a maneuver such as launch from, or landing on a planet or moon, or in-space orbital maneuver.
The Douglas Aircraft Company was an American aerospace manufacturer based in Southern California.
Douglas Aircraft's SASSTO, short for "Saturn Application Single Stage to Orbit", was a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) reusable launch system designed by Philip Bono's team in 1967.
The Dream Chaser Cargo System is an American reusable lifting-body spaceplane being developed by Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC) Space Systems.
Eugen Sänger (22 September 1905 – 10 February 1964) was an Austrian aerospace engineer best known for his contributions to lifting body and ramjet technology.
Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) is an expendable launch system program of the United States Air Force (USAF), intended to assure access to space for Department of Defense and other United States government payloads.
An expendable launch vehicle (ELV) is a launch system or launch vehicle stage that is used only once to carry a payload into space.
The planet Mars has been explored remotely by spacecraft.
Falcon 9 is a family of two-stage-to-orbit medium lift launch vehicles, named for its use of nine Merlin first-stage engines, designed and manufactured by SpaceX.
Falcon Heavy is a partially reusable heavy-lift launch vehicle designed and manufactured by SpaceX.
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) of the United States is a national authority with powers to regulate all aspects of civil aviation.
Grasshopper and the Falcon 9 Reusable Development Vehicles (F9R Dev, initially designated Grasshopper v1.1) were experimental technology-demonstrator reusable rockets that performed vertical takeoffs and landings.
Hafnium diboride belong to the class of Ultra-high-temperature ceramics, a type of ceramic composed of hafnium and boron.
A helicopter is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by rotors.
High-altitude balloons are manned or unmanned balloons, usually filled with helium or hydrogen and rarely methane, that are released into the stratosphere, generally attaining between.
The HL-20 Personnel Launch System is a NASA spaceplane concept for manned orbital missions studied by NASA's Langley Research Center around 1990.
HOTOL, for Horizontal Take-Off and Landing, was a 1980s British design for a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) spaceplane that was to be powered by an airbreathing jet engine.
Human spaceflight (also referred to as crewed spaceflight or manned spaceflight) is space travel with a crew or passengers aboard the spacecraft.
In aerodynamics, a hypersonic speed is one that is highly supersonic.
Iridium Communications Inc. (formerly Iridium Satellite LLC) is a publicly traded American company headquartered in McLean, Virginia.
The Iridium satellite constellation provides L-band voice and data coverage to satellite phones, pagers and integrated transceivers over the entire Earth surface.
The Kármán line, or Karman line, lies at an altitude of above Earth's sea level and commonly represents the boundary between Earth's atmosphere and outer space.
Kliper (Клипер, English: Clipper) was an early-2000s proposed partly- reusable manned spacecraft concept by RSC Energia.
Krafft Arnold Ehricke (March 24, 1917 – December 11, 1984) was a German rocket-propulsion engineer and advocate for space colonization.
A launch loop or Lofstrom loop is a proposed system for launching objects into space orbit using a moving cable-like system situated inside a sheath attached to the Earth at two ends and suspended above the atmosphere in the middle.
A lifting body is a fixed-wing aircraft or spacecraft configuration in which the body itself produces lift.
A liquid air cycle engine (LACE) is a type of spacecraft propulsion engine that attempts to increase its efficiency by gathering part of its oxidizer from the atmosphere.
Liquid Fly-back Booster (LFBB) was a German Aerospace Center's (DLR's) project concept to develop a reusable liquid rocket booster for Ariane 5 in order to significantly reduce the high cost of space transportation and increase environmental friendliness.
The following is a list of types of orbits.
This page is a list of non-governmental entities that currently offer – or are planning to offer – equipment and services geared towards spaceflight, both robotic and human.
The Lockheed Martin X-33 was an unmanned, sub-scale technology demonstrator suborbital spaceplane developed in the 1990s under the U.S. government-funded Space Launch Initiative program.
A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit around Earth with an altitude of or less, and with an orbital period of between about 84 and 127 minutes.
Maglev (derived from magnetic levitation) is a system of train transportation that uses two sets of magnets, one set to repel and push the train up off the track as in levitation (hence Maglev, Magnetic-levitation), then another set to move the 'floating train' ahead at great speed taking advantage of the lack of friction.
The Makeyev Design Bureau (ГРЦ Макеева, also known as Makeyev OKB) is a Russian missile design company located in Miass, Russia.
The MAKS (Multipurpose aerospace system) (Russian: МАКС (Многоцелевая авиационно-космическая система)) is a cancelled Soviet air-launched with orbiter reusable launch system project that was proposed in 1988, but cancelled in 1991.
In aerospace engineering, mass ratio is a measure of the efficiency of a rocket.
Masten Space Systems is an aerospace manufacturer startup company in Mojave, California (formerly Santa Clara, California) that is developing a line of vertical takeoff, vertical landing (VTVL) rockets, initially for unmanned research sub-orbital spaceflights and eventually intended to support unmanned orbital spaceflight launches.
McDonnell Douglas was a major American aerospace manufacturing corporation and defense contractor formed by the merger of McDonnell Aircraft and the Douglas Aircraft Company in 1967.
The DC-X, short for Delta Clipper or Delta Clipper Experimental, was an unmanned prototype of a reusable single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle built by McDonnell Douglas in conjunction with the United States Department of Defense's Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) from 1991 to 1993.
The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-105 part of a programme known as the Spiral (aerospace system), was a manned test vehicle to explore low-speed handling and landing.
A multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle (MIRV) is a ballistic missile payload containing several thermonuclear warheads, each capable of being aimed to hit a different target.
A multistage rocket, or step rocket is a launch vehicle that uses two or more rocket stages, each of which contains its own engines and propellant.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
The New Shepard reusable launch system is a vertical-takeoff, vertical-landing (VTVL), suborbital crewed rocket that is being developed by Blue Origin as a commercial system for suborbital space tourism.
The NEXUS reusable rocket was a concept design created in the 1960s by a group at General Dynamics led by Krafft Arnold Ehricke.
Non-rocket spacelaunch refers to concepts for launch into space where some or all of the needed speed and altitude are provided by something other than rockets, or by other than expendable rockets.
North American Aviation (NAA) was a major American aerospace manufacturer, responsible for a number of historic aircraft, including the T-6 Texan trainer, the P-51 Mustang fighter, the B-25 Mitchell bomber, the F-86 Sabre jet fighter, the X-15 rocket plane, and the XB-70, as well as Apollo Command and Service Module, the second stage of the Saturn V rocket, the Space Shuttle orbiter and the B-1 Lancer.
The North American X-15 was a hypersonic rocket-powered aircraft operated by the United States Air Force and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration as part of the X-plane series of experimental aircraft.
NPO Molniya (lightning) (Научно-производственное объединение «Молния») is a Russian scientific and production enterprise, founded on February 26, 1976.
Orbcomm is a family of low Earth orbit communications satellites, operated by the American satellite communications company Orbcomm.
The Orbital Sciences X-34 was intended to be a low-cost testbed for demonstrating "key technologies" which could be integrated into the Reusable Launch Vehicle program.
An orbital spaceflight (or orbital flight) is a spaceflight in which a spacecraft is placed on a trajectory where it could remain in space for at least one orbit.
In gravitationally bound systems, the orbital speed of an astronomical body or object (e.g. planet, moon, artificial satellite, spacecraft, or star) is the speed at which it orbits around either the barycenter or, if the object is much less massive than the largest body in the system, its speed relative to that largest body.
Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies.
The Pegasus is an air-launched rocket developed by Orbital Sciences Corporation (now part of Northrop Grumman Innovation System after Northrop Grumman acquired Orbital ATK).
Philip Bono (13 January 1921 – 23 May 1993) was a Douglas Aircraft Company engineer.
PlanetSpace was a privately funded Chicago-based rocket and space travel project founded by Geoff Sheerin, CEO of the Canadian Arrow corporation and Dr.
The plug nozzle is a type of nozzle which includes a centerbody or plug around which the working fluid flows.
A precooled jet engine is a concept for high speed jet engines that features a cryogenic fuel-cooled heat exchanger immediately after the air intake to precool the air entering the engine.
Prometheus was a proposed manned vertical-takeoff, horizontal-landing (VTHL) spaceplane concept put forward by Orbital Sciences Corporation in late 2010 as part of the second phase of NASA's Commercial Crew Development (CCDev) program.
In aerospace engineering, the propellant mass fraction is the portion of a vehicle's mass which does not reach the destination, usually used as a measure of the vehicle's performance.
Propulsion means to push forward or drive an object forward.
Reaction Engines Limited (REL) is a British aerospace manufacturer based in Oxfordshire, England.
Carbon fibre reinforced carbon (CFRC), carbon–carbon (C/C), or reinforced carbon–carbon (RCC) is a composite material consisting of carbon fiber reinforcement in a matrix of graphite.
Research and development (R&D, R+D, or R'n'D), also known in Europe as research and technological development (RTD), refers to innovative activities undertaken by corporations or governments in developing new services or products, or improving existing services or products.
A reusable launch system (RLS, or reusable launch vehicle, RLV) is a space launch system intended to allow for recovery of all or part of the system for later reuse.
A rigid frame in structural engineering is the load-resisting skeleton constructed with straight or curved members interconnected by mostly rigid connections which resist movements induced at the joints of members.
Robert Zubrin (born April 9, 1952) is an American aerospace engineer and author, best known for his advocacy of the manned exploration of Mars.
A rocket sled launch, also known as "ground based launch assist", "catapult launch assist", and "sky ramp launch", is a proposed method for launching space vehicles.
Rocketplane Kistler (RpK) was a reusable launch system firm originally based in Oklahoma.
Rocketplane Limited, Inc. was a spacecraft design and development company headquartered in DePere, Wisconsin.
The Rocketplane XP was a suborbital spaceplane design that was under development c. 2005 by Rocketplane Kistler.
Rockwell International was a major American manufacturing conglomerate in the latter half of the 20th century, involved in aircraft, the space industry, both defense-oriented and commercial electronics, automotive and truck components, printing presses, valves and meters, and industrial automation.
The Rockwell X-30 was an advanced technology demonstrator project for the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP), part of a United States project to create a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) spacecraft and passenger spaceliner.
Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
Rotary Rocket Company was a rocketry company that developed the Roton concept in the late 1990s as a fully reusable single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) manned spacecraft.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
SABRE (Synergistic Air-Breathing Rocket Engine) is a concept under development by Reaction Engines Limited for a hypersonic precooled hybrid air-breathing rocket engine.
A satellite constellation is a group of artificial satellites working in concert.
Scaled Composites (often called simply Scaled) is an American aerospace company founded by Burt Rutan and currently owned by Northrop Grumman that is located at the Mojave Air and Space Port, Mojave, California, United States.
Tier One was a Scaled Composites' 1990s–2004 program of suborbital human spaceflight using the reusable spacecraft SpaceShipOne and its launcher White Knight.
The Scaled Composites Model 318 White Knight (now also called White Knight One) is a jet-powered carrier aircraft used to launch the Scaled Composites SpaceShipOne experimental spacecraft.
A scramjet ("supersonic combustion ramjet") is a variant of a ramjet airbreathing jet engine in which combustion takes place in supersonic airflow.
The Sea Dragon was a 1962 conceptualized design study for a two-stage sea-launched orbital super heavy-lift launch vehicle.
Shenlong is a prototype Chinese robotic spaceplane that is similar to the American Boeing X-37.
Silbervogel, (German for "silver bird"), was a design for a liquid-propellant rocket-powered sub-orbital bomber produced by Eugen Sänger and Irene Bredt in the late 1930s for The Third Reich/Nazi Germany.
A single-stage-to-orbit (or SSTO) vehicle reaches orbit from the surface of a body without jettisoning hardware, expending only propellants and fluids.
Skylon is a series of designs for a single-stage-to-orbit spaceplane by the British company Reaction Engines Limited (REL), using SABRE, a combined-cycle, air-breathing rocket propulsion system.
SOAR was a partially reusable air-launched spaceplane launch system concept designed to launch small satellites on a suborbital or orbital trajectory.
A solid-propellant rocket or solid rocket is a rocket with a rocket engine that uses solid propellants (fuel/oxidizer).
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
A space elevator is a proposed type of planet-to-space transportation system.
The space launch services business began in the 1950s with national programs.
The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), as part of the Space Shuttle program.
Space Shuttle Challenger (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-099) was the second orbiter of NASA's space shuttle program to be put into service, after ''Columbia''.
On February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle ''Columbia'' disintegrated upon reentering Earth's atmosphere, killing all seven crew members.
A Space Shuttle external tank (ET) was the component of the Space Shuttle launch vehicle that contained the liquid hydrogen fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer.
The retirement of NASA's Space Shuttle fleet took place from March to July 2011.
The Space Shuttle thermal protection system (TPS) is the barrier that protected the Space Shuttle Orbiter during the searing heat of atmospheric reentry.
Space tethers are long cables which can be used for propulsion, momentum exchange, stabilization and attitude control, or maintaining the relative positions of the components of a large dispersed satellite/spacecraft sensor system.
Space-based solar power (SBSP) is the concept of collecting solar power in outer space and distributing it to Earth.
Spacecraft propulsion is any method used to accelerate spacecraft and artificial satellites.
Spaceflight (also written space flight) is ballistic flight into or through outer space.
SpaceLiner is a concept for a suborbital, hypersonic, winged passenger transport, conceived at the German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, or DLR) in 2005.
A spaceplane is an aerospace vehicle that operates as an aircraft in Earth's atmosphere, as well as a spacecraft when it is in space.
SpaceShipOne is an experimental air-launched rocket-powered aircraft with sub-orbital spaceflight capability at speeds of up to 900 m/s (3,000 ft/s), using a hybrid rocket motor.
The Scaled Composites Model 339 SpaceShipTwo (SS2) is an air-launched suborbital spaceplane type designed for space tourism.
Space Exploration Technologies Corp., doing business as SpaceX, is a private American aerospace manufacturer and space transportation services company headquartered in Hawthorne, California.
Dragon is a reusable spacecraft developed by SpaceX, an American private space transportation company based in Hawthorne, California.
The SpaceX reusable launch system development program is a privately funded program to develop a set of new technologies for an orbital launch system that may be reused many times in a manner similar to the reusability of aircraft.
A sphere (from Greek σφαῖρα — sphaira, "globe, ball") is a perfectly round geometrical object in three-dimensional space that is the surface of a completely round ball (viz., analogous to the circular objects in two dimensions, where a "circle" circumscribes its "disk").
The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was a proposed missile defense system intended to protect the United States from attack by ballistic strategic nuclear weapons (intercontinental ballistic missiles and submarine-launched ballistic missiles).
A sub-orbital spaceflight is a spaceflight in which the spacecraft reaches space, but its trajectory intersects the atmosphere or surface of the gravitating body from which it was launched, so that it will not complete one orbital revolution.
Swiss Space Systems (S3) was a company which planned to provide orbital launches of miniaturized satellites and manned sub-orbital spaceflights.
Aircraft can have different ways to take off and land.
The Spaceship Company (TSC) is a British/American spacecraft manufacturing company that was founded by Burt Rutan and Richard Branson in mid-2005 and was jointly owned by Virgin Group (70%) and Scaled Composites (30%) until 2012 when Virgin Galactic became the sole owner.
The Tsiolkovsky rocket equation, classical rocket equation, or ideal rocket equation, describes the motion of vehicles that follow the basic principle of a rocket: a device that can apply acceleration to itself using thrust by expelling part of its mass with high velocity and thereby move due to the conservation of momentum.
A two-stage-to-orbit or two-stage rocket launch vehicle is a spacecraft in which two distinct stages provide propulsion consecutively in order to achieve orbital velocity.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The V-2 (Vergeltungswaffe 2, "Retribution Weapon 2"), technical name Aggregat 4 (A4), was the world's first long-range guided ballistic missile.
VentureStar was a single-stage-to-orbit reusable launch system proposed by Lockheed Martin and funded by the U.S. government.
Virgin Galactic is a spaceflight company within the Virgin Group.
Vertical takeoff, vertical landing (VTVL) is a form of takeoff and landing for rockets.
A wet wing is an aerospace engineering technique where an aircraft's wing structure is sealed and used as a fuel tank.
XCOR Aerospace was an American private spaceflight and rocket engine development company based at the Mojave Air and Space Port in Mojave, California, Midland International Air and Spaceport in Midland, Texas and the Amsterdam area, the Netherlands.
The XCOR Lynx was a proposed suborbital horizontal-takeoff, horizontal-landing (HTHL), rocket-powered spaceplane that was under development by the California-based company XCOR Aerospace to compete in the emerging suborbital spaceflight market.
Zero 2 Infinity (0II∞, sometimes rendered as Zero2Infinity) is a private Spanish company developing high-altitude balloons to provide access to near space and low Earth orbit using a balloon-borne pod and a balloon-borne launcher.
Zirconium diboride (ZrB2) is a highly covalent refractory ceramic material with a hexagonal crystal structure.
Biamese, Bimese, Fully and rapidly reusable launch vehicle, Hyperion SSTO, Phoenix SSTO, ROMBUS, Reusable Space Vehicle, Reusable launch vehicle, Reusable rocket, Reusable spacecraft, Reusable spaceship, Triamese, Trimese.