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The Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania or Act of March 11 (Aktas dėl Lietuvos nepriklausomos valstybės atstatymo) was an independence declaration by the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic adopted on March 11, 1990, signed by all members of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Lithuania led by Sąjūdis.
The African Party of Independence of Cape Verde (Partido Africano da Independência de Cabo Verde, PAICV) is a former socialist party and currently a social-democratic political party in Cape Verde.
Constitutional Assembly elections were held in the People's Socialist Republic of Albania on 31 March 1991, with later rounds on 7 April and 14 April.
Alexander Dubček (27 November 1921 – 7 November 1992) was a Slovak politician who served as the First secretary of the Presidium of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ) (de facto leader of Czechoslovakia) from January 1968 to April 1969.
Aleksandr Grigoryevich Lukashenko (translit,; ɐlʲɪˈksandr ɡrʲɪˈɡorʲjɪvʲɪtɕ ɫʊkɐˈʂɛnkə; born 30 August 1954) is a Belarusian politician serving as President of Belarus since the office was created on 20 July 1994.
Alexander Nikolaevich Yakovlev (Алекса́ндр Никола́евич Я́ковлев; 2 December 1923 – 18 October 2005) was a Soviet politician and historian.
The Alexanderplatz demonstration (Alexanderplatz-Demonstration) was a demonstration for political reforms and against the government of the German Democratic Republic on Alexanderplatz in East Berlin on 4 November 1989.
Alfredo Stroessner Matiauda (November 3, 1912 – August 16, 2006) was a Paraguayan military officer who served as President of Paraguay from 1954 to 1989.
The Alliance of Democrats (Stronnictwo Demokratyczne, SD) is a Polish centrist party.
The Alliance of Free Democrats – Hungarian Liberal Party (Szabad Demokraták Szövetsége – a Magyar Liberális Párt, SZDSZ) was a liberal political party in Hungary.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
The Alma-Ata Protocols are the founding declarations and principles of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).
Alternative Left (Spanish language: Izquierda Alternativa, IA) was a Spanish political party with a socialist ideology formed by the union of the Revolutionary Communist League (LCR) and the Communist Movement (MC) in 1991.
The Angolan Civil War (Guerra civil angolana) was a major civil conflict in Angola, beginning in 1975 and continuing, with some interludes, until 2002.
The Crimean peninsula was annexed from Ukraine by the Russian Federation in February–March 2014.
Anti-communism is opposition to communism.
The Anti-Duvalier protest movement was a series of demonstrations in Haiti from 23 May 1984 – 7 February 1986, that led to the overthrow of President Jean-Claude Duvalier and the Duvalier dynasty regime.
Apartheid started in 1948 in theUnion of South Africa |year_start.
An apparatchik (аппара́тчик), in Russian colloquial terms also borrowed widely into other languages, was a full-time, professional functionary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union or the Soviet government apparat (аппарат, apparatus), someone who held any position of bureaucratic or political responsibility, with the exception of the higher ranks of management called nomenklatura.
Protests against the April 2009 Moldovan parliamentary election results, began on 6 April 2009, in major cities of Moldova (including Bălți and the capital, Chișinău) before the final official results were announced.
The April 9 tragedy (also known as Tbilisi massacre or Tbilisi tragedy) refers to the events in Tbilisi, Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic, on April 9, 1989, when an anti-Soviet demonstration was dispersed by the Soviet Army, resulting in 21 deaths and hundreds of injuries.
The Arab Spring (الربيع العربي ar-Rabīʻ al-ʻArabī), also referred to as Arab Revolutions (الثورات العربية aṯ-'awrāt al-ʻarabiyyah), was a revolutionary wave of both violent and non-violent demonstrations, protests, riots, coups, foreign interventions, and civil wars in North Africa and the Middle East that began on 18 December 2010 in Tunisia with the Tunisian Revolution.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
The aristocracy is a social class that a particular society considers its highest order.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Parliamentary elections were held in Armenia on 20 May 1990, although further rounds were held on 3 June and 15 July due to low turnouts invalidating earlier results and by 21 July 64 seats were still unfilled, with 16 still unfilled in February the following year.
The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is a regional development bank established on 19 December 1966, which is headquartered in the Ortigas Center located in the city of Mandaluyong, Metro Manila, Philippines.
Askar Akayevich Akayev (Kyrgyz: Аскар Акаевич Акаев, Asqar Aqayeviç Aqayev) (born 10 November 1944) is a Kyrgyz politician who served as President of Kyrgyzstan from 1990 until his overthrow in the March 2005 Tulip Revolution.
The Atlantic Revolutions were a revolutionary wave in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.
The August 1994 uprising or Maleconazo uprising was a protest against government policies in Cuba.
Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte (25 November 1915 – 10 December 2006) was a Chilean general, politician and the dictator of Chile between 1973 and 1990 who remained the Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army until 1998 and was also President of the Government Junta of Chile between 1973 and 1981.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms.
The first multi-party elections in Azerbaijan took place on 30 September and 14 October 1990 for the Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijan SSR.
The Azerbaijani Popular Front Party (APFP) (Azərbaycan Xalq Cəbhəsi Partiyası) is an opposition political party in Azerbaijan, founded in 1992 by Abulfaz Elchibey.
Đổi Mới (Renovation) is the name given to the economic reforms initiated in Vietnam in 1986 with the goal of creating a "socialist-oriented market economy".
Ba'athist Iraq, formally the Iraqi Republic, covers the history of Iraq between 1968 and 2003, during the period of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party's rule.
Baabar (shortened name) (birth name Bat-Erdeniin Batbayar,; born in Tsetserleg, Arkhangai in 1954) is a Mongolian retired politician, political analyst and writer.
The Balcerowicz Plan (plan Balcerowicza), also termed "Shock Therapy", was a method for rapidly transitioning from a communist economy, based on state ownership and central planning, to a capitalist market economy.
The Baltic states, also known as the Baltic countries, Baltic republics, Baltic nations or simply the Baltics (Balti riigid, Baltimaad, Baltijas valstis, Baltijos valstybės), is a geopolitical term used for grouping the three sovereign countries in Northern Europe on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
Baltic Tiger is a term used to refer to any of the three Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania during their periods of economic boom, which started after the year 2000 and continued until 2006–2007.
Plac Bankowy (in 'Bank Square') in Warsaw is one of that city's principal squares.
Barisan Sosialis (Malay); or the Socialist Front is a now defunct political party in Singapore.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
The Belarusian Popular Front "Renaissance" (BPF, Беларускі Народны Фронт "Адраджэньне", БНФ) was a social and political movement in Belarus in late 1980s and the 1990s which led Belarus to its independence from the Soviet Union.
Parliamentary elections were held in Belarus in 1990 to elect the twelfth Supreme Council of Belarus.
The Belavezha Accords (Беловежские соглашения, Белавежскае пагадненне, Біловезькі угоди) is the agreement that declared the Soviet Union effectively dissolved and established the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) in its place.
The Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer) was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989.
A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.
The Bicesse Accords, also known as the Estoril Accords, laid out a transition to multi-party democracy in Angola under the supervision of the United Nations' UNAVEM II mission.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (p; 1 February 1931 – 23 April 2007) was a Soviet and Russian politician and the first President of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
General elections were held in Bosnia and Herzegovina on 18 November 1990, with a second round of voting in the House of Peoples elections on 2 December.
The Bosnian War was an international armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1992 and 1995.
The Rebellion of Brașov was a revolt against Nicolae Ceaușescu's economic policies in Communist Romania, which erupted on the day of the 1987 local election.
Presidential elections were held in Brazil in 1989.
The breakup of Yugoslavia occurred as a result of a series of political upheavals and conflicts during the early 1990s.
The Brezhnev Doctrine was a Soviet foreign policy, first and most clearly outlined by Sergei Kovalev in a September 26, 1968 Pravda article entitled Sovereignty and the International Obligations of Socialist Countries.
The Broad Party of Socialist Left (Partido Amplio de Izquierda Socialista, PAIS) was a left-wing political party of Chile that operated from December 1988 to March 1990.
Brotherhood and Unity was a popular slogan of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia that was coined during the Yugoslav People's Liberation War (1941–45), and which evolved into a guiding principle of Yugoslavia's post-war inter-ethnic policy.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
The Bulgarian Communist Party (BCP; Bulgarian: Българска Комунистическа Партия, Bâlgarska Komunisticheska Partiya (БКП)) was the Communist and Marxist-Leninist ruling party of the People's Republic of Bulgaria from 1946 until 1989 when the country ceased to be a communist state.
Constitutional Assembly elections were held in Bulgaria on 10 June 1990, with a second round for eighteen seats on 17 June.
The Bulgarian Socialist Party (Българска социалистическа партия, БСП; Bulgarska sotsialisticheska partiya, BSP), known as the Centenarian (Столетницата, Stoletnitsata), is a social-democratic political party in Bulgaria and the successor to the Bulgarian Communist Party.
The Burma Socialist Programme Party (မြန်မာ့ဆိုရှယ်လစ်လမ်းစဉ်ပါတီ;; also Burmese acronyms) was formed by the Ne Win's military regime that seized power in 1962 and was the sole political party allowed to exist legally in Burma during the period of military rule from 1964 until its demise in the aftermath of the popular uprising of 1988.
The Burmese Way to Socialism (မြန်မာ့နည်းမြန်မာ့ဟန် ဆိုရှယ်လစ်စနစ်; also known as the Burmese Road to Socialism) refers to the ideology of the socialist government in Burma, from 1962 to 1988, when the 1962 coup d'état was led by Ne Win and the military to remove U Nu from power.
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
The Cambodian–Vietnamese War, otherwise known in Vietnam as the "Counter-offensive on the Southwestern border" ("Chiến dịch Phản công Biên giới Tây-Nam) was an armed conflict between the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and Democratic Kampuchea.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
Central and Eastern Europe, abbreviated CEE, is a term encompassing the countries in Central Europe (the Visegrád Group), the Baltic states, and Southeastern Europe, usually meaning former communist states from the Eastern bloc (Warsaw Pact) in Europe.
Central Committee was the common designation of a standing administrative body of communist parties, analogous to a board of directors, whether ruling or non-ruling in the 20th century and of the surviving communist states in the 21st century.
Following the founding of the Central European University by George Soros, the Central European University Press was established in 1993.
The Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM; English: "Party of the Revolution") is the dominant ruling party in Tanzania and the longest-ruling party in Africa.
The Chapultepec Peace Accords brought peace to El Salvador in 1992 after more than a decade of civil war.
The Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, or Chechen-Ingush ASSR was an autonomous republic within the Russian SFSR.
The Chechen Republic (tɕɪˈtɕɛnskəjə rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə; Нохчийн Республика, Noxçiyn Respublika), commonly referred to as Chechnya (p; Нохчийчоь, Noxçiyçö), is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia.
The Checkpoint Charlie Museum (Das Mauermuseum – Museum Haus am Checkpoint Charlie) is a private museum in Berlin.
All-Russian Extraordinary Commission (Всероссийская Чрезвычайная Комиссия), abbreviated as VChK (ВЧК, Ve-Che-Ka) and commonly known as Cheka, (from the initialism ChK) was the first of a succession of Soviet secret police organizations.
The Chernobyl disaster, also referred to as the Chernobyl accident, was a catastrophic nuclear accident.
The Chilean transition to democracy began when a Constitution establishing a transition itinerary was approved in a plebiscite.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The Chinese Civil War was a war fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led government of the Republic of China and the Communist Party of China (CPC).
The Chinese Communist Revolution started from 1946, after the end of Second Sino-Japanese War, and was the second part of the Chinese Civil War.
The Chinese democracy movement, abbreviated as Minyun, refers to a series of loosely organized political movements in the People's Republic of China against the continued one-party rule by the Communist Party.
The Chinese economic reform refers to the program of economic reforms termed "Socialism with Chinese characteristics" in the People's Republic of China (PRC) that was started in December 1978 by reformists within the Communist Party of China, led by Deng Xiaoping.
The Christian Democratic People's Party (Kereszténydemokrata Néppárt, KDNP) is a Christian democratic political party in Hungary.
Chun Doo-hwan (or; born 18 January 1931) is a South Korean politician and former South Korean army general who served as the President of South Korea from 1979 to 1988, ruling as an unelected coup leader from December 1979 to September 1980 and as elected president from 1980 to 1988.
Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals.
Civil disorder, also known as civil disturbance or civil unrest, is an activity arising from a mass act of civil disobedience (such as a demonstration, riot, or strike) in which the participants become hostile toward authority, and authorities incur difficulties in maintaining public safety and order, over the disorderly crowd.
Civil liberties or personal freedoms are personal guarantees and freedoms that the government cannot abridge, either by law or by judicial interpretation, without due process.
Civil resistance is political action that relies on the use of nonviolent resistance by civil groups to challenge a particular power, force, policy or regime.
The Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea (CGDK, រដ្ឋាភិបាលចំរុះកម្ពុជាប្រជាធិបតេយ្យ, Odthaphibeal Chamrouh Kampouchea Brachathibtey); renamed to the National Government of Cambodia (NGC, រដ្ឋាភិបាលជាតិនៃកម្ពុជា, Rodthaphibeal Cheate nei Kampouchea) from 1990, was a coalition government in exile composed of three Cambodian political factions: Prince Norodom Sihanouk's Funcinpec party, the Party of Democratic Kampuchea (often referred to as the Khmer Rouge) and the Khmer People's National Liberation Front (KPNLF) formed in 1982, broadening the de facto deposed Democratic Kampuchea regime.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
In history, a colony is a territory under the immediate complete political control of a state, distinct from the home territory of the sovereign.
Map of colour revolutions from 2000 to 2005. Colour revolution (sometimes called the coloured revolution) is a term that was widely used by worldwide media to describe various related movements that developed in several countries of the former Soviet Union and the Balkans during the early 2000s.
The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (English abbreviation COMECON, CMEA, or CAME) was an economic organization from 1949 to 1991 under the leadership of the Soviet Union that comprised the countries of the Eastern Bloc along with a number of communist states elsewhere in the world.
The Committee for the Defence of Human Rights (Odbor za varstvo človekovih pravic) was a civil society organization in Slovenia, which functioned during the so-called Slovenian Spring between 1988 and 1990.
The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS; r), also nicknamed the Russian Commonwealth (in order to distinguish it from the Commonwealth of Nations), is a political and economic intergovernmental organization of nine member states and one associate member, all of which are former Soviet Republics located in Eurasia (primarily in Central to North Asia), formed following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
Communist Association of Norrköping (in Swedish: Norrköpings Kommunistiska Förening), was a communist group in Norrköping, Sweden.
The Communist insurgency in Malaysia, also known as the Second Malayan Emergency, (Malay: Perang Insurgensi Melawan Pengganas Komunis or Perang Insurgensi Komunis and Darurat Kedua) was an armed conflict which occurred in Malaysia from 1968 to 1989, involving the Malayan Communist Party (MCP) and Malaysian federal security forces.
The Communist insurgency in Myanmar (known as Burma from 1948 to 1988) was led by the Communist Party of Burma (CPB) or the "white flags", and the Communist Party (Burma) or the "red flags".
Communist Labour Party of Turkey (in Turkish: Türkiye Komünist Emek Partisi) is an illegal communist party in Turkey.
A communist party is a political party that advocates the application of the social and economic principles of communism through state policy.
Kommunistiska Partiet i Sverige (Communist Party in Sweden) was a pro-Albanian communist party in Sweden.
The Communist Party of Australia (CPA) was founded in 1920 and dissolved in 1991.
The Communist Party of Austria (Kommunistische Partei Österreichs, KPÖ) is a communist party in Austria.
Communist Party of Belgium (Kommunistische Partij van België, Parti Communiste de Belgique) was a political party in Belgium.
The Communist Party of China (CPC), also referred to as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China.
The Communist Party of Finland (Suomen Kommunistinen Puolue; Finlands Kommunistiska Parti; abbreviated SKP) was a communist political party in Finland.
Communist Party of Galicia (Revolutionary Marxist) (in Galician: Partido Comunista de Galicia (Marxista-Revolucionario), PCG-MR) was a communist political party in Galiza, founded by the followers of Santiago Carrillo after their expulsion from the Communist Party of Galicia (PCG) in October 1985.
The Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB) was a British communist party which was the largest communist party in Great Britain, although it never became a mass party like those in France and Italy.
The Communist Party of Ireland (CPI; Páirtí Cumannach na hÉireann) is an all-Ireland Marxist-Leninist party, founded in 1933.
The Communist Party of Nepal (Fourth Convention) (नेपाल कम्युनिष्ट पार्टी (चौथो महाधिवेशन), Nepala Kamyunishta Parti (Chautho Mahadhiveshan)) was a communist party in Nepal 1974-1990.
The Communist Party of Nepal (Janamukhi) (नेपाल कम्युनिष्ट पार्टी (जनमुखी)) was a communist splinter group in Nepal.
The Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist Centre) (नेपाल कम्युनिष्ट पार्टी (माओवादी केन्द्र)) was a communist political party in Nepal.
The Communist Party of Norway (Norges Kommunistiske Parti) is a small Marxist–Leninist communist party in Norway currently without parliamentary or other elected representation.
The Communist Party of Spain (Marxist-Leninist) (in Spanish: Partido Comunista de España (marxista-leninista), PCE (m-l)) was a communist political party in Spain, formed in 1964 through the merger of splinter groups of the Communist Party of Spain (PCE).
Kommunistiska Förbundet Marxist-Leninisterna (KFML; Communist League Marxists-Leninists) was formed at the 1967 party congress of VPK, when a pro-Chinese group left the party.
The Communist Party of the Netherlands (Communistische Partij Nederland,, CPN) was a Dutch communist party.
The Communist Party of the Philippines (Filipino: Partido Komunista ng Pilipinas) is a revolutionary organization and the leading communist party in the Philippines, formed by Jose Maria Sison on December 26, 1968.
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union was the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union.
The Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV) is the founding and ruling communist party of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
The Communist Refoundation Party (Partito della Rifondazione Comunista, PRC) is a communist party in Italy.
A Communist state (sometimes referred to as workers' state) is a state that is administered and governed by a single party, guided by Marxist–Leninist philosophy, with the aim of achieving communism.
Communist Workers' Party of Sweden (Sveriges Kommunistiska Arbetarparti, SKA), initially called SKP(ml), was a communist party in Sweden, formed in 1980 after a split from the pro-People's Republic of China Communist Party of Sweden (SKP).
The Congress of People's Deputies of the Soviet Union (Sʺezd narodnykh deputatov SSSR) was the highest body of state authority of the Soviet Union from 1989 to 1991.
Constitution Day is a holiday to honor the constitution of a country.
The Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarország Alaptörvénye), the country's constitution, was adopted on 18 April 2011, promulgated a week later and entered into force on 1 January 2012.
Constitution of Mongolia (Mongol Ulsīn Ündsen Húlĭ, "General Law of the Mongolian State") is the constitution of Mongolia.
The Constitution of Romania was adopted on 21 November 1991.
A constitutional court is a high court that deals primarily with constitutional law.
The Constitutional Court of Hungary (Magyarország Alkotmánybírósága) is a special court of Hungary, making judicial review of the acts of the Parliament of Hungary.
Consumerism is a social and economic order and ideology that encourages the acquisition of goods and services in ever-increasing amounts.
Maria Corazon "Cory" Sumulong Cojuangco Aquino (January 25, 1933 – August 1, 2009) was a Filipina politician who served as the 11th President of the Philippines and the first woman to hold that office.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
The Croatian Democratic Union (Hrvatska demokratska zajednica or HDZ, literally translated: Croatian Democratic Community) is a conservative political party and the main centre-right political party in Croatia.
Croatia held an independence referendum on 19 May 1991, following the Croatian parliamentary elections of 1990 and the rise of ethnic tensions that led to the breakup of Yugoslavia.
Parliamentary elections were held in the Socialist Republic of Croatia between 22 and 23 April 1990; the second round of voting occurred on 6–7 May.
The Croatian Spring (Hrvatsko proljeće, also called masovni pokret or MASPOK, for "mass movement") was a cultural and political movement that emerged from the League of Communists of Croatia in the late 1960s which opposed the unitarisation and called for economic, cultural and political reforms in SFR Yugoslavia and therefore more rights for SR Croatia within Yugoslavia.
The Croatian War of Independence was fought from 1991 to 1995 between Croat forces loyal to the government of Croatia—which had declared independence from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY)—and the Serb-controlled Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) and local Serb forces, with the JNA ending its combat operations in Croatia by 1992.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
A cult of personality arises when a country's regime – or, more rarely, an individual politician – uses the techniques of mass media, propaganda, the big lie, spectacle, the arts, patriotism, and government-organized demonstrations and rallies to create an idealized, heroic, and worshipful image of a leader, often through unquestioning flattery and praise.
The Cultural Revolution, formally the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement in China from 1966 until 1976.
After the fall of communism in 1989, Czechoslovakia adopted the official name Czech and Slovak Federative Republic (Czech/Slovak: Česká a Slovenská Federativní/Federatívna Republika, ČSFR) during the period from 23 April 1990 until 31 December 1992, when the country was dissolved into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
Federal elections were held in Czechoslovakia on 8 and 9 June 1990,Dieter Nohlen & Philip Stöver (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p471 alongside elections for the Czech and Slovak Assemblies.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
Czesław Kiszczak (19 October 1925 – 5 November 2015) was a Polish general, communist-era interior minister (1981–1990) and prime minister (1989).
José Daniel Ortega Saavedra (born November 11, 1945) is a Nicaraguan politician serving as President of Nicaragua since 2007; previously he was leader of Nicaragua from 1979 to 1990, first as Coordinator of the Junta of National Reconstruction (1979–1985) and then as President (1985–1990).
The DDR Museum is a museum in the centre of Berlin.
The Act of Declaration of Independence of Ukraine (Акт проголошення незалежності України, translit. Akt proholoshennya nezalezhnosti Ukrayiny) was adopted by the Ukrainian parliament on 24 August 1991.
Decommunization in Russia is the process of dealing with the communist legacies in terms of institutions and personnel that tends towards breaking with the Soviet past.
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
The Democratic Confederation of Free Trade Unions (LIGA) in a national trade union center in Hungary.
Democratic Opposition of Slovenia, also known as the DEMOS coalition (in Slovenian: Demokratična opozicija Slovenije) was a coalition of centre-right political parties, created by an agreement between the Slovenian Democratic Union, the Social Democrat Alliance of Slovenia, the Slovene Christian Democrats, the Farmers' Alliance and the Greens of Slovenia.
The Democratic Party of the Left (Partito Democratico della Sinistra, PDS) was a democratic-socialist and social-democratic political party in Italy.
The Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (DRA; جمهوری دمکراتی افغانستان,; دافغانستان دمکراتی جمهوریت), renamed in 1987 to the Republic of Afghanistan (جمهوری افغانستان;; د افغانستان جمهوریت), commonly known as Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Afġānistān), existed from 1978 to 1992 and covers the period when the socialist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) ruled Afghanistan.
The Democratic Republic of Madagascar (Repoblika Demokratika Malagasy, République démocratique de Madagascar) was a socialist state that existed on the island of Madagascar from 1975 until 1992.
The Democratic Socialist Party (DSP) was a small left-wing political party in the Republic of Ireland.
The Democratic Union Coalition was a coalition of political parties in Mongolia.
The Democratic Unionist Party (al-Hizb al-Ittihadi al-Dimuqrati), also referred to by itself as the Original Democratic Unionist Party, is a political party in Sudan, closely tied to the Khatmiyya Sufi order.
A demonstration or street protest is action by a mass group or collection of groups of people in favor of a political or other cause; it normally consists of walking in a mass march formation and either beginning with or meeting at a designated endpoint, or rally, to hear speakers.
Deng Xiaoping (22 August 1904 – 19 February 1997), courtesy name Xixian (希贤), was a Chinese politician.
Denis Sassou Nguesso (born 23 November 1943) is a Congolese politician who has been the President of the Republic of the Congo since 1997; he was previously President from 1979 to 1992.
The Derg, Common Derg or Dergue (Ge'ez: ደርግ, meaning "committee" or "council") is the short name of the Coordinating Committee of the Armed Forces, Police and Territorial Army that ruled Ethiopia from 1974 to 1987.
Vice Admiral Didier Ratsiraka (born 4 November 1936) is a Malagasy politician who was President of Madagascar from 1975 to 1993 and from 1997 to 2002.
Die Wende ("The Turn" or "The Turnaround") is a German term that has come to signify the complete process of change from the rule of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany and a centrally planned economy to the revival of parliamentary democracy and market economy in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) around 1989 and 1990.
The Dissolution of Czechoslovakia (Rozdělení Československa, Rozdelenie Česko-Slovenska), which took effect on 1 January 1993, was an event that saw the self-determined split of the federal state of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia, entities that had arisen before as the Czech Socialist Republic and the Slovak Socialist Republic in 1969 within the framework of Czechoslovak federalisation.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
The Djiboutian Civil War (also known as the Afar insurgency) was a conflict in Djibouti, lasting from 1991 to 1994 and resulting in thousands of fatalities.
A domino effect or chain reaction is the cumulative effect produced when one event sets off a chain of similar events.
Dzhokhar Musayevich Dudayev (Dudin Musa-khant Dƶoxar, Дудин Муса-кӀант Джохар; Джоха́р Муса́евич Дуда́ев; 15 February 1944 – 21 April 1996) was a Soviet Air Force general and Chechen leader, the first President of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, a breakaway state in the North Caucasus.
Legislative elections were held in the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) on 18 March 1990.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
The East Prigorodny Conflict, also referred to as the Ossetian-Ingush Conflict, was an inter-ethnic conflict in the eastern part of the Prigorodny district in the Republic of North Ossetia–Alania, which started in 1989 and developed, in 1992, into a brief ethnic war between local Ingush and Ossetian paramilitary forces.
The East Turkestan People's Revolutionary Party (Shärqiy Turkistan Khälq Inqilawi Partiyisi) was a Uyghur communist party and armed separatist group in Xinjiang.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.
The economic liberalisation in India refers to the economic liberalisation, initiated in 1991, of the country's economic policies, with the goal of making the economy more market and service-oriented and expanding the role of private and foreign investment.
Romania, as part of the European Union single market, is a fast developing, upper-middle income mixed economy with a very high Human Development Index and a skilled labour force, the 16th largest in the European Union by total nominal GDP and the 13th largest based on purchasing power parity.
The economy of the Soviet Union (экономика Советского Союза) was based on a system of state ownership of the means of production, collective farming, industrial manufacturing and centralized administrative planning.
Eduard Ambrosiyevich Shevardnadze (ედუარდ ამბროსის ძე შევარდნაძე, Eduard Ambrosis dze Šewardnadze; 25 January 1928 – 7 July 2014) was a Georgian politician and diplomat.
Egon Rudi Ernst Krenz (born 19 March 1937) is a former East German politician who was the last communist leader of East Germany during the final months of 1989.
An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold public office.
Elena Ceaușescu (née Lenuța Petrescu; 7 January 1916 – 25 December 1989) was a Romanian communist politician who was the wife of Nicolae Ceaușescu, President of the Socialist Republic of Romania.
The Embassy of Germany in Prague is located on Vlašská street (formerly Wälsche Spitalgasse), in the Malá Strana district of Prague, Czech Republic.
Emomali Rahmon (Emomalî Rahmon/Emomalī Rahmon); (born 5 October 1952) is a Tajikistani politician who has served as President of Tajikistan (or its equivalent post) since 1992.
The Communist rule in the Hungarian People's Republic came to an end in 1989.
Enlargement of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is the process of including new member states in NATO.
The European Union (EU) has expanded a number of times throughout its history by way of the accession of new member states to the Union.
Enver Halil Hoxha (16 October 190811 April 1985) was an Albanian communist politician who served as the head of state of Albania from 1944 until his death in 1985, as the First Secretary of the Party of Labour of Albania.
The Era of Stagnation (Период застоя, Stagnation Period, also called the Brezhnevian Stagnation) was the period in the history of the Soviet Union which began during the rule of Leonid Brezhnev (1964–1982) and continued under Yuri Andropov (1982–1984) and Konstantin Chernenko (1984–1985).
Erdeniin Bat-Üül (Эрдэнийн Бат-Үүл, born 1 July 1957) is a prominent Mongolian politician from the Democratic Party and a former Mayor of Ulaanbaatar City and Governor of the Capital City.
Erich Honecker (25 August 1912 – 29 May 1994) was a German politician who, as the General Secretary of the Socialist Unity Party, led the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) from 1971 until the weeks preceding the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. From 1976 onward he was also the country's official head of state as chairman of the State Council following Willi Stoph's relinquishment of the post. Honecker's political career began in the 1930s when he became an official of the Communist Party of Germany, a position for which he was imprisoned during the Nazi era. Following World War II, he was freed and soon relaunched his political activities, founding the youth organisation the Free German Youth in 1946 and serving as the group's chairman until 1955. As the Security Secretary of the Party’s Central Committee in the new East German state, he was the prime organiser of the building of the Berlin Wall in 1961 and, in this function, bore responsibility for the "order to fire" along the Inner German border. In 1971, he initiated a political power struggle that led, with Soviet support, to his replacing Walter Ulbricht as First Secretary of the Central Committee and as chairman of the state's National Defense Council. Under his command, the country adopted a programme of "consumer socialism" and moved toward the international community by normalising relations with West Germany and also becoming a full member of the UN, in what is considered one of his greatest political successes. As Cold War tensions eased in the late 1980s under perestroika and glasnost, the liberal reforms of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, Honecker refused all but cosmetic changes to the East German political system, citing the continual hardliner attitudes of Kim Il-sung and Fidel Castro, whose respective regimes of North Korea and Cuba had been critical of reforms, leaders who ruthlessly suppressed opposition. As anticommunist protests grew, Honecker begged the USSR to intervene and suppress the protests to maintain communist rule in East Germany like the Prague Spring of 1968 and the Hungarian Revolution of 1956; Gorbachev refused. Honecker was forced to resign by his party in October 1989 in a bid to improve the government's image before the public. Honecker's eighteen years at the helm of the soon-to-collapse German Democratic Republic came to an end. Following German reunification, he sought asylum in the Chilean embassy in Moscow in 1991 but was extradited back to Germany a year later to stand trial for his role in the human rights abuses committed by the East German government. However, the proceedings were abandoned due to illness and he was freed from custody to travel to join his family in exile in Chile, where he died in May 1994 from liver cancer.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
The Estonian Sovereignty Declaration (suveräänsusdeklaratsioon), fully: Declaration on the Sovereignty of the Estonian SSR (Deklaratsioon Eesti NSV suveräänsusest), was issued on November 16, 1988 during the Singing Revolution in Estonia.
The Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic (Estonian SSR or ESSR; Eesti Nõukogude Sotsialistlik Vabariik ENSV; Эстонская Советская Социалистическая Республика ЭССР, Estonskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika ESSR), also known as Soviet Estonia or Estonia was an unrecognized republic of the Soviet Union, administered by a subordinate of the Government of the Soviet Union.
Elections to the Supreme Soviet were held in the Estonian SSR on 18 March 1990,Nohlen, D & Stöver, P (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p574 the first free parliamentary election in Estonia since 1932.
The Ethiopian Civil War began on 12 September 1974 when the Marxist-Leninist Derg staged a coup d'état against Emperor Haile Selassie.
The Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (የኢትዮጵያ ሕዝቦች አብዮታዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ግንባር; abbreviated EPRDF but commonly known as Ehadig) is the ruling political coalition in Ethiopia.
Euromaidan (Євромайдан, Евромайдан,, literally "Euro Square") was a wave of demonstrations and civil unrest in Ukraine, which began on the night of 21 November 2013 with public protests in Maidan Nezalezhnosti ("Independence Square") in Kiev.
The European Solidarity Centre (Europejskie Centrum Solidarności) is a museum and library in Gdańsk, Poland, devoted to the history of Solidarity, the Polish trade union and civil resistance movement, and other opposition movements of Communist Eastern Europe.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The fall of Communism in Albania, the last such event in Europe outside the USSR, started in earnest on December 1990 with student demonstrations in the capital, Tirana, although protests had begun earlier that year in other cities.
The Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (in Spanish: Frente Farabundo Martí para la Liberación Nacional, FMLN) is one of the two major political parties in El Salvador.
Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky (Russian: Фе́ликс Эдму́ндович Дзержи́нский; Polish: Feliks Dzierżyński; 20 July 1926), nicknamed Iron Felix, was a Polish and Soviet Bolshevik revolutionary, leader and statesman.
Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos Sr. (September 11, 1917 – September 28, 1989) was a Filipino politician and kleptocrat who was President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986.
Fidesz – Hungarian Civic Alliance (in full, Fidesz – Magyar Polgári Szövetség) is a national-conservative and right-wing populist political party in Hungary.
The Fifth Republic Movement (Spanish: Movimiento V República, MVR) was a Socialist political party in Venezuela.
Figueroa v Canada (AG), 1 S.C.R. 912 is a leading Supreme Court of Canada decision on the right to participate in a federal election under section 3 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
A financial crisis is any of a broad variety of situations in which some financial assets suddenly lose a large part of their nominal value.
Finnish People's Democratic League (Suomen Kansan Demokraattinen Liitto, SKDL; Demokratiska Förbundet för Finlands Folk, DFFF) was a Finnish political organisation with the aim of uniting those left of the Finnish Social Democratic Party.
The First Chechen War (Пе́рвая чече́нская война́), also known as the First Chechen Сampaign (Пе́рвая чече́нская кампа́ния) or First Russian-Chechen war, was a rebellion by the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria against the Russian Federation, fought from December 1994 to August 1996.
The First Congo War (1996–1997) was a foreign invasion of Zaire led by Rwanda that replaced President Mobutu Sésé Seko with the rebel leader Laurent-Désiré Kabila.
The First Liberian Civil War was an internal conflict in Liberia from 1989 until 1997.
Franjo Tuđman, also written as Franjo Tudjman (14 May 1922 – 10 December 1999) was a Croatian politician and historian.
Francis Albert Sinatra (December 12, 1915 – May 14, 1998) was an American singer, actor, and producer who was one of the most popular and influential musical artists of the 20th century.
The Mozambique Liberation Front (FRELIMO), from the Portuguese Frente de Libertação de Moçambique is the dominant political party in Mozambique.
The French Communist Party (Parti communiste français, PCF) is a communist party in France.
Garry Kimovich Kasparov (Га́рри Ки́мович Каспа́ров,; Armenian: Գարրի Կիմովիչ Կասպարով; born Garik Kimovich Weinstein, 13 April 1963) is a Russian chess grandmaster, former world chess champion, writer, and political activist, who many consider to be the greatest chess player of all time.
Günter Schabowski (4 January 1929 – 1 November 2015) was an official of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany (Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands abbreviated SED), the ruling party during most of the existence of the German Democratic Republic (GDR).
Gdańsk Shipyard (Stocznia Gdańskа, formerly Lenin Shipyard) is a large Polish shipyard, located in the city of Gdańsk.
Genghis Khan or Temüjin Borjigin (Чингис хаан, Çingis hán) (also transliterated as Chinggis Khaan; born Temüjin, c. 1162 August 18, 1227) was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death.
Gennady Ivanovich Yanayev (Генна́дий Ива́нович Яна́ев; 26 August 1937 – 24 September 2010) was a Soviet politician who served as the first and only Vice President of the Soviet Union.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Parliamentary elections were held in the Georgian SSR on 28 October 1990, with a second round on 11 November.
Georgia, formally the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic (Georgian SSR; tr; Gruzinskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), was one of the republics of the Soviet Union from its inception in 1922 to its breakup in 1991.
The German reunification (Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic (GDR, colloquially East Germany; German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik/DDR) became part of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, colloquially West Germany; German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland/BRD) to form the reunited nation of Germany, and when Berlin reunited into a single city, as provided by its then Grundgesetz (constitution) Article 23.
The Day of German Unity (Tag der Deutschen Einheit) is the national day of Germany, celebrated on 3 October as a public holiday.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Ghana, officially the Republic of Ghana, is a unitary presidential constitutional democracy, located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa.
In the Russian language the word glasnost (гла́сность) has several general and specific meanings.
The Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Правительство СССР, Pravitel'stvo SSSR) was the main body of the executive branch of government in the Soviet Union.
Grūtas Park (unofficially known as Stalin's World; Grūto parkas) is a sculpture garden of Soviet-era statues and an exposition of other Soviet ideological relics from the times of the Lithuanian SSR.
The Great Hall of the People is a state building located at the western edge of Tiananmen Square in Beijing.
Greek Left (Elliniki Aristera, abbreviated EAR) was a Greek political party.
GroenLinks (GreenLeft, GrienLinks, GL) is a green political party in the Netherlands.
The Group of Soviet Forces in Germany (1954–1988) (Группа советских войск в Германии, ГСВГ), also known as the Group of Soviet Occupation Forces in Germany (1945–1954) and the Western Group of Forces (1988–1994) were the troops of the Soviet Army in East Germany.
The Guatemalan Civil War ran from 1960 to 1996.
The Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity (in Spanish: Unidad Revolucionaria Nacional Guatemalteca, URNG-MAIZ or most commonly URNG) is a Guatemalan political party that started as a guerrilla movement but laid down its arms in 1996 and became a legal political party in 1998 after the peace process which ended the Guatemalan Civil War.
The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
Gustáv Husák (10 January 1913 – 18 November 1991) was a Slovak politician, president of Czechoslovakia and a long-term Secretary General of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (1969–1987).
György Szabad (4 August 1924 – 3 July 2015) was a Hungarian politician and historian, founder member of the Hungarian Democratic Forum (MDF).
Hans Modrow (born 27 January 1928) is a German politician, best known as the last communist premier of East Germany.
Heaven on Earth: The Rise and Fall of Socialism (2005) is a three-hour PBS documentary film (sometimes recut as a 3 episodes documental mini-series) hosted by Ben Wattenberg and narrated by Henry Strozier.
Hefei is the capital and largest city of Anhui Province in China.
Heinz Valk (birth name Heinrich Valk; born March 7, 1936 in Gatchina) is an Estonian artist, caricaturist and politician.
Heydar Alirza oghlu Aliyev, also spelled Gaydar Aliev (Heydər Əlirza oğlu Əliyev; Гейда́р Али́евич Али́ев Geydar Aliyevich Aliyev; 10 May 1923 – 12 December 2003), was the third President of Azerbaijan who served from October 1993 to October 2003.
A hierarchy (from the Greek hierarchia, "rule of a high priest", from hierarkhes, "leader of sacred rites") is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another A hierarchy can link entities either directly or indirectly, and either vertically or diagonally.
The history of Slovenia chronicles the period of the Slovene territory from the 5th century BC to the present.
The history of Solidarity (Solidarność, pronounced), a Polish non-governmental trade union, began on 14 August 1980, at the Lenin Shipyards (now Gdańsk Shipyards) at its founding by Lech Wałęsa and others.
The history of the Philippines, from 1965–1986, covers the presidency of Ferdinand Marcos, also known as Ferdinand Marcos Administration.
The Hmar People's Convention (HPC) was established as a political party in 1986.
The House of Romanov (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. also Romanoff; Рома́новы, Románovy) was the second dynasty to rule Russia, after the House of Rurik, reigning from 1613 until the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II on March 15, 1917, as a result of the February Revolution.
House of Terror is a museum located at Andrássy út 60 in Budapest, Hungary.
Hu Yaobang (20 November 1915 – 15 April 1989) was a high-ranking official of the People's Republic of China.
Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (28 July 1954 – 5 March 2013) was a Venezuelan politician who was President of Venezuela from 1999 to 2013.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
Human rights in Belarus have been described as "poor".
The Hungarian Democratic Forum (Magyar Demokrata Fórum, MDF) was a centre-right political party in Hungary.
Parliamentary elections were held in Hungary on 25 March 1990, with a second round of voting taking place in all but five single member constituencies on 8 April.
The Hungarian People's Republic (Magyar Népköztársaság) was a one-party socialist republic (communist state) from 20 August 1949 to 23 October 1989.
The Hungarian Revolution of 1956, or Hungarian Uprising of 1956 (1956-os forradalom or 1956-os felkelés), was a nationwide revolt against the Marxist-Leninist government of the Hungarian People's Republic and its Soviet-imposed policies, lasting from 23 October until 10 November 1956.
The Hungarian Round Table Talks (Kerekasztal-tárgyalások) were a series of formalized, orderly and highly legalisticBartlett, p.143 discussions held in Budapest, Hungary in the summer and autumn of 1989, inspired by the Polish model, that ended in the creation of a multi-party constitutional democracy and saw the Communist Party (formally the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party or MSzMP) lose its 40-year grip on power.
The Hungarian Socialist Party (Magyar Szocialista Párt), known mostly by its acronym MSZP, is a social-democratic political party in Hungary.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
Hungarian–Soviet relations were characterized by political interventions by the Soviet Union in internal Hungarian politics for 45 years, the length of the Cold War.
A hunger strike is a method of non-violent resistance or pressure in which participants fast as an act of political protest, or to provoke feelings of guilt in others, usually with the objective to achieve a specific goal, such as a policy change.
Imre Nagy (7 June 1896 – 16 June 1958) was a Hungarian communist politician who was appointed Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Hungarian People's Republic on two occasions.
Imre András Pozsgay (26 November 1933 – 25 March 2016) was a Hungarian Communist politician who played a key role in Hungary's transition to democracy after 1988.
Independence and Unity Day (Dan samostojnosti in enotnosti) is a Slovenian national holiday that occurs on every 26 December to commemorate the official proclamation of the Slovenian independence referendum on 26 December 1990.
The Independent Smallholders, Agrarian Workers and Civic Party (Független Kisgazda-, Földmunkás- és Polgári Párt), known mostly by its acronym FKgP or its shortened form Independent Smallholders' Party (Független Kisgazdapárt), is a political party in Hungary.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
The insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir or the Kashmiri Insurgency (also known as Kashmir Intifada) is a conflict between various Kashmiri separatists and the Government of India.
The Insurgency in the Preševo Valley was an armed conflict between the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the ethnic Albanian separatists of the Liberation Army of Preševo, Medveđa and Bujanovac (UÇPMB).
Since its declaration of independence from Serbia (enacted on 17 February 2008), international recognition of Kosovo has been mixed, and the international community continues to be divided on the issue.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
Internetowa encyklopedia PWN (Polish for Internet PWN Encyclopedia) is a free online Polish-language encyclopedia published by Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.
Ion Iliescu (born 3 March 1930) is a Romanian politician who served as President of Romania from 1989 until 1996, and from 2000 until 2004.
The Iron Curtain was the name for the boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991.
Islam Abduganiyevich Karimov (Islom Abdugʻaniyevich Karimov; Ислам Абдуганиевич Каримов; 30 January 1938 – 2 September 2016) was the leader of Uzbekistan and its predecessor state, the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic, from 1989 until his death in 2016.
The Italian Communist Party (Partito Comunista Italiano, PCI) was a communist political party in Italy.
The Italian Socialist Party (PSI) was a socialist and later social-democratic political party in Italy.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Jambyn Batmönkh (Жамбын Батмөнх,; 10 March 1926 – 14 May 1997) was a Mongolian communist political leader and economics professor.
The January Events (Sausio įvykiai) took place in Lithuania between 11 and 13 January 1991 in the aftermath of the Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania.
The Japanese Communist Party (JCP, 日本共産党, Nihon Kyōsan-tō) is a political party in Japan and is one of the largest non-governing communist parties in the world.
Jastrzębie-Zdrój (Bad Königsdorff-Jastrzemb, originally Jastrzemb, Jastrzymbje–Zdrůj) is a city in south Poland with 92,462 inhabitants (31.12.2010).
Ján Čarnogurský (born 1 January 1944) is a Slovak former politician, a former Prime Minister of Slovakia (1991–1992) and the former chairman of the Christian Democratic Movement (1990–2000).
János Kádár (26 May 1912 – 6 July 1989) was a Hungarian communist leader and the General Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party, presiding over the country from 1956 until his retirement in 1988.
József Antall Jr. (8 April 1932–12 December 1993) was a Hungarian teacher, librarian, historian, and statesman who served as the first democratically elected Prime Minister of Hungary after the fall of communism (23 May 1990–12 December 1993, his death).
The JBTZ trial or the JBTZ affair (afera JBTZ), also known as the Ljubljana trial (ljubljanski proces) or the Trial against the Four (proces proti četverici) was a political trial held in a military court in Slovenia, then part of Yugoslavia in 1988.
The Jeans Revolution (Джынсавая рэвалюцыя, transliteration: Džynsavaja revalucyja, Джинсовая революция) was a term used by Belarus' democratic opposition to describe their protests following the 2006 Belarusian presidential election.
The Jeltoqsan (Желтоқсан көтерілісі, Jeltoqsan kóterilisi) or "December" of 1986 were riots that took place in Alma-Ata (present-day Almaty), Kazakhstan, in response to General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev's dismissal of Dinmukhamed Kunaev, the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan and an ethnic Kazakh, and his appointment of Gennady Kolbin, an outsider from the Russian SFSR.
Jesus Jones are a British alternative rock band from Bradford-on-Avon in Wiltshire, formed in late 1988, who recorded and performed from the late 1980s to the 2000s.
Josip Broz (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз,; 7 May 1892 – 4 May 1980), commonly known as Tito (Cyrillic: Тито), was a Yugoslav communist revolutionary and political leader, serving in various roles from 1943 until his death in 1980.
Juche (subject;; usually left untranslated or translated as "self-reliance") is the official state ideology of North Korea, described by the government as Kim Il-sung's "original, brilliant and revolutionary contribution to national and international thought".
The June Struggle, also known as the June Democracy Movement and June Democratic Uprising was a nationwide democracy movement in South Korea that generated mass protests from June 10 to June 29, 1987.
The Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic was one of the transcontinental constituent republics of the Soviet Union from 1936-1991 in northern Central Asia.
Supreme Soviet elections were held in Kazakhstan on 25 March 1990.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
Károly Grósz (August 1, 1930 – January 7, 1996) was a Hungarian communist politician, who served as the General Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party from 1988 to 1989.
The KGB, an initialism for Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti (p), translated in English as Committee for State Security, was the main security agency for the Soviet Union from 1954 until its break-up in 1991.
Kim Il-sung (or Kim Il Sung) (born Kim Sŏng-ju; 15 April 1912 – 8 July 1994) was the first leader of North Korea, from its establishment in 1948 until his death in 1994.
Kim Jong-il (or Kim Jong Il) (16 February 1941 – 17 December 2011) was the second Supreme Leader of North Korea, from the death of his father Kim Il-sung, the first Supreme Leader of North Korea, in 1994 until his own death in 2011.
The Hindu Kingdom of Nepal (नेपाल अधिराज्य), also known as the Kingdom of Gorkha (गोर्खा अधिराज्य), was a Hindu kingdom formed in 1768 by the unification of Nepal.
Supreme Soviet elections were held in the Kirghiz SSR on 25 February 1990, with a second round on 7 April.
Korean reunification (통일, 統一) refers to the potential reunification of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (commonly known as North Korea), the Republic of Korea (commonly known as South Korea), and the Korean Demilitarized Zone under a single government.
Kosovo (Kosova or Kosovë; Косово) is a partially recognised state and disputed territory in Southeastern Europe that declared independence from Serbia in February 2008 as the Republic of Kosovo (Republika e Kosovës; Република Косово / Republika Kosovo).
The Kuomintang of China (KMT; often translated as the Nationalist Party of China) is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei and is currently the opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan.
The Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz Respublikasy; r; Қирғиз Республикаси.), or simply Kyrgyzstan, and also known as Kirghizia (Kyrgyzstan; r), is a sovereign state in Central Asia.
Labor rights or workers' rights are a group of legal rights and claimed human rights having to do with labor relations between workers and their employers, usually obtained under labor and employment law.
The Lao People's Revolutionary Party (Laotian: ພັກປະຊາຊົນປະຕິວັດລາວ), formerly the Lao People's Party, is a Marxist-Leninist political party in Laos and has emerged from the Communist Party of Vietnam founded by Hồ Chí Minh in 1930.
Laos (ລາວ,, Lāo; Laos), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao: ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ, Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao; République démocratique populaire lao), commonly referred to by its colloquial name of Muang Lao (Lao: ເມືອງລາວ, Muang Lao), is a landlocked country in the heart of the Indochinese peninsula of Mainland Southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southwest and Thailand to the west and southwest.
Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
The Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic (Latvian SSR; Latvijas Padomju Sociālistiskā Republika; Латвийская Советская Социалистическая Республика, Latviyskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), also known as Soviet Latvia or Latvia, was a republic of the Soviet Union.
Parliamentary elections were held in the Latvian SSR on 18 March 1990.
László Sólyom (Sólyom László,; born 3 January 1942) is a Hungarian political figure, lawyer, and librarian who was President of Hungary from 2005 until 2010.
László Tőkés (born 1 April 1952) is a Romanian-born Hungarian pastor and politician.
The League of Communists in the Netherlands (Verbond van Communisten in Nederland or VCN) was a communist political party in the Netherlands.
The League of Communists of Slovenia (Zveza komunistov Slovenije, ZKS; Savez komunista Slovenije) was the Slovenian branch of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, the sole legal party of Yugoslavia from 1945 to 1989.
The League of Communists of Yugoslavia, before 1952 the Communist Party of Yugoslavia, was the country's largest communist party, and the ruling party of SFR Yugoslavia.
The Lebanese Civil War (الحرب الأهلية اللبنانية – Al-Ḥarb al-Ahliyyah al-Libnāniyyah) was a multifaceted civil war in Lebanon, lasting from 1975 to 1990 and resulting in an estimated 120,000 fatalities.
Lech Wałęsa (born 29 September 1943) is a retired Polish politician and labour activist.
The Left Alliance (Vasemmistoliitto, Vänsterförbundet, vas.) is a left-wing political party in Finland.
The Left Party (Vänsterpartiet, V) is a socialist and feminist political party in Sweden.
Leipzig is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany.
Lenin's Tomb: The Last Days of the Soviet Empire is a book by American author David Remnick.
The Lennon Wall or John Lennon Wall is a wall in Prague, Czech Republic.
Leonid Makarovych Kravchuk (Леонід Макарович Кравчук; born 10 January 1934) is a former Ukrainian politician and the first President of Ukraine, who served from 5 December 1991, until his resignation on 19 July 1994.
Leonid Danylovych Kuchma (Леонід Данилович Кучма, born 9 August 1938) is a Ukrainian politician who was the second President of independent Ukraine from 19 July 1994 to 23 January 2005.
The following is a list of self-declared Socialist states—that is to say, past and present states that have declared themselves Socialist or in the process of building socialism.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
The Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic (Lithuanian SSR; Lietuvos Tarybų Socialistinė Respublika; Литовская Советская Социалистическая Республика, Litovskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), one of the USSR republics that existed in 1940–1941 and 1944–1990, was formed on the basis of the Soviet occupation rule.
The Lithuanian legislative elections for 141 seats in the Supreme Soviet of the Lithuanian SSR were held in the Lithuanian SSR on 24 February with run-off elections on 4, 7, 8 and 10 March 1990.
The Log Revolution (Balvan revolucija/Балван револуција) was an insurrection which started on August 17, 1990 in areas of the Republic of Croatia which were populated significantly by ethnic Serbs.
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.
Lothar de Maizière (born 2 March 1940) is a German Christian Democratic politician.
Parliamentary elections were held in the Socialist Republic of Macedonia on 11 November 1990, with a second round on 25 November.
The Madrid Conference of 1991 was a peace conference, held from 30 October to 1 November 1991 in Madrid, hosted by Spain and co-sponsored by the United States and the Soviet Union.
The Malayan Communist Party (MCP), officially known as the Communist Party of Malaya (CPM), was a political party in the Federation of Malaya and Malaysia.
The Malta Summit comprised a meeting between US President George H. W. Bush and Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev, taking place on December 2–3, 1989, just a few weeks after the fall of the Berlin Wall.
Mani pulite (Italian for "clean hands") was a nationwide judicial investigation into political corruption in Italy held in the 1990s.
Manuel Antonio Noriega Moreno (February 11, 1934 – May 29, 2017) was a Panamanian politician and military officer who was the de facto ruler of Panama from 1983 to 1989.
A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand.
Martial law is the imposition of direct military control of normal civilian functions of government, especially in response to a temporary emergency such as invasion or major disaster, or in an occupied territory. Martial law can be used by governments to enforce their rule over the public.
Martial law in Poland (Stan wojenny w Polsce) refers to the period of time from December 13, 1981 to July 22, 1983, when the authoritarian communist government of the Polish People's Republic drastically restricted normal life by introducing martial law in an attempt to crush political opposition.
Mathieu Kérékou (2 September 1933 – 14 October 2015) was a Beninese politician who served as President of Benin from 1972 to 1991 and again from 1996 to 2006.
Memento Park (Hungarian: Szoborpark) is an open-air museum in Budapest, Hungary, dedicated to monumental statues and sculpted plaques from Hungary's Communist period (1949–1989).
Memorial (Мемориа́л) is a Russian historical and civil rights society that operates in a number of post-Soviet states.
The Memorial of Rebirth (Memorialul Renaşterii in Romanian) is a memorial in Bucharest, Romania that commemorates the struggles and victims of the Romanian Revolution of 1989, which overthrew Communism.
The Memorial to the victims of Communism (Pomník obětem komunismu) is a series of statues in Prague commemorating the victims of the communist era between 1948 and 1989.
Mengistu Haile Mariam (መንግስቱ ኃይለ ማርያም, pronounced; born 21 May 1937) is an Ethiopian soldier and politician who was the dictator of Ethiopia from 1977 to 1991.
The Mexican Communist Party (Partido Comunista Mexicano, PCM) was a communist party in Mexico.
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, GCL (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician.
Miklós Németh (born 24 January 1948, in Monok, Hungary) is a Hungarian economist and politician, who served as Prime Minister of Hungary from 24 November 1988 to 23 May 1990.
A military dictatorship (also known as a military junta) is a form of government where in a military force exerts complete or substantial control over political authority.
Miloš Jakeš (born August 12, 1922) is a retired Czech communist politician.
The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).
Najibullah Ahmadzai (ډاکټر نجیب ﷲ احمدزی; February 1947 – 27 September 1996), commonly known as Najibullah or Dr.
Parliamentary elections were held in the Moldavian SSR in February and March 1990 to elect the 380 members of the Supreme Soviet.
Moldova (or sometimes), officially the Republic of Moldova (Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south (by way of the disputed territory of Transnistria).
The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, also known as the Nazi–Soviet Pact,Charles Peters (2005), Five Days in Philadelphia: The Amazing "We Want Willkie!" Convention of 1940 and How It Freed FDR to Save the Western World, New York: PublicAffairs, Ch.
A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty.
The Monday demonstrations in East Germany in 1989 to 1991 (Montagsdemonstrationen) were a series of peaceful political protests against the government of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) that took place every Monday evening.
The Mongolian Cyrillic alphabet (Mongolian: Монгол Кирилл үсэг, Mongol Kirill üseg or Кирилл цагаан толгой, Kirill tsagaan tolgoi) is the writing system used for the standard dialect of the Mongolian language in the modern state of Mongolia.
Legislative elections were held in Mongolia in 1990.
Legislative elections were held in Mongolia on 30 June 1996.
The Mongolian People's Party (MPP; Монгол Ардын Нам, MAH; Mongol Ardīn Nam, MAN) is the oldest political party in Mongolia.
The Mongolian Revolution of 1921 (Outer Mongolian Revolution of 1921, or People's Revolution of 1921) was a military and political event by which Mongolian revolutionaries, with the assistance of the Soviet Red Army, expelled Russian White Guards from the country, and founded the Mongolian People's Republic in 1924.
The Mongolian Revolution of 1990 (1990 Democratic Revolution,, Ardchilsan Khuvĭsgal) was a democratic peaceful revolution that started with demonstrations and hunger strikes to overthrow the Mongolian People's Republic and eventually moved towards the democratic present day Mongolia and the writing of the new constitution.
The classical or traditional Mongolian script (in Mongolian script: Mongγol bičig; in Mongolian Cyrillic: Монгол бичиг Mongol bichig), also known as Hudum Mongol bichig, was the first writing system created specifically for the Mongolian language, and was the most successful until the introduction of Cyrillic in 1946.
The Mongolian Social Democratic Party (Монголын Социал Демократ Нам, Mongolyn Sotsial Demokrat Nam, sometimes also referred to as Sotsdek nam) is a political party in Mongolia.
General elections were held on Montenegro on 9 December 1990, Florian Bieber with a second round of the presidential election held later in the month.
Montenegro (Montenegrin: Црна Гора / Crna Gora, meaning "Black Mountain") is a sovereign state in Southeastern Europe.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
Moussa Traoré (born 25 September 1936) is a Malian soldier and politician who was President of Mali from 1968 to 1991.
The Movement for a United Communist Party of Greece (Κίνηση για Ενιαίο ΚΚΕ) was a minor Greek political organisation.
The Movement for the Liberation of São Tomé and Príncipe/Social Democratic Party (MLSTP/PSD) or Movimento de Libertação de São Tomé e Príncipe/Partido Social Democrata, in Portuguese, is one of the main political parties in São Tomé and Príncipe.
Quintin Lame Armed Movement was an indigenous guerrilla group active from 1984 to May 1991 as the participant in the Colombian Armed Conflict.
The Mozambican Civil War was a civil war fought in Mozambique from 1977 to 1992.
The People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola, for some years called the People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola – Labour Party (Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola – Partido do Trabalho), is a political party that has ruled Angola since the country's independence from Portugal in 1975.
Mujahideen (مجاهدين) is the plural form of mujahid (مجاهد), the term for one engaged in Jihad (literally, "holy war").
The Museum of Communism in Czech Republic (Muzeum komunismu), located at V Celnici 4 in Prague, Czech Republic, is a museum dedicated to presenting an account of the post–World War II Communist regime in Czechoslovakia in general and Prague in particular.
The Museum of Communism is a museum focusing on the communist period of Polish history, located in the Palace of Culture and Science in Warsaw.
The Museum of Occupations (Okupatsioonide muuseum) in Tallinn, Estonia, is located at the corner of Toompea St.
The Museum of Occupations and Freedom Fights (Okupacijų ir laisvės kovų muziejus), previously Museum of Genocide Victims (Genocido aukų muziejus), in Vilnius, Lithuania was established in 1992 by order of the Minister of Culture and Education and the President of the Lithuanian Union of Political Prisoners and Deportees.
The Museum of the Soviet Occupation (საბჭოთა ოკუპაციის მუზეუმი, sabch’ot’a okupats’iis muzeumi) is a history museum in Tbilisi, Georgia, documenting the seven decades of the Soviet rule in Georgia (1921–1991) and dedicated to the history of the anti-occupational, national-liberation movement of Georgia, to the victims of the Soviet political repressions throughout this period.
The Museum of Soviet occupation (Музей радянської окупації, Muzei radianskoi okupatsii) in Kiev, Ukraine, is devoted to portraying the crimes of the Soviet regime in Ukraine from 1917 to 1991.
The Museum of the Occupation of Latvia 1940-1991 (Latvijas Okupācijas muzejs) is an historic educational institution located in Riga, Latvia.
Muzeul Memoriei Neamului (Romanian; Museum of National Memory) is a museum in Chişinău, Moldova, dedicated to the victims of the Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, and commemorating anti-communist resistance in the region.
"My Way" is a song popularized in 1969 by Frank Sinatra.
A general election was held in Myanmar on 2010, in accordance with the new constitution which was approved in a referendum held in.
The Nagorno-Karabakh War was an ethnic and territorial conflict that took place in the late 1980s to May 1994, in the enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh in southwestern Azerbaijan, between the majority ethnic Armenians of Nagorno-Karabakh backed by the Republic of Armenia, and the Republic of Azerbaijan.
A national day is a designated date on which celebrations mark the nationhood of a nation or non-sovereign country.
National Opposition Union (Unión Nacional Opositora—UNO) was a wide-range coalition of opposition parties formed to oppose Nicaragua's president Daniel Ortega in the 1990 election.
The National Peasant Party (Nemzeti Parasztpárt, NPP) was a political party in Hungary between 1939 and 1949.
The National Salvation Front (Frontul Salvării Naționale, FSN) is the name of a political organization that was the governing body of Romania in the first weeks after the Romanian Revolution in 1989.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
The NATO bombing of Yugoslavia was the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation's (NATO) military operation against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) during the Kosovo War.
The apartheid system in South Africa was ended through a series of negotiations between 1990 and 1993 and through unilateral steps by the de Klerk government.
Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (18 July 1918 – 5 December 2013) was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, political leader, and philanthropist, who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999.
Neo-Stalinism (Неосталинизм) is the promotion of positive views of Joseph Stalin's role in history, the partial re-establishing of Stalin's policies on certain issues and nostalgia for the Stalin period.
The term "new world order" has been used to refer to any new period of history evidencing a dramatic change in world political thought and the balance of power.
Nicaragua, officially the Republic of Nicaragua, is the largest country in the Central American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the north, the Caribbean to the east, Costa Rica to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Nicolae Ceaușescu (26 January 1918 – 25 December 1989) was a Romanian Communist politician.
Nobility is a social class in aristocracy, normally ranked immediately under royalty, that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary.
A nonviolent revolution is a revolution using mostly campaigns with civil resistance, including various forms of nonviolent protest, to bring about the departure of governments seen as entrenched and authoritarian.
The North Caucasus (p) or Ciscaucasia is the northern part of the Caucasus region between the Sea of Azov and Black Sea on the west and the Caspian Sea on the east, within European Russia.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
The North Korean famine, which together with the accompanying general economic crisis are known as the Arduous March or The March of Suffering (고난의 행군) in North Korea, occurred in North Korea from 1994 to 1998.
North Yemen is the geographic area named the Yemen Arab Republic (1962–1990), its predecessor, the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen (1918–1962), and their predecessors that exercised sovereignty over the territory that is now the north-western part of the state of Yemen in southern Arabia.
The Nuremberg trials (Die Nürnberger Prozesse) were a series of military tribunals held by the Allied forces under international law and the laws of war after World War II.
Nursultan Ábishuly Nazarbayev (born 6 July 1940) is a Kazakh statesman serving as President of Kazakhstan since the office was created on April 24, 1990.
The occupation of the Baltic states involved the military occupation of the three Baltic states—Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania—by the Soviet Union under the auspices of the 1939 Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact in June 1940 followed by their incorporation into the USSR as constituent republics in August 1940 - most Western powers never recognised this incorporation.
The Declaration "On the Restoration of Independence of the Republic of Latvia" (Deklarācija par Latvijas Republikas neatkarības atjaunošanu) was adopted on 4 May 1990, by the Supreme Soviet of the Latvian SSR.
A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution.
An open border is a border that enables free movement of people between different jurisdictions with few or no restrictions on movement, that is to say lacking substantive border control.
The Orange Revolution (Помаранчева революція, Pomarancheva revolyutsiya) was a series of protests and political events that took place in Ukraine from late November 2004 to January 2005, in the immediate aftermath of the run-off vote of the 2004 Ukrainian presidential election, which was claimed to be marred by massive corruption, voter intimidation and direct electoral fraud.
The Organisation of Marxist–Leninist Communists of Greece (Οργάνωση Κομμουνιστών Μαρξιστών-Λενινιστών Ελλάδας (ΟΚΜΛΕ), OKMLE) was a minor Greek communist organisation which was established in January 1982.
The overthrow of Slobodan Milošević occurred on 5 October 2000, in Belgrade, in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, following the presidential election on September 24th, and culminating in the downfall of Slobodan Milošević's government on 5 October 2000.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO; منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية) is an organization founded in 1964 with the purpose of the "liberation of Palestine" through armed struggle, with much of its violence aimed at Israeli civilians.
The parliament of Poland has an upper house, the Senate, and a lower house, the Sejm.
Party of Democratic Kampuchea was a political party in Cambodia, formed as a continuation of the Communist Party of Kampuchea in December 1981.
The Party of Democratic Socialism (Partei des Demokratischen Sozialismus, PDS) was a democratic socialist political party in Germany active between 1989 and 2007.
The Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD, Partido de la Revolución Democrática) is a social democratic political party that is one of the three major political parties in Mexico, the others being the Institutional Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario Institucional, PRI) and the National Action Party (Partido Acción Nacional, PAN).
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
The People Power Revolution (also known as the EDSA Revolution and the Philippine Revolution of 1986 or simply EDSA 1986) was a series of popular demonstrations in the Philippines, mostly in the capital city of Manila from February 22–25, 1986.
The People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (PDRE) was the official name of Ethiopia from 1987 to 1991, as established by the Communist government of Mengistu Haile Mariam and the Workers' Party of Ethiopia (WPE).
The Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the armed forces of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and Communist Party of China (CPC).
Peoples Party of Arunachal, a regional political party in the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh.
"People's Republic" is a title used by some sovereign states with republican constitutions.
The People's Republic of Angola (Portuguese: República Popular de Angola) covers the period of Angolan history as a self-declared socialist state established in 1975 after it was granted independence from Portugal, akin to the situation in Mozambique.
The People's Republic of Benin (République populaire du Bénin) was a socialist state located in the Gulf of Guinea on the African continent, which would become present-day Benin.
The People's Republic of Bulgaria (PRB; Народна република България (НРБ) Narodna republika Bǎlgariya (NRB)) was the official name of Bulgaria when it was a socialist republic.
The People's Republic of Kampuchea (PRK; សាធារណរដ្ឋប្រជាមានិតកម្ពុជា, Sathéaranakrâth Pracheameanit Kâmpŭchéa; République populaire du Kampuchéa) was founded in Cambodia by the Salvation Front, a group of Cambodian communists dissatisfied with the Khmer Rouge after the overthrow of Democratic Kampuchea, Pol Pot's government.
The People's Republic of Mozambique (Portuguese: República Popular de Moçambique) was a self-declared communist state that lasted from 25 June 1975 to 1 December 1990, when the country became the present-day Republic of Mozambique.
The People's Republic of the Congo (République populaire du Congo) was a Marxist–Leninist socialist state that was established in 1969Decalo, S. 1990.
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia, Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the People's Socialist Republic of Albania (Republika Popullore Socialiste e Shqipërisë), was a Marxist-Leninist government that ruled Albania from 1946 to 1992.
Perestroika (a) was a political movement for reformation within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the 1980s until 1991 and is widely associated with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and his glasnost (meaning "openness") policy reform.
Petar Toshev Mladenov (Петър Тошев Младенов; 22 August 1936 – 31 May 2000) was a Bulgarian communist diplomat and politician.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
"Pink tide" (marea rosa, onda rosa) and "turn to the Left" (Sp.: vuelta hacia la izquierda, Pt.: Guinada à Esquerda) are phrases used in contemporary 21st century political analysis in the media and elsewhere to describe the perception of a turn towards left wing governments in Latin American democracies straying away from the neo-liberal economic model.
The Manifesto of the Polish Committee of National Liberation (PKWN) known as July or PKWN Manifesto (Manifest PKWN, Manifest lipcowy) was a political manifesto of the Polish Committee of National Liberation, a Soviet-backed administration, which operated in opposition to the London-based Polish government in exile.
A planned economy is a type of economic system where investment and the allocation of capital goods take place according to economy-wide economic and production plans.
Playboy is an American men's lifestyle and entertainment magazine.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
The Polish legislative election of 1989 was the tenth election to the Sejm, the parliament of the Polish People's Republic, and the first election to the recreated Senate of Poland.
The 1991 Polish parliamentary election was held on 27 October 1991 to elect deputies to both houses of the National Assembly.
The Polish People's Republic (Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) covers the history of contemporary Poland between 1952 and 1990 under the Soviet-backed socialist government established after the Red Army's release of its territory from German occupation in World War II.
Presidential elections were held in Poland on 25 November 1990, with a second round on 9 December.
The Polish Round Table Talks took place in Warsaw, Poland from 6 February to 5 April 1989.
The Polish United Workers' Party (PUWP; Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza, PZPR) was the Communist party which governed the Polish People's Republic from 1948 to 1989.
Political freedom (also known as political autonomy or political agency) is a central concept in history and political thought and one of the most important features of democratic societies.
Political repression is the persecution of an individual or group within society for political reasons, particularly for the purpose of restricting or preventing their ability to take part in the political life of a society thereby reducing their standing among their fellow citizens.
The politics of Europe deals with the continually evolving politics within the continent of Europe.
The Popular Front for the Liberation of Oman (in Arabic: الجبهة الشعبية لتحرير عُمان - al-Jabha al-Sha'abiya li-Tahrīr 'Uman, PFLO) was a Marxist and Arab nationalist revolutionary organisation in the Sultanate of Oman.
The Popular Liberation Army (Ejército Popular de Liberación, EPL), is a Colombian guerrilla group created in 1967.
The post-Soviet states, also collectively known as the former Soviet Union (FSU) or former Soviet Republics, are the states that emerged and re-emerged from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in its breakup in 1991, with Russia internationally recognised as the successor state to the Soviet Union after the Cold War.
The Prague Spring (Pražské jaro, Pražská jar) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia during the era of its domination by the Soviet Union after World War II.
There were people and organizations who predicted that the USSR would fall before the eventual dissolution of the USSR in 1991.
Privatization (also spelled privatisation) is the purchase of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by private investors, or the sale of a state-owned enterprise to private investors.
National holidays in Slovakia See also Remembrance days in Slovakia.
Public holidays in the Czech Republic.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
The Radical Party (Partito Radicale, PR) was a political party in Italy.
Rahmon Nabiyevich Nabiyev (Раҳмон Набиев, alternative spelling Rakhmon Nabiev; October 5, 1930 – April 11, 1993) served as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Tajikistan and twice as the President of Tajikistan.
Ramiz Tafë Alia (18 October 1924 – 7 October 2011) was the second and last Communist leader of Albania from 1985 to 1991 and the country's head of state from 1982 to 1992.
Rashtriya Samajwadi Congress (RSC) (National Socialist Congress) was a political party in the Indian state of West Bengal from 1986 to 1989.
The Reagan Doctrine was a strategy orchestrated and implemented by the United States under the Reagan Administration to overwhelm the global influence of the Soviet Union in an attempt to end the Cold War.
A recall election (also called a recall referendum or representative recall) is a procedure by which voters can remove an elected official from office through a direct vote before that official's term has ended.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The Red Army Faction (RAF; German),See the section ''Faction'' versus ''Fraktion'' also known as the Baader-Meinhof Group or Baader-Meinhof Gang, was a West German far-left militant organization founded in 1970.
The Red Brigades (Brigate Rosse, often abbreviated BR) was a left-wing terrorist organization, based in Italy, responsible for numerous violent incidents, including assassinations, kidnapping and robberies during the so-called "Years of Lead".
Religious persecution is the systematic mistreatment of an individual or group of individuals as a response to their religious beliefs or affiliations or lack thereof.
The removal of Hungary's border fence with Austria occurred in 1989 during the collapse of communism in Hungary, which was part of a broad wave of revolutions in various communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe.
The Mozambican National Resistance (RENAMO; Resistência Nacional Moçambicana) is a militant organization and political movement in Mozambique.
The Republic of Kuwait was a short-lived and self-styled republic formed in the aftermath of the invasion of Kuwait by Ba'athist Iraq during the early stages of the Persian Gulf War.
Macedonia (translit), officially the Republic of Macedonia, is a country in the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Republic of the Congo Civil War was the first of two ethnopolitical civil conflicts in the African state of Republic of the Congo, beginning in 1993 and continuing until December 1994.
Resistance movements during World War II occurred in every occupied country by a variety of means, ranging from non-cooperation, disinformation and propaganda, to hiding crashed pilots and even to outright warfare and the recapturing of towns.
A revolutionary wave or revolutionary decade is a series of revolutions occurring in various locations within a similar time span.
The Revolutions of 1820 were a revolutionary wave in Europe.
The Revolutions of 1830 were a revolutionary wave in Europe which took place in 1830.
The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations, People's Spring, Springtime of the Peoples, or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848.
The Revolutions of 1917–1923 were a period of political unrest and revolts around the world inspired by the success of the Russian Revolution and the disorder created by the aftermath of World War I. The uprisings were mainly socialist or anti-colonial in nature and were mostly short-lived, failing to have a long-term impact.
Richard Barry Freeman (born June 29, 1943) is an economist.
"Right Here, Right Now" is a song by British alternative dance band Jesus Jones from the album, Doubt.
A riot is a form of civil disorder commonly characterized by a group lashing out in a violent public disturbance against authority, property or people.
The Romanian Communist Party (Romanian: Partidul Comunist Român, PCR) was a communist party in Romania.
General elections were held in Romania on 20 May 1990.
The Romanian Revolution (Revoluția Română) was a period of violent civil unrest in Romania in December 1989 and part of the Revolutions of 1989 that occurred in several countries.
The Rome General Peace Accords (Português): Acordo Geral de Paz (General Peace Accord)) between the Mozambican Civil War parties, the FRELIMO (government) and the RENAMO (rebels), put an end to the Mozambique Civil War. It was signed on October 4, 1992. Negotiations preceding in began in July 1990. They were brokered by a team of four mediators, two members of the Community of Sant'Egidio, Andrea Riccardi and Matteo Zuppi, as well as Bishop Jaime Gonçalves and Italian government representative Mario Raffaelli. The delegation of the Frelimo was headed by Armando Guebuza (who went on to become President of Mozambique), the delegation of the Renamo was headed by Raul Domingos. The accords were then signed by the then president of Mozambique, Frelimo leader Joaquim Chissano and by the leader of the Renamo, Afonso Dhlakama. Renamo declared on 21 October 2013 that they were annulling the peace accord as a result of a government attack on their base.
The Revolution of Roses, often translated into English as the Rose Revolution (ვარდების რევოლუცია vardebis revolutsia), describes a pro-Western peaceful change of power in Georgia in November 2003.
The ruling class is the social class of a given society that decides upon and sets that society's political agenda.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Ground Forces of the Russian Federation (r) are the land forces of the Russian Armed Forces, formed from parts of the collapsing Soviet Army in 1992.
Legislative elections were held in the Russian SFSR on 4 March 1990.
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.
The Russian State Archive of Contemporary History (RGANI) (Российский государственный архив новейшей истории (РГАНИ)) is a large Russian state archive managed by Rosarkhiv, which preserves post-1952 documents of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
The Rwandan Civil War was a conflict in the African republic of Rwanda, between the Rwandan Armed Forces (FAR) and the rebel Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF).
Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي; 28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was President of Iraq from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003.
The Salvadoran Civil War was a conflict between the military-led government of El Salvador and the Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (FMLN), a coalition or "umbrella organization" of several left-wing groups.
The Communist Party of San Marino (Partito Comunista di San Marino, PCS), also known as the Sammarinese Communist Party, was a Marxist political party in the small European republic of San Marino.
San Marino, officially the Republic of San Marino (Repubblica di San Marino), also known as the Most Serene Republic of San Marino (Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino), is an enclaved microstate surrounded by Italy, situated on the Italian Peninsula on the northeastern side of the Apennine Mountains.
The Sandinista National Liberation Front (Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional, FSLN) is a democratic socialist political party in Nicaragua.
Sanjaasurengiin Zorig (Санжаасүрэнгийн Зориг, 20 April 1962 – 2 October 1998) was a prominent Mongolian politician and leader of the country's 1990 democratic revolution.
The Serbian Autonomous Oblast of Krajina (Srpska autonomna oblast Krajina, Српска аутономна област Крајина) or SAO Krajina (САО Крајина) was a self-proclaimed Serbian autonomous region (oblast) within modern-day Croatia (then Yugoslavia).
Saparmurat Atayevich Niyazov (Saparmyrat Ataýewiç Nyýazow); 19 February 1940 – 21 December 2006) was a Turkmen politician who served as the leader of Turkmenistan from 1985 until his death in 2006. He was First Secretary of the Turkmen Communist Party from 1985 until 1991 and continued to lead Turkmenistan for 15 years after independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. Turkmen media referred to him using the title "His Excellency Saparmurat Türkmenbaşy, President of Turkmenistan and Chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers". His self-given title Türkmenbaşy, meaning Head of the Turkmen, referred to his position as the founder and president of the Association of Turkmens of the World. Foreign media criticised him as one of the world's most totalitarian and repressive dictators, highlighting his reputation of imposing his personal eccentricities upon the country, which extended to renaming months for details of his own biography among other things. Global Witness, a London-based human rights organisation, reported that money under Niyazov's control and held overseas may be in excess of US$3 billion, of which between $1.8–$2.6 billion was allegedly situated in the Foreign Exchange Reserve Fund at Deutsche Bank in Germany.
Sükhbaatar Square (Сүхбаатарын талбай, pronounced Sükhbaatariin Talbai), previously known as Chinggis Square (Чингисийн талбай, pronounced Chinggisiin Talbai), is the central square of Mongolia's capital Ulaanbaatar.
Scorpions are a German rock band formed in 1965 in Hanover by Rudolf Schenker.
The term secret police (or political police)Ilan Berman & J. Michael Waller, "Introduction: The Centrality of the Secret Police" in Dismantling Tyranny: Transitioning Beyond Totalitarian Regimes (Rowman & Littlefield, 2006), p. xv.
The Securitate (Romanian for Security) was the popular term for the Departamentul Securității Statului (Department of State Security), the secret police agency of the Socialist Republic of Romania.
A security clearance is a status granted to individuals allowing them access to classified information (state or organizational secrets) or to restricted areas, after completion of a thorough background check.
The Sejm of the Republic of Poland (Sejm Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej) is the lower house of the Polish parliament.
The right of people to self-determination is a cardinal principle in modern international law (commonly regarded as a jus cogens rule), binding, as such, on the United Nations as authoritative interpretation of the Charter's norms.
The Senate (Senat) is the upper house of the Polish parliament, the lower house being the 'Sejm'.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
Serbia and Montenegro (Srbija i Crna Gora, Србија и Црна Гора; SCG, СЦГ), officially the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro (Državna Zajednica Srbija i Crna Gora, Државна Заједница Србија и Црна Гора), was a country in Southeast Europe, created from the two remaining federal republics of Yugoslavia after its breakup in 1992.
General elections were held in the Republic of Serbia, a constituent federal unit of SFR Yugoslavia, in December 1990.
The Serbs of Croatia (Srbi u Hrvatskoj, Срби у Хрватској) or Croatian Serbs (Хрватски Срби/Hrvatski Srbi) constitute the largest national minority in Croatia.
Serzh Sargsyan (Սերժ Սարգսյան,; born 30 June 1954).
The Communist Party of Peru - Shining Path (Partido Comunista del Perú - Sendero Luminoso), more commonly known as the Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso), is a Maoist guerrilla group in Peru.
Shkodër or Shkodra, historically known as Scutari (in Italian, English and most Western European landuages) or Scodra, is a city in the Republic of Albania.
Mohamed Siad Barre (Maxamed Siyaad Barre; محمد سياد بري; October 6, 1919 – January 2, 1995) was a Somali politician who served as the President of the Somali Democratic Republic from 1969 to 1991.
The Sierra Leone Civil War (1991–2002) began on 23 March 1991 when the Revolutionary United Front (RUF), with support from the special forces of Charles Taylor’s National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL), intervened in Sierra Leone in an attempt to overthrow the Joseph Momoh government.
The Sighet prison, located in the town of Sighetu Marmaţiei, Maramureş county, Romania, was used by Romania to hold criminals, POWs and political prisoners.
"Sinatra Doctrine" was the name that the Soviet government of Mikhail Gorbachev used jokingly to describe its policy of allowing neighboring Warsaw Pact states to determine their own internal affairs.
Slobodan Milošević (Слободан Милошевић; 20 August 1941 – 11 March 2006) was a Yugoslav and Serbian politician and the President of Serbia (originally the Socialist Republic of Serbia, a constituent republic within the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia) from 1989 to 1997 and President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from 1997 to 2000.
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.
An independence referendum was held in the Republic of Slovenia on 23 December 1990.
A parliamentary election was held in the Republic of Slovenia in April 1990.
Social democracy is a political, social and economic ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and capitalist economy.
Social Democracy of the Republic of Poland (SdRP) (Socjaldemokracja Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej, SdRP) was a social-democratic political party in Poland created in 1990, shortly after the Revolutions of 1989.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
The theoretical system of socialism with Chinese characteristics (hp) is a broad term for political theories and polices that are seen by their proponents as representing Marxism–Leninism adapted to Chinese circumstances and specific time periods.
The Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo (Социјалистичка Аутономна Покрајина Косово / Socijalistička Autonomna Pokrajina Kosovo, Krahina Socialiste Autonome e Kosovës; often abbreviated SAP Kosovo), comprising the Kosovo region, was one of the two autonomous provinces of Serbia within Yugoslavia (the other being Vojvodina), between 1945 and 1990, when it was renamed Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija.
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia or SFRY) was a socialist state led by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars.
The socialist market economy (SME) is the economic system and model of economic development employed in the People’s Republic of China.
The Socialist Mexican Party (PMS) was the former left-wing Mexican political party immediate antecedent of the present Party of the Democratic Revolution.
The Socialist Party of Chile (Partido Socialista de Chile, or PS) is a political party within the centre-left Nueva Mayoría.
The Socialist Republic of Croatia (Socijalistička Republika Hrvatska; Serbian: Социјалистичка Република Хрватска; Socijalistička Republika Hrvatska/Социјалистичка Република Хрватска) was a constituent republic and federated state of Yugoslavia. By its constitution, modern-day Croatia is its direct continuation. Along with five other Yugoslav republics, it was formed during World War II and became a socialist republic after the war. It had four full official names during its 48-year existence (see below). By territory and population, it was the second largest republic in Yugoslavia, after the Socialist Republic of Serbia. In 1990, the government dismantled the single-party system of government - installed by the Communist Party - and adopted a multi-party democracy. The newly elected government of Franjo Tuđman moved the republic towards independence, formally seceding from Yugoslavia in 1991 and thereby contributing to its dissolution.
The Socialist Republic of Romania (Republica Socialistă România, RSR) refers to Romania under Marxist-Leninist one-party Communist rule that existed officially from 1947 to 1989.
The Socialist Republic of Serbia (Serbo-Croatian: Социјалистичка Република Србија/Socijalistička Republika Srbija) was one of the six constitutional republics of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
The Socialist Republic of Slovenia (Socialistična republika Slovenija) was one of the six republics forming the post-World War II country of Yugoslavia.
The Socialist Unity Party of Germany (Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands, SED), established in April 1946, was the governing Marxist–Leninist political party of the German Democratic Republic from the country's foundation in October 1949 until it was dissolved after the Peaceful Revolution in 1989.
Solidarity (Solidarność, pronounced; full name: Independent Self-governing Labour Union "Solidarity"—Niezależny Samorządny Związek Zawodowy „Solidarność”) is a Polish labour union that was founded on 17 September 1980 at the Lenin Shipyard under the leadership of Lech Wałęsa.
The Somali Civil War (Dagaalkii Sokeeye ee Soomaaliya, الحرب الأهلية الصومالية) is an ongoing civil war taking place in Somalia.
The Somali Democratic Republic (Jamhuuriyadda Dimuqraadiya Soomaaliya, الجمهورية الديمقراطية الصومالية al-Jumhūrīyah ad-Dīmuqrāṭīyah aṣ-Ṣūmālīyah, Repubblica Democratica Somala) was the name that the Marxist–Leninist military dictatorship government of former President of Somalia Major General Mohamed Siad Barre gave to Somalia during its rule, after having seized power in a bloodless 1969 coup d'état.
The Somali Rebellion was the beginning of the civil war in Somalia that occurred in the late 1970s and early 1990s.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
General elections were held in South Africa between 26 and 29 April 1994.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
South Yemen is the common English name for the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (جمهورية اليمن الديمقراطية الشعبية), which existed from 1967 to 1990 as a state in the Middle East in the southern and eastern provinces of the present-day Republic of Yemen, including the island of Socotra.
The South Yemen Civil War, colloquially referred to as The Events of '86, or more simply as The Events, was a failed coup d'etat and armed conflict which took place in January 1986 in South Yemen.
The Soviet Army (SA; Советская Армия, Sovetskaya Armiya) is the name given to the main land-based branch of the Soviet Armed Forces between February 1946 and December 1991, when it was replaced with the Russian Ground Forces, although it was not taken fully out of service until 25 December 1993.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The final and complete withdrawal of Soviet combatant forces from Afghanistan began on 15 May 1988 and ended on 15 February 1989 under the leadership of Colonel-General Boris Gromov.
The Soviet–Afghan War lasted over nine years, from December 1979 to February 1989.
The Special Period in Time of Peace (Período especial) in Cuba was an extended period of economic crisis that began in 1989 primarily due to the dissolution of the Soviet Union and, by extension, the Comecon.
Stalinism is the means of governing and related policies implemented from the 1920s to 1953 by Joseph Stalin (1878–1953).
The Ministry for State Security (Ministerium für Staatssicherheit, MfS) or State Security Service (Staatssicherheitsdienst, SSD), commonly known as the Stasi, was the official state security service of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany).
The Stasi Museum (also known in German as the Forschungs- und Gedenkstätte Normannenstraße) is a research and memorial centre concerning the political system of the former East Germany.
A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.
The State Great Khural (Улсын Их Хурал, Ulsyn Ikh Khural, also State Great Hural, and Ikh Khural; English: lit. State Great Assembly) is the unicameral parliament of Mongolia.
The State Peace and Development Council (နိုင်ငံတော် အေးချမ်းသာယာရေး နှင့် ဖွံ့ဖြိုးရေး ကောင်စီ; abbreviated to SPDC or) was the official name of the military government of Burma, which seized power under the rule of Saw Maung in 1988.
Statehood Day (Dan državnosti) is a holiday that occurs on every 25 June in Slovenia to commemorate the country's declaration of independence from Yugoslavia in 1991.
A summary execution is an execution in which a person is accused of a crime and immediately killed without benefit of a full and fair trial.
Superpower is a term used to describe a state with a dominant position, which is characterised by its extensive ability to exert influence or project power on a global scale.
The Supreme Council of Belarus (1991–1996) was the immediate continuation of the Supreme Soviet of the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (BSSR Supreme Soviet) (1938–1991), which in its turn was the successor of the Central Executive Committee of Byelorussian SSR (1920–1938), and all of them were the highest organs of state power in Belarus during 1920–1990.
Suriname (also spelled Surinam), officially known as the Republic of Suriname (Republiek Suriname), is a sovereign state on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America.
The Surinamese Interior War (Binnenlandse Oorlog) was a civil war waged in the remote interior region of Suriname between 1986 and 1991.
The Syrian Communist Party (translit) was a political party in Syria founded in 1944.
The Syrian Democratic People's Party (Hizb Al-Sha'ab Al-Dimuqratiy Al-Suriy) is a left-wing, democratic opposition party in Syria that is banned by the Syrian government.
Tadeusz Mazowiecki; (18 April 1927 – 28 October 2013) was a Polish author, journalist, philanthropist and Christian-democratic politician, formerly one of the leaders of the Solidarity movement, and the first non-communist Polish prime minister since 1946.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Supreme Soviet elections were held in the Tajik SSR on 25 February 1990.
Tajikistan (or; Тоҷикистон), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Jumhuriyi Tojikiston), is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an estimated population of million people as of, and an area of.
The Tajikistani Civil War (Ҷанги шаҳрвандии Тоҷикистон, Jangi şahrvandi‘i Tojikiston/Çangi şahrvandiji Toçikiston); also known as the Tajik Civil War or the War in Tajikistan, began in May 1992 when regional groups from the Garm and Gorno-Badakhshan regions of Tajikistan rose up against the government of President Rahmon Nabiyev, which was dominated by people from the Khujand and Kulyab regions.
The Tallinn Song Festival Grounds (Lauluväljak) are the grounds on which the Estonian Song Festival is held every five years.
Tank Man (also known as the Unknown Protester or Unknown Rebel) is the nickname of an unidentified man who stood in front of a column of tanks on June 5, 1989, the morning after the Chinese military had suppressed the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 by force.
Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.
Tbilisi (თბილისი), in some countries also still named by its pre-1936 international designation Tiflis, is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura River with a population of approximately 1.5 million people.
The Tehran Conference (codenamed Eureka) was a strategy meeting of Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill from 28 November to 1 December 1943, after the Anglo-Soviet Invasion of Iran.
The Ten-Day War (desetdnevna vojna) or the Slovenian Independence War (slovenska osamosvojitvena vojna), was a brief war of independence that followed the Slovenian declaration of independence on 25 June 1991.
Bangladesh has experienced significant terrorism conducted by a number of radical local Islamist organizations.
The Barricades (Barikādes) were a series of confrontations between Latvia and forces loyal to the Soviet Union in January 1991 which took place mainly in Riga.
The Singing Revolution is a 2006 documentary film created by Americans James Tusty and Maureen Castle Tusty about the nonviolent Singing Revolution in Estonia in which hundreds of thousands of Estonians gathered publicly between 1986 and 1991, in an effort to end decades of Soviet occupation.
The Soviet Story is a 2008 documentary film about Soviet Communism and Soviet–German collaboration before 1941 written and directed by Edvīns Šnore and sponsored by the UEN Group in the European Parliament.
Tiananmen Square is a city square in the centre of Beijing, China, named after the Tiananmen ("Gate of Heavenly Peace") located to its north, separating it from the Forbidden City.
The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, commonly known in mainland China as the June Fourth Incident (六四事件), were student-led demonstrations in Beijing, the capital of the People's Republic of China, in 1989.
Timișoara (Temeswar, also formerly Temeschburg or Temeschwar; Temesvár,; טעמשוואר; Темишвар / Temišvar; Banat Bulgarian: Timišvár; Temeşvar; Temešvár) is the capital city of Timiș County, and the main social, economic and cultural centre in western Romania.
Titoism is described as the post-World War II policies and practices associated with Josip Broz Tito during the Cold War, characterized by an opposition to the Soviet Union.
Todor Hristov Zhivkov (Тодор Христов Живков; 7 September 1911 – 5 August 1998) was the communist leader of the People's Republic of Bulgaria (PRB) from 4 March 1954 until 10 November 1989.
Benito Mussolini Totalitarianism is a political concept where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to control every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.
A trade union or trades union, also called a labour union (Canada) or labor union (US), is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve many common goals; such as protecting the integrity of its trade, improving safety standards, and attaining better wages, benefits (such as vacation, health care, and retirement), and working conditions through the increased bargaining power wielded by the creation of a monopoly of the workers.
The Transnistria War was an armed conflict that broke out in November 1990 in Dubăsari (Дубоссáры, Dubossary) between pro-Transnistria forces, including the Transnistrian Republican Guard, militia and Cossack units (which were supported by elements of the Russian 14th Army), and pro-Moldovan forces, including Moldovan troops and police.
Tripura National Volunteers (also Tribal National Volunteers or Tripura National Volunteer Force) was a Tripuri nationalist militant group in the Tripura region of India that launched an armed struggle in the early 1980s to separate Tripura from India.
Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj (Cahiagín Elbegdorj; also referred to as Mongolyin Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj; born 30 March 1963) is a Mongolian politician who served as President of Mongolia from 2009 to 2017.
From 1990 to 1995, a rebellion by various Tuareg groups took place in Niger and Mali, with the aim of achieving autonomy or forming their own nation-state.
The Tulip Revolution or First Kyrgyz Revolution led to President of Kyrgyzstan, Askar Akayev's fall from power.
Supreme Soviet elections were held in the Turkmen SSR on 7 January 1990.
Turkmenistan (or; Türkmenistan), (formerly known as Turkmenia) is a sovereign state in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The first relatively free parliamentary election held in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (Ukrainian SSR) took place in several stages, from March 4 to March 18, 1990.
Ulaanbaatar, formerly anglicised as Ulan Bator (Улаанбаатар,, Ulaγanbaγatur, literally "Red Hero"), is the capital and largest city of Mongolia. The city is not part of any aimag (province), and its population was over 1.3 million, almost half of the country's total population. Located in north central Mongolia, the municipality lies at an elevation of about in a valley on the Tuul River. It is the country's cultural, industrial and financial heart, the centre of Mongolia's road network and connected by rail to both the Trans-Siberian Railway in Russia and the Chinese railway system. The city was founded in 1639 as a nomadic Buddhist monastic centre. In 1778, it settled permanently at its present location, the junction of the Tuul and Selbe rivers. Before that, it changed location twenty-eight times, with each location being chosen ceremonially. In the twentieth century, Ulaanbaatar grew into a major manufacturing center. Ulaanbaatar is a member of the Asian Network of Major Cities 21. The city's official website lists Moscow, Hohhot, Seoul, Sapporo and Denver as sister cities.
The Unified Socialist Party (Parti Socialiste Unifié, PSU) was a socialist political party in France, founded on April 3, 1960.
The Union of Democratic Forces (Съюз на демократичните сили, Sayuz na demokratichnite sili, СДС, SDS) is a political party in Bulgaria, founded in 1989 as a union of several political organizations in opposition to the communist government.
The National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) (Portuguese: União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola) is the second-largest political party in Angola.
The United National Independence Party (UNIP) is a political party in Zambia.
The United Nations Operations in Mozambique (UNOMOZ) was a UN peace mission to Mozambique established in December 1992 under Security Council Resolution 797 with the assignment to monitor the implementation of the Rome General Peace Accords agreed upon by the Mozambican president Joaquim Chissano (FRELIMO) and Afonso Dhlakama of RENAMO.
The United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) was a United Nations peacekeeping operation in Cambodia in 1992–93.
The United People's Party (Zjednoczone Stronnictwo Ludowe, ZSL) was an agrarian political party in the People's Republic of Poland.
The United Revolutionary Front of East Turkestan (URFET) was a Uyghur nationalist group in Xinjiang that participated in the Xinjiang conflict as an armed separatist force.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Invasion of Panama, code named Operation Just Cause occurred between mid-December 1989 and late January 1990.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
Supreme Soviet elections were held in the Uzbek SSR on 18 February 1990.
Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.
Vasile Milea (1 January 1927, Lerești, Argeș – 22 December 1989) was Nicolae Ceaușescu's minister of defense during the Romanian Revolution of 1989 and was involved in the reprisal phase of the revolution that caused the deaths of 162 people.
Václav Havel (5 October 193618 December 2011) was a Czech statesman, writer and former dissident, who served as the last President of Czechoslovakia from 1989 until the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1992 and then as the first President of the Czech Republic from 1993 to 2003.
The Velvet Revolution (sametová revoluce) or Gentle Revolution (nežná revolúcia) was a non-violent transition of power in what was then Czechoslovakia, occurring from 17 November to 29 December 1989.
Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).
The Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation is a non-profit educational organization in the United States, authorized by a unanimous Act of Congress in 1993 for the purpose of educating Americans about the ideology, history and legacy of communism.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Viktor Mihály Orbán (born 31 May 1963) is a Hungarian politician.
Viktor Andriyovych Yushchenko (Віктор Андрійович Ющенко,; born February 23, 1954) is a Ukrainian politician who was the third President of Ukraine from January 23, 2005 to February 25, 2010.
Vilnius (see also other names) is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 574,221.
From the late 1950s to the mid-1970s, Vladimir Konstantinovich Bukovsky (Влади́мир Константи́нович Буко́вский; b. 30 December 1942) was a prominent figure in the Soviet dissident movement, well-known at home and abroad.
Vladimir Voronin (born May 25, 1941) is a Moldovan politician.
The People's Chamber (German: Volkskammer) was the unicameral legislature of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany).
The War in Abkhazia from 1992 to 1993 was fought between Georgian government forces for the most part, and Abkhaz separatist forces, Russian armed forces and North Caucasian militants.
The War in Donbass is an armed conflict in the Donbass region of Ukraine.
The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland among the Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War.
The Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia, officially known as Operation Danube, was a joint invasion of Czechoslovakia by five Warsaw Pact nations – the Soviet Union, Bulgaria, Hungary, East Germany and Poland – on the night of 20–21 August 1968.
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.
Willi Stoph (9 July 1914 – 13 April 1999) was an East German politician.
"Wind of Change" is a power ballad by the German rock band Scorpions, recorded for their eleventh studio album, Crazy World (1990).
Wojciech Witold Jaruzelski (6 July 1923 – 25 May 2014) was a Polish military officer and politician.
Workers' Party of Spain–Communist Unity (in Spanish: Partido de los Trabajadores de España–Unidad Comunista) was a communist political party in Spain, founded by Santiago Carrillo and his followers after their expulsion from the Communist Party of Spain (PCE) in October 1985.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The Yalta Conference, also known as the Crimea Conference and code named the Argonaut Conference, held from 4 to 11 February 1945, was the World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union for the purpose of discussing Germany and Europe's postwar reorganization.
The Yemen Arab Republic (YAR; الجمهورية العربية اليمنية), also known as North Yemen or Yemen (Sana'a), was a country from 1962 to 1990 in the northwestern part of what is now Yemen.
The May–July 1994 civil war in Yemen was a civil conflict waged between the two Yemeni forces of the pro-union northern and the socialist separatist southern Yemeni states and their supporters.
Yemeni unification took place on May 22, 1990, when the area of the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (also known as South Yemen) was united with the Yemen Arab Republic (also known as North Yemen), forming the Republic of Yemen (known as simply Yemen).
The Yugoslav People's Army (Jugoslovenska narodna armija / Југословенска народна армија / Jugoslavenska narodna armija; also Yugoslav National Army), often referred-to simply by the initialism JNA, was the military of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
The Yugoslav Wars were a series of ethnic conflicts, wars of independence and insurgencies fought from 1991 to 1999/2001 in the former Yugoslavia.
Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija/Југославија; Jugoslavija; Југославија; Pannonian Rusyn: Югославия, transcr. Juhoslavija)Jugosllavia; Jugoszlávia; Juhoslávia; Iugoslavia; Jugoslávie; Iugoslavia; Yugoslavya; Югославия, transcr. Jugoslavija.
Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal (Юмжаагийн Цэдэнбал; September 17, 1916 – April 20, 1991) was the leader of Mongolia from 1940 to 1984.
Zhao Ziyang (pronounced; 17 October 1919 – 17 January 2005) was a high-ranking statesman in China.
Zviad Gamsakhurdia (ზვიად გამსახურდია, tr. Zviad K'onst'ant'ines dze Gamsakhurdia; Звиа́д Константи́нович Гамсаху́рдия, tr. Zviad Konstantinovich Gamsakhurdiya; March 31, 1939 – December 31, 1993) was a Georgian politician, dissident, scholar, and writer who became the first democratically elected President of Georgia in the post-Soviet era.
The 1974 Yugoslav Constitution was the fourth and final constitution of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
In March and April 1981, a student protest in Pristina, the capital of the then Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo, led to widespread protests by Kosovo Albanians demanding more autonomy within the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
The 1987 Constitution of Ethiopia was the third constitution of Ethiopia, and went into effect on 22 February 1987 after a referendum on 1 February of that year.
The 1987–89 JVP insurrection (also known as the 1989 Revolt) was the second unsuccessful armed revolt conducted by the Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna against the Government of Sri Lanka under President J. R. Jayewardene.
The 1987–1989 Tibetan unrest were a series of pro-independence protests that took place between September 1987 and March 1989 in the Tibetan areas in the People's Republic of China: Sichuan, Tibet Autonomous Region and Qinghai, and the Tibetan prefectures in Yunnan and Gansu.
The 1988 Maldives coup d'état was the attempt by a group of Maldivians led by Abdullah Luthufi and assisted by armed mercenaries of a Tamil secessionist organisation from Sri Lanka, the People's Liberation Organisation of Tamil Eelam (PLOTE), to overthrow the government in the island republic of Maldives.
The 1988 October Riots were a series of street-level disturbances and riotous demonstrations by Algerian youth, which started on 5 October 1988 and ended on the 11th.
The 1988 Polish strikes were a massive wave of workers' strikes which broke out in 1988 in the Polish People's Republic.
The 1989 Sudanese coup d'état was a successful coup, led by Col.
The 26 March 1991 Malian coup d'état resulted in the overthrow of President Moussa Traoré after over two decades of dictatorship and eventually led to multi-party elections.
The 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, also known as the August Coup (r "August Putsch"), was an attempt by members of the Soviet Union's government to take control of the country from Soviet President and General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev.
The 1991 uprisings in Iraq were a series of popular rebellions in northern and southern Iraq in March and April 1991 in a cease fire of the Persian Gulf War.
The 1991–1992 South Ossetian War (also known as the First South Ossetian war) was fought as part of the Georgian-Ossetian conflict between Georgian government forces and ethnic Georgian militia on one side and the forces of South Ossetia and ethnic Ossetian militia who wanted South Ossetia to secede from Georgia and become an independent state on the other.
The 1992 Sierra Leonean coup d'état was a coup d'état against the government of Sierra Leone by a group of young military officers led by 25-year-old Captain Valentine Strasser on 29 April 1992.
The constitutional crisis of 1993 was a political stand-off between the Russian president Boris Yeltsin and the Russian parliament that was resolved by using military force.
In the 1994 Gambian coup d'état, a group of soldiers led by then 29-year-old Lieutenant Yahya Jammeh seized power in a bloodless coup d'état on 22 July, ousting Dawda Jawara who had been President of the Gambia since 1970.
The 1996 Burundian coup d'état was a military coup d'état that took place in Burundi on 25 July 1996.
The 1996 Nigerien coup d'état was a military coup d'état which occurred on 27 January 1996 in Niamey, Niger.
The 19th of April Movement (in Spanish: Movimiento 19 de Abril) or M-19, was a Colombian guerrilla movement.
The 2001 insurgency in the Republic of Macedonia was an armed conflict which began when the ethnic Albanian National Liberation Army (NLA) militant group attacked the security forces of the Republic of Macedonia at the beginning of February 2001, and ended with the Ohrid Agreement.
The 2003 invasion of Iraq was the first stage of the Iraq War (also called Operation Iraqi Freedom).
The 2004 enlargement of the European Union was the largest single expansion of the European Union (EU), in terms of territory, number of states, and population to date; however, it was not the largest in terms of gross domestic product.
The 2007 enlargement of the European Union saw Bulgaria and Romania join the European Union (EU) on 1 January 2007.
The 2013 enlargement of the European Union saw Croatia join the European Union as its 28th member state on 1 July 2013.
The 8888 Nationwide Popular Pro-Democracy Protests (MLCTS: hrac le: lum), also known as the 8-8-88 Uprisings, or the People Power Uprising,Yawnghwe (1995), pp.
1989 revolution, Autumn of Nations, Autumn of nations, Collapse of Communism, Collapse of Socialism, Collapse of communism, Collapse of socialism, Collapse of the communist bloc, Collapse of the iron curtain, Communism remembrance, Decline of communism, Economic reforms after the collapse of socialism, End of Communism in 1989, End of Communism in Europe, End of Socialism, End of Soviet era, End of socialism, European Spring, Fall of Communisim, Fall of Communism, Fall of Communism in Western Europe, Fall of Nations, Fall of Socialism, Fall of communism, Fall of socialism, Fall of the Iron Curtain, Fall of the communism, Remembrance of communism, Revolutions of Eastern Europe, The end of communism in Europe, The fall of the Iron Curtain, The fall of the Iron Curtain in 1989, The falling of the Iron Curtain.