117 relations: Abusive power and control, Addiction, Addictive behavior, Affective neuroscience, Agonist, Alogia, AMPA receptor, Amygdala, Anhedonia, Anterior cingulate cortex, Basal ganglia, Basolateral amygdala, Behavioral addiction, Brain stimulation reward, Brodmann area 24, Brodmann area 25, C-Fos, Cannabinoid, Carrot and stick, Caudate nucleus, Cerebellum, Child grooming, Classical conditioning, Compliance (psychology), Converse (logic), Cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop, CREB, Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, D1-like receptor, D2-like receptor, Dopamine, Dopamine receptor D1, Dopamine receptor D2, Dopaminergic, Dopaminergic pathways, Dorsal raphe nucleus, Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, Ecstasy (emotion), Efferent, Eric J. Nestler, Euphoria, Evolution, Extended amygdala, External globus pallidus, Extracellular signal–regulated kinases, Facial expression, GABA receptor, GABAergic, Gene expression, Globus pallidus, ..., Glossary of gene expression terms, Glutamatergic, Goal, Habenula, Habit, Hippocampus, Hypothalamus, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Immediate early gene, Insular cortex, Internal globus pallidus, Interneuron, Ivan Pavlov, James Olds, Joy, KCND2, Kent C. Berridge, Lateral hypothalamus, Laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, Learning, MAPK/ERK pathway, Medial forebrain bundle, Medium spiny neuron, Mesolimbic pathway, Midbrain tegmentum, Motivation, Motivational salience, Neuroplasticity, Neurotransmitter, NMDA receptor, Norm of reciprocity, Nucleus accumbens, Olfactory tubercle, Operant conditioning, Operant conditioning chamber, Opioid, Optogenetics, Orbitofrontal cortex, Orexin, Palatability, Parabrachial nuclei, Parental investment, Pars compacta, Pars reticulata, Pavlovian-instrumental transfer, Pedunculopontine nucleus, Peripheral nervous system, Pleasure, Positive affectivity, PPP1R1B, Prefrontal cortex, Projection fiber, Protein kinase A, Psychological manipulation, Putamen, Reinforcement, Reward system, Rostromedial tegmental nucleus, Self-administration, Sexual intercourse, Striatum, Substantia nigra, Subthalamic nucleus, Thalamus, Transcription factor, Ventral pallidum, Ventral tegmental area. Expand index (67 more) » « Shrink index
Abusive power and control (also controlling behavior, coercive control and sharp power) is the way that an abusive person gains and maintains power and control over another person, as a victim, in order to subject that person to psychological, physical, sexual, or financial abuse.
Addiction is a brain disorder characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli despite adverse consequences.
An addictive behavior is a behavior, or a stimulus related to a behavior (e.g., sex or food), that is both rewarding and reinforcing, and is associated with the development of an addiction.
Affective neuroscience is the study of the neural mechanisms of emotion.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
In psychology, alogia (Greek ἀ-, “without”, and λόγος, “speech”), or poverty of speech, is a general lack of additional, unprompted content seen in normal speech.
The α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (also known as AMPA receptor, AMPAR, or quisqualate receptor) is an ionotropic transmembrane receptor for glutamate that mediates fast synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS).
The amygdala (plural: amygdalae; also corpus amygdaloideum; Latin from Greek, ἀμυγδαλή, amygdalē, 'Almond', 'tonsil') is one of two almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep and medially within the temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans.
Anhedonia refers to a diverse array of deficits in hedonic function, including reduced motivation or ability to experience pleasure.
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is the frontal part of the cingulate cortex that resembles a "collar" surrounding the frontal part of the corpus callosum.
The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) is a group of subcortical nuclei, of varied origin, in the brains of vertebrates including humans, which are situated at the base of the forebrain.
The basolateral amygdala (BLA) or basolateral complex, consists of the lateral, basal and accessory-basal nuclei of the amygdala.
Behavioral addiction is a form of addiction that involves a compulsion to engage in a rewarding non-drug-related behavior – sometimes called a natural reward – despite any negative consequences to the person's physical, mental, social or financial well-being.
Brain stimulation reward (BSR) is a pleasurable phenomenon elicited via direct stimulation of specific brain regions, originally discovered by James Olds and Peter Milner.
Brodmann area 24 is part of the anterior cingulate in the human brain.
Brodmann area 25 (BA25) is an area in the cerebral cortex of the brain and delineated based on its cytoarchitectonic characteristics.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, c-Fos is a proto-oncogene that is the human homolog of the retroviral oncogene v-fos.
A cannabinoid is one of a class of diverse chemical compounds that acts on cannabinoid receptors in cells that alter neurotransmitter release in the brain.
The phrase "carrot and stick" is a metaphor for the use of a combination of reward and punishment to induce a desired behavior.
The caudate nucleus is one of the structures that make up the dorsal striatum, which is a component of the basal ganglia.
The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates.
Child grooming is befriending and establishing an emotional connection with a child, and sometimes the family, to lower the child's inhibitions with the objective of sexual abuse.
Classical conditioning (also known as Pavlovian or respondent conditioning) refers to a learning procedure in which a biologically potent stimulus (e.g. food) is paired with a previously neutral stimulus (e.g. a bell).
Compliance refers to a response—specifically, a submission—made in reaction to a request.
In logic, the converse of a categorical or implicational statement is the result of reversing its two parts.
The cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop (CBGTC) is a system of neural circuits in the brain that primarily consists of modulatory dopaminergic projections from the pars compacta of the substantia nigra, and ventral tegmental area as well as excitatory glutamatergic projections from the cortex to the striatum, where these projections form synapses with excitatory and inhibitory pathways that relay back to the cortex.
CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein) is a cellular transcription factor.
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP, or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger important in many biological processes.
The D1-like receptors are a subfamily of dopamine receptors that bind the endogenous neurotransmitter dopamine.
The D2-like receptors are a subfamily of dopamine receptors that bind the endogenous neurotransmitter dopamine.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
Dopamine receptor D1, also known as DRD1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DRD1 gene.
Dopamine receptor D2, also known as D2R, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the DRD2 gene.
Dopaminergic means "related to dopamine" (literally, "working on dopamine"), dopamine being a common neurotransmitter.
Dopaminergic pathways, sometimes called dopaminergic projections, are the sets of projection neurons in the brain that synthesize and release the neurotransmitter dopamine.
The dorsal raphe nucleus is located on the midline of the brainstem and is part of the raphe nucleus, consisting of the rostral and caudal subdivisions.
The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC or DL-PFC) is an area in the prefrontal cortex of the brain of humans and non-human primates.
Ecstasy (from Ancient Greek ἔκστασις ékstasis) is a subjective experience of total involvement of the subject, with an object of his or her awareness.
Efferent is an anatomical term with the following meanings.
Eric J. Nestler is the Dean for Academic and Scientific Affairs and Director of the Friedman Brain Institute at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York.
Euphoria is an affective state in which a person experiences pleasure or excitement and intense feelings of well-being and happiness.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
The extended amygdala is a macrostructure in the brain that is involved in reward cognition and defined by connectivity and neurochemical staining.
The external globus pallidus (GPe) (or lateral globus pallidus) combines with the internal globus pallidus (GPi) to form the globus pallidus, an anatomical subset of the basal ganglia.
In molecular biology, extracellular signal–regulated kinases (ERKs) or classical MAP kinases are widely expressed protein kinase intracellular signalling molecules that are involved in functions including the regulation of meiosis, mitosis, and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells.
A facial expression is one or more motions or positions of the muscles beneath the skin of the face.
The GABA receptors are a class of receptors that respond to the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the chief inhibitory compound in the mature vertebrate central nervous system.
GABAergic means "pertaining to or affecting the neurotransmitter GABA".
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
The globus pallidus (Latin for "pale globe") also known as paleostriatum or dorsal pallidum, is a subcortical structure of the brain.
Glutamatergic means "related to glutamate".
A goal is an idea of the future or desired result that a person or a group of people envisions, plans and commits to achieve.
In neuroanatomy, habenula (diminutive of Latin habena meaning rein) originally denoted the stalk of the pineal gland (pineal habenula; pedunculus of pineal body), but gradually came to refer to a neighboring group of nerve cells with which the pineal gland was believed to be associated, the habenular nucleus.
A habit (or wont) is a routine of behavior that is repeated regularly and tends to occur subconsciously.
The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.
The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.
The Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai (ISMMS), formerly Mount Sinai School of Medicine, is a medical school in New York City, New York.
Immediate early genes (IEGs) are genes which are activated transiently and rapidly in response to a wide variety of cellular stimuli.
In each hemisphere of the mammalian brain the insular cortex (also insula and insular lobe) is a portion of the cerebral cortex folded deep within the lateral sulcus (the fissure separating the temporal lobe from the parietal and frontal lobes).
The internal globus pallidus (GPi) (or medial globus pallidus) and the external globus pallidus (GPe) make up the globus pallidus.
An interneuron (also called internuncial neuron, relay neuron, association neuron, connector neuron, intermediate neuron or local circuit neuron) is a broad class of neurons found in the human body.
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (a; 27 February 1936) was a Russian physiologist known primarily for his work in classical conditioning.
James Olds (May 30, 1922 – August 21, 1976) was an American psychologist who co-discovered the pleasure center of the brain with Peter Milner while he was a postdoctoral fellow at McGill University in 1954.
The word joy means a feeling of great pleasure and happiness.
Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily D member 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KCND2 gene.
Kent C. Berridge is a professor of psychology (biopsychology) and neuroscience at the University of Michigan in the United States.
The lateral hypothalamus, also called the lateral hypothalamic area, contains the primary orexinergic nucleus within the hypothalamus that widely projects throughout the nervous system; this system of neurons mediates an array of cognitive and physical processes, such as promoting feeding behavior and arousal, reducing pain perception, and regulating body temperature, digestive functions, and blood pressure, among many others.
The laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (or lateroposterior tegmental nucleus) is a nucleus situated in the brainstem, spanning the midbrain tegmentum and the pontine tegmentum.
Learning is the process of acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences.
The MAPK/ERK pathway (also known as the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK pathway) is a chain of proteins in the cell that communicates a signal from a receptor on the surface of the cell to the DNA in the nucleus of the cell.
The medial forebrain bundle (MFB), is a neural pathway containing fibers from the basal olfactory regions, the periamygdaloid region and the septal nuclei, as well as fibers from brainstem regions, including the ventral tegmental area.
Medium spiny neurons (MSNs), also known as spiny projection neurons, are a special type of GABAergic inhibitory cell representing 95% of neurons within the human striatum, a basal ganglia structure.
The mesolimbic pathway, sometimes referred to as the reward pathway, is a dopaminergic pathway in the brain.
The midbrain is also known as the Mesencephalon and is one of the three major brain divisions.
Motivation is the reason for people's actions, desires, and needs.
Motivational salience is a cognitive process and a form of attention that motivates, or propels, an individual's behavior towards or away from a particular object, perceived event, or outcome.
Neuroplasticity, also known as brain plasticity and neural plasticity, is the ability of the brain to change throughout an individual's life, e.g., brain activity associated with a given function can be transferred to a different location, the proportion of grey matter can change, and synapses may strengthen or weaken over time.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (also known as the NMDA receptor or NMDAR), is a glutamate receptor and ion channel protein found in nerve cells.
The norm of reciprocity requires that we repay in kind what another has done for us.
The nucleus accumbens (NAc or NAcc), also known as the accumbens nucleus, or formerly as the nucleus accumbens septi (Latin for nucleus adjacent to the septum) is a region in the basal forebrain rostral to the preoptic area of the hypothalamus.
The olfactory tubercle (OT), also known as the tuberculum olfactorium, is a multi-sensory processing center that is contained within the olfactory cortex and ventral striatum and plays a role in reward cognition.
Operant conditioning (also called "instrumental conditioning") is a learning process through which the strength of a behavior is modified by reinforcement or punishment.
An operant conditioning chamber (also known as the Skinner box) is a laboratory apparatus used to study animal behavior.
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
Optogenetics is a biological technique which involves the use of light to control cells in living tissue, typically neurons, that have been genetically modified to express light-sensitive ion channels.
The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is a prefrontal cortex region in the frontal lobes in the brain which is involved in the cognitive processing of decision-making.
Orexin, also known as hypocretin, is a neuropeptide that regulates arousal, wakefulness, and appetite.
Palatability is the hedonic reward (i.e., pleasure) provided by foods or fluids that are agreeable to the "palate", which often varies relative to the homeostatic satisfaction of nutritional, water, or energy needs.
The parabrachial nuclei, also known as the parabrachial complex, are a group of nuclei in the dorsolateral pons that surrounds the superior cerebellar peduncle as it enters the brainstem from the cerebellum.
Parental investment (PI), in evolutionary biology and evolutionary psychology, is any parental expenditure (time, energy, etc.) that benefits one offspring at a cost to parents' ability to invest in other components of fitness,Clutton-Brock, T.H. 1991.
The pars compacta is a portion of the substantia nigra, located in the midbrain.
The pars reticulata is a portion of the substantia nigra.
Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT) is a psychological phenomenon that occurs when a conditioned stimulus (CS, also known as a "cue") that has been associated with rewarding or aversive stimuli via classical conditioning alters motivational salience and operant behavior.
The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) (or pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus, PPTN or PPTg) is a collection of neurons located in the upper pons in the brainstem.
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two components of the nervous system, the other part is the central nervous system (CNS).
Pleasure is a broad class of mental states that humans and other animals experience as positive, enjoyable, or worth seeking.
Positive affectivity (PA) is a human characteristic that describes how much people experience positive affects (sensations, emotions, sentiments...); and as a consequence how they interact with others and with their surroundings.
Protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 1B (PPP1R1B), also known as dopamine- and cAMP-regulated neuronal phosphoprotein (DARPP-32), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PPP1R1B gene.
In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe.
The projection fibers consist of efferent and afferent fibers uniting the cortex with the lower parts of the brain and with the spinal cord.
In cell biology, protein kinase A (PKANot to be confused with pKa, the symbol for the acid dissociation constant.) is a family of enzymes whose activity is dependent on cellular levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP).
Psychological manipulation is a type of social influence that aims to change the behavior or perception of others through abusive, deceptive, or underhanded tactics.
The putamen is a round structure located at the base of the forebrain (telencephalon).
In behavioral psychology, reinforcement is a consequence that will strengthen an organism's future behavior whenever that behavior is preceded by a specific antecedent stimulus.
The reward system is a group of neural structures responsible for incentive salience (i.e., motivation and "wanting", desire, or craving for a reward), associative learning (primarily positive reinforcement and classical conditioning), and positive emotions, particularly ones which involve pleasure as a core component (e.g., joy, euphoria and ecstasy).
The rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), also known as the tail of the ventral tegmental area (tVTA), is a GABAergic nucleus which functions as a "master brake" for the midbrain dopamine system.
Self-administration is, in its medical sense, the process of a subject administering a pharmacological substance to him-, her-, or itself.
Sexual intercourse (or coitus or copulation) is principally the insertion and thrusting of the penis, usually when erect, into the vagina for sexual pleasure, reproduction, or both.
The striatum, or corpus striatum (also called the neostriatum and the striate nucleus) is a nucleus (a cluster of neurons) in the subcortical basal ganglia of the forebrain.
The substantia nigra (SN) is a basal ganglia structure located in the midbrain that plays an important role in reward and movement.
The subthalamic nucleus is a small lens-shaped nucleus in the brain where it is, from a functional point of view, part of the basal ganglia system.
The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος, "chamber") is the large mass of gray matter in the dorsal part of the diencephalon of the brain with several functions such as relaying of sensory signals, including motor signals, to the cerebral cortex, and the regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness.
In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.
The ventral pallidum (VP) is a structure within the basal ganglia of the brain.
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) (tegmentum is Latin for covering), also known as the ventral tegmental area of Tsai, or simply ventral tegmentum, is a group of neurons located close to the midline on the floor of the midbrain.
Appetitive behavior, Extrinsic reward, Hedonic hotspot, Hedonic hotspots, Intrinsic reward, Pleasure center, Pleasure centers, Pleasure centre, Primary reward, Reward (neuroscience), Reward (psychology), Reward circuit, Reward circuitry, Reward neuron, Reward neurons, Reward system sensitization, Rewarding, Rewarding stimuli, Rewarding stimulus, Seeking system, The pleasure center.