245 relations: Acidosis, Acute kidney injury, Acute limb ischaemia, Acute tubular necrosis, Acyl CoA dehydrogenase, Adenosine monophosphate deaminase deficiency type 1, Adenosine triphosphate, Aftershock, Alcohol intoxication, Alkali, Amphetamine, Anesthesia, Anticoagulant, Antipsychotic, Anuria, Bicarbonate, Blast injury, Blood plasma, Blood test, Blood urea nitrogen, Blood vessel, Calcium in biology, Carbonic anhydrase III, muscle specific, Carnitine, Carnitine palmitoyltransferase I deficiency, Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency, Cerivastatin, Chronic kidney disease, Ciclosporin, Classical compound, Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Clinical urine tests, Coagulation, Cocaine, Coenzyme Q10, Coma, Compartment syndrome, Confusion, Conium, Coturnism, Coturnix, Coxsackie A virus, Creatine kinase, Creatinine, Crush syndrome, Cytochrome c oxidase, D-dimer, Debridement, Delirium tremens, Dermatomyositis, ..., Diabetic ketoacidosis, Dialysis, Dialysis catheter, Disaster, Disseminated intravascular coagulation, Diuretic, DNA, Earthquake, Edema, Electrical injury, Electrocardiography, Electrolyte, Electromyography, Embolism, Enzyme, Enzyme unit, Epileptic seizure, Epstein–Barr virus, Equine exertional rhabdomyolysis, Equine polysaccharide storage myopathy, Eric Bywaters, Ethanol, Exercise, Exertional rhabdomyolysis, Fascial compartment, Fasciotomy, Fever, Fibrate, Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, Furosemide, General anaesthesia, Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, Glycogen storage disease type V, Glycogen storage disease type VI, Glycogen storage disease type XI, Glycogenolysis, Glycolysis, Gram per litre, Haff disease, Haptoglobin, Heart arrhythmia, Heart failure, Heart-type fatty acid binding protein, Heat illness, Heat stroke, Heavy metals, Heme, Hemodialysis, Hemofiltration, Hemoglobinuria, Hemolysis, Hemostat, Heredity, Heroin, Herpesviridae, Histopathology, Hypercalcaemia, Hypercholesterolemia, Hyperkalemia, Hypernatremia, Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, Hyperthermia, Hypocalcaemia, Hypokalemia, Hyponatremia, Hypophosphatemia, Hypotension, Hypothermia, Hypothyroidism, Inborn error of lipid metabolism, Infection, Inflammation, Influenza A virus, Influenzavirus B, Insulin, Intensive care medicine, International Society of Nephrology, Intravenous therapy, Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, Ketamine, Ketoacidosis, Kidney, Korean War, Lactate dehydrogenase, Lactic acid, Legionella pneumophila, Long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency, Loop diuretic, Magnetic resonance imaging, Malaria, Malignant hyperthermia, Mannitol, Mass concentration (chemistry), MDMA, Medical imaging, Medical test, Medication, Medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency, Metabolism, Microscope, Microscopy, Mitochondrial disease, Mitochondrial myopathy, Mortality rate, Muscle biopsy, Muscle contraction, Muscle weakness, Muscular dystrophy, Myalgia, Myocyte, Myoglobin, Myoglobinuria, National Institute for Medical Research, Nausea, Necrosis, Nephrology, Nephron, Neuroleptic malignant syndrome, Neuromuscular-blocking drug, Neutrophil, Oliguria, Organophosphate, Osmosis, Peritoneal dialysis, Phosphate, Phosphofructokinase deficiency, Physical abuse, Plasmodium falciparum, Platelet, Polymyositis, Prothrombin time, Purine, QRS complex, Reactive oxygen species, Red blood cell, Renal function, Renal replacement therapy, Reperfusion injury, Rhabdomyolysis, Royal Postgraduate Medical School, Salbutamol, Saline (medicine), Salmonella, Sarcoplasmic reticulum, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Selenium, Sensitivity and specificity, Serotonin syndrome, Serum (blood), Shock (circulatory), Short-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency, Signs and symptoms of HIV/AIDS, Skeletal muscle, Skin grafting, Snakebite, Sodium, Sodium bicarbonate, Sodium chloride, Spectroscopy, Standardbred, Statin, Status epilepticus, Stroke, Substance abuse, Succinate dehydrogenase, Surgery, Symptom, T wave, Tamm–Horsfall protein, Tetanus, The Blitz, Therapy, Thiolase, Thoroughbred, Thrombocytopenia, Thrombosis, Torture, Transaminase, Troponin, Turkey, Uric acid, Urinary cast, Urine, Urine test strip, Vasoconstriction, Venom, Very long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, Vomiting, White blood cell, 1908 Messina earthquake, 1988 Armenian earthquake, 1999 İzmit earthquake, 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency. Expand index (195 more) » « Shrink index
Acidosis is a process causing increased acidity in the blood and other body tissues (i.e., an increased hydrogen ion concentration).
Acute kidney injury (AKI), previously called acute renal failure (ARF), is an abrupt loss of kidney function that develops within 7 days.
Acute limb ischaemia (ALI) occurs when there is a sudden lack of blood flow to a limb.
Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) is a medical condition involving the death of tubular epithelial cells that form the renal tubules of the kidneys.
Acyl-CoA dehydrogenases (ACADs) are a class of enzymes that function to catalyze the initial step in each cycle of fatty acid β-oxidation in the mitochondria of cells.
Adenosine monophosphate deaminase deficiency type 1, also called myoadenylate deaminase deficiency (MADD), is a recessive genetic metabolic disorder that affects approximately 1–2% of populations of European descent.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
An aftershock is a smaller earthquake that occurs after a previous large earthquake, in the same area of the main shock.
Alcohol intoxication, also known as drunkenness or alcohol poisoning, is negative behavior and physical effects due to the recent drinking of ethanol (alcohol).
In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.
Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.
In the practice of medicine (especially surgery and dentistry), anesthesia or anaesthesia (from Greek "without sensation") is a state of temporary induced loss of sensation or awareness.
Anticoagulants, commonly referred to as blood thinners, are chemical substances that prevent or reduce coagulation of blood, prolonging the clotting time.
Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers, are a class of medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Anuria, sometimes called anuresis, is nonpassage of urine, in practice is defined as passage of less than 100 milliliters of urine in a day.
In inorganic chemistry, bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid.
A blast injury is a complex type of physical trauma resulting from direct or indirect exposure to an explosion.
Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.
A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle, or via fingerprick.
Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) is a medical test that measures the amount of urea nitrogen found in blood.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
Calcium ions (Ca2+) play a vital role in the physiology and biochemistry of organisms and the cell.
Carbonic anhydrase 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CA3 gene.
Carnitine (β-hydroxy-γ-N-trimethylaminobutyric acid, 3-hydroxy-4-N,N,N- trimethylaminobutyrate) is a quaternary ammonium compound involved in metabolism in most mammals, plants and some bacteria. Carnitine may exist in two isomers, labeled D-carnitine and L-carnitine, as they are optically active. At room temperature, pure carnitine is a white powder, and a water-soluble zwitterion with low toxicity. Carnitine only exists in animals as the L-enantiomer, and D-carnitine is toxic because it inhibits the activity of L-carnitine. Carnitine, derived from an amino acid, is found in nearly all organisms and animal tissue. Carnitine is the generic expression for a number of compounds that include L-carnitine, acetyl-L-carnitine, and propionyl-L-carnitine. It is most accumulated in cardiac and skeletal muscles as it accounts for 0.1% of its dry matter. It was first derived from meat extracts in 1905, therefore the name carnitine is derived from Latin "carnus" or flesh. The body synthesizes enough carnitine from lysine side chains to keep up with the needs of energy production in the body as carnitine acts as a transporter of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria to be oxidized and produce energy. Some individuals with genetic or medical disorders (like preterm infants) cannot make enough, so this makes carnitine a conditionally essential nutrient for them.
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase I deficiency is a rare metabolic disorder that prevents the body from converting certain fats called long-chain fatty acids into energy, particularly during periods without food.
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency (CPT-II) is an autosomal recessively inherited genetic metabolic disorder characterized by an enzymatic defect that prevents long-chain fatty acids from being transported into the mitochondria for utilization as an energy source.
Cerivastatin (INN, brand names: Baycol, Lipobay) is a synthetic member of the class of statins used to lower cholesterol and prevent cardiovascular disease.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a type of kidney disease in which there is gradual loss of kidney function over a period of months or years.
Ciclosporin, also spelled cyclosporine and cyclosporin, is an immunosuppressant medication and natural product.
Classical compounds and neoclassical compounds are compound words composed from combining forms (which act as affixes or stems) derived from classical Latin or ancient Greek roots.
Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal that is published by De Gruyter.
Clinical urine tests are various tests of urine for diagnostic purposes.
Coagulation (also known as clotting) is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a blood clot.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
Coenzyme Q10, also known as ubiquinone, ubidecarenone, coenzyme Q, and abbreviated at times to CoQ10, CoQ, or Q10 is a coenzyme that is ubiquitous in animals and most bacteria (hence the name ubiquinone).
Coma is a state of unconsciousness in which a person cannot be awaken; fails to respond normally to painful stimuli, light, or sound; lacks a normal wake-sleep cycle; and does not initiate voluntary actions.
Compartment syndrome is a condition in which increased pressure within one of the body's compartments results in insufficient blood supply to tissue within that space.
Confusion (from Latin confusĭo, -ōnis, from confundere: "to pour together;" "to mingle together;" "to confuse") is the state of being bewildered or unclear in one’s mind about something.
Conium is a genus of flowering plants in the carrot family Apiaceae which consists of four species accepted by The Plant List.
Coturnism is an illness featuring muscle tenderness and rhabdomyolysis (muscle cell breakdown) after consuming quail (usually common quail, Coturnix coturnix, from which the name derives) that have fed on poisonous plants.
Coturnix is a genus of six extant species and two known extinct species of Old World quail.
Coxsackie A virus (CAV) is a cytolytic Coxsackievirus of the Picornaviridae family, an enterovirus (a group containing the polioviruses, coxsackieviruses, and echoviruses).
Creatine kinase (CK), also known as creatine phosphokinase (CPK) or phosphocreatine kinase, is an enzyme expressed by various tissues and cell types.
Creatinine (or; from flesh) is a breakdown product of creatine phosphate in muscle, and is usually produced at a fairly constant rate by the body (depending on muscle mass).
Crush syndrome (also traumatic rhabdomyolysis or Bywaters' syndrome) is a medical condition characterized by major shock and renal failure after a crushing injury to skeletal muscle.
The enzyme cytochrome c oxidase or Complex IV, is a large transmembrane protein complex found in bacteria, archaea, and in eukaryotes in their mitochondria.
D-dimer (or D dimer) is a fibrin degradation product (or FDP), a small protein fragment present in the blood after a blood clot is degraded by fibrinolysis.
Debridement is the medical removal of dead, damaged, or infected tissue to improve the healing potential of the remaining healthy tissue.
Delirium tremens (DTs) is a rapid onset of confusion usually caused by withdrawal from alcohol.
Dermatomyositis (DM) is a long term inflammatory disorder which affects muscles.
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus.
In medicine, dialysis (from Greek διάλυσις, diàlysis, "dissolution"; from διά, dià, "through", and λύσις, lỳsis, "loosening or splitting") is the process of removing excess water, solutes and toxins from the blood in those whose native kidneys have lost the ability to perform these functions in a natural way.
A dialysis catheter is a catheter used for exchanging blood to and from a hemodialysis machine and a patient.
A disaster is a serious disruption, occurring over a relatively short time, of the functioning of a community or a society involving widespread human, material, economic or environmental loss and impacts, which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources.
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a condition in which blood clots form throughout the body, blocking small blood vessels.
A diuretic is any substance that promotes diuresis, the increased production of urine.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves.
Edema, also spelled oedema or œdema, is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitium, located beneath the skin and in the cavities of the body, which can cause severe pain.
Electrical injury is a physiological reaction caused by electric current passing through the (human) body.
Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG) is the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time using electrodes placed on the skin.
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
Electromyography (EMG) is an electrodiagnostic medicine technique for evaluating and recording the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles.
An embolism is the lodging of an embolus, a blockage-causing piece of material, inside a blood vessel.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
The enzyme unit (symbol U or sometimes EU) is a unit for the amount of a particular enzyme.
An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
The Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), also called human herpesvirus 4 (HHV-4), is one of eight known human herpesvirus types in the herpes family, and is one of the most common viruses in humans.
Equine exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER, also known as tying up, azoturia, or Monday morning disease) is a syndrome that damages the muscle tissue in horses.
Equine polysaccharide storage myopathy (EPSM, PSSM, EPSSM) is an inheritable glycogen storage disease of horses that causes exertional rhabdomyolysis.
Eric George Lapthorne Bywaters (1 June 1910 – 2 April 2003) was a British physician.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.
Exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) – sometimes called exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis – is the breakdown of muscle from extreme physical exertion.
A fascial compartment is a section within the body that contains muscles and nerves and is surrounded by fascia.
Fasciotomy or fasciectomy is a surgical procedure where the fascia is cut to relieve tension or pressure commonly to treat the resulting loss of circulation to an area of tissue or muscle.
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.
In pharmacology, the fibrates are a class of amphipathic carboxylic acids.
Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, often just aldolase, is an enzyme catalyzing a reversible reaction that splits the aldol, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, into the triose phosphates dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P).
Furosemide, sold under the brand name Lasix among others, is a medication used to treat fluid build-up due to heart failure, liver scarring, or kidney disease.
General anaesthesia or general anesthesia (see spelling differences) is a medically induced coma with loss of protective reflexes, resulting from the administration of one or more general anaesthetic agents.
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PDD) is an inborn error of metabolism that predisposes to red blood cell breakdown.
Glycogen storage disease type V (GSD-V) is a metabolic disorder, more specifically a glycogen storage disease, caused by a deficiency of myophosphorylase.
Glycogen storage disease type VI (GSD VI) is a type of glycogen storage disease caused by a deficiency in liver glycogen phosphorylase or other components of the associated phosphorylase cascade system.
Glycogen storage disease type XI is a form of glycogen storage disease.
Glycogenolysis is the breakdown of glycogen (n) to glucose-6-phosphate and glycogen (n-1).
Glycolysis (from glycose, an older term for glucose + -lysis degradation) is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO− + H+.
A gram per litre or gram per liter (g/L or g/l) is a unit of measurement of mass concentration that shows how many grams of a certain substance are present in one litre of a usually liquid or gaseous mixture.
Haff disease (German: Haffkrankheit) is the development of rhabdomyolysis (swelling and breakdown of skeletal muscle, with a risk of acute kidney failure) within 24 hours of ingesting fish.
Haptoglobin (abbreviated as Hp) is the protein that in humans is encoded by the HP gene.
Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.
Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.
Heart-type fatty acid binding protein (hFABP) also known as mammary-derived growth inhibitor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FABP3 gene.
Heat illness or heat-related illness is a spectrum of disorders due to environmental exposure to heat.
Heat stroke, also known as sun stroke, is a type of severe heat illness that results in a body temperature greater than and confusion.
Heavy metals are generally defined as metals with relatively high densities, atomic weights, or atomic numbers.
Heme or haem is a coordination complex "consisting of an iron ion coordinated to a porphyrin acting as a tetradentate ligand, and to one or two axial ligands." The definition is loose, and many depictions omit the axial ligands.
Hemodialysis, also spelled haemodialysis, commonly called kidney dialysis or simply dialysis, is a process of purifying the blood of a person whose kidneys are not working normally.
In medicine, hemofiltration, also haemofiltration, is a renal replacement therapy which is used in the intensive care setting.
In medicine, hemoglobinuria or haemoglobinuria is a condition in which the oxygen transport protein hemoglobin is found in abnormally high concentrations in the urine.
Hemolysis or haemolysis, also known by several other names, is the rupturing (lysis) of red blood cells (erythrocytes) and the release of their contents (cytoplasm) into surrounding fluid (e.g. blood plasma).
A hemostat (also called a hemostatic clamp, arterial forceps, or pean after Jules-Émile Péan) is a surgical tool used in many surgical procedures to control bleeding.
Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.
Heroin, also known as diamorphine among other names, is an opioid most commonly used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects.
Herpesviridae is a large family of DNA viruses that cause diseases in animals, including humans.
Histopathology (compound of three Greek words: ἱστός histos "tissue", πάθος pathos "suffering", and -λογία -logia "study of") refers to the microscopic examination of tissue in order to study the manifestations of disease.
Hypercalcaemia, also spelled hypercalcemia, is a high calcium (Ca2+) level in the blood serum.
Hypercholesterolemia, also called high cholesterol, is the presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood.
Hyperkalemia, also spelled hyperkalaemia, is an elevated level of potassium (K+) in the blood serum.
Hypernatremia, also spelled hypernatraemia, is a high concentration of sodium in the blood.
Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) is a complication of diabetes mellitus in which high blood sugar results in high osmolarity without significant ketoacidosis.
Hyperthermia is elevated body temperature due to failed thermoregulation that occurs when a body produces or absorbs more heat than it dissipates.
Hypocalcaemia, also spelled hypocalcemia, is low calcium levels in the blood serum.
Hypokalemia, also spelled hypokalaemia, is a low level of potassium (K+) in the blood serum.
Hyponatremia is a low sodium level in the blood.
Hypophosphatemia is an electrolyte disturbance in which there is an abnormally low level of phosphate in the blood.
Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.
Hypothermia is reduced body temperature that happens when a body dissipates more heat than it absorbs.
Hypothyroidism, also called underactive thyroid or low thyroid, is a disorder of the endocrine system in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone.
Numerous genetic disorders are caused by errors in fatty acid metabolism.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Influenza A virus causes influenza in birds and some mammals, and is the only species of influenza virus A genus of the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses.
Influenzavirus B is a genus in the virus family Orthomyxoviridae.
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
Intensive care medicine, or critical care medicine, is a branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and management of life-threatening conditions that may require sophisticated life support and monitoring.
The International Society of Nephrology (ISN) is an international body representing specialists in nephrology (kidney diseases).
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
The Journal of the American Society of Nephrology is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering nephrology.
Ketamine, sold under the brand name Ketalar among others, is a medication mainly used for starting and maintaining anesthesia.
Ketoacidosis is a metabolic state associated with high concentrations of ketone bodies, formed by the breakdown of fatty acids and the deamination of amino acids.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
The Korean War (in South Korean, "Korean War"; in North Korean, "Fatherland: Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States).
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH or LD) is an enzyme found in nearly all living cells (animals, plants, and prokaryotes).
Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH.
Legionella pneumophila is a thin, aerobic, pleomorphic, flagellated, nonspore-forming, Gram-negative bacterium of the genus Legionella.
Long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency, often shortened to LCHAD deficiency, is a rare autosomal recessive fatty acid oxidation disorder that prevents the body from converting certain fats into energy.
Loop diuretics are diuretics that act at the ascending limb of the loop of Henle in the kidney.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a type of severe reaction that occurs to particular medications used during general anesthesia, among those who are susceptible.
Mannitol is a type of sugar alcohol which is also used as a medication.
In chemistry, the mass concentration is defined as the mass of a constituent divided by the volume of the mixture: For a pure chemical the mass concentration equals its density (mass divided by volume); thus the mass concentration of a component in a mixture can be called the density of a component in a mixture.
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly known as ecstasy (E), is a psychoactive drug used primarily as a recreational drug.
Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).
A medical test is a medical procedure performed to detect, diagnose, or monitor diseases, disease processes, susceptibility, and determine a course of treatment.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, often known as MCAD deficiency or MCADD, is a disorder of fatty acid oxidation that impairs the body's ability to break down medium-chain fatty acids into acetyl-CoA.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
A microscope (from the μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye.
Microscopy is the technical field of using microscopes to view objects and areas of objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye (objects that are not within the resolution range of the normal eye).
Mitochondrial diseases are a group of disorders caused by dysfunctional mitochondria, the organelles that generate energy for the cell.
Mitochondrial myopathies are types of myopathies associated with mitochondrial disease.
Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.
In medicine, a muscle biopsy is a procedure in which a piece of muscle tissue is removed from an organism and examined microscopically.
Muscle contraction is the activation of tension-generating sites within muscle fibers.
Muscle weakness or myasthenia (my- from Greek μυο meaning "muscle" + -asthenia ἀσθένεια meaning "weakness") is a lack of muscle strength.
Muscular dystrophy (MD) is a group of muscle diseases that results in increasing weakening and breakdown of skeletal muscles over time.
Myalgia, or muscle pain, is a symptom of many diseases and disorders.
A myocyte (also known as a muscle cell) is the type of cell found in muscle tissue.
Myoglobin (symbol Mb or MB) is an iron- and oxygen-binding protein found in the muscle tissue of vertebrates in general and in almost all mammals.
Myoglobinuria is the presence of myoglobin in the urine, usually associated with rhabdomyolysis or muscle destruction.
The National Institute for Medical Research (commonly abbreviated to NIMR), was a medical research institute based in Mill Hill, on the outskirts of London, England.
Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
Necrosis (from the Greek νέκρωσις "death, the stage of dying, the act of killing" from νεκρός "dead") is a form of cell injury which results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by autolysis.
Nephrology (from Greek nephros "kidney", combined with the suffix -logy, "the study of") is a specialty of medicine and pediatrics that concerns itself with the kidneys: the study of normal kidney function and kidney disease, the preservation of kidney health, and the treatment of kidney disease, from diet and medication to renal replacement therapy (dialysis and kidney transplantation).
The nephron (from Greek νεφρός – nephros, meaning "kidney") is the microscopic structural and functional unit of the kidney.
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a life-threatening reaction that occasionally occurs in response to neuroleptic or antipsychotic medication.
Neuromuscular-blocking drugs block neuromuscular transmission at the neuromuscular junction, causing paralysis of the affected skeletal muscles.
Neutrophils (also known as neutrocytes) are the most abundant type of granulocytes and the most abundant (40% to 70%) type of white blood cells in most mammals.
Oliguria or hypouresis (both names from roots meaning "not enough urine") is the low output of urine.
Organophosphates (also known as phosphate esters) are a class of organophosphorus compounds with the general structure O.
Osmosis is the spontaneous net movement of solvent molecules through a selectively permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration, in the direction that tends to equalize the solute concentrations on the two sides.
Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a type of dialysis that uses the peritoneum in a person's abdomen as the membrane through which fluid and dissolved substances are exchanged with the blood.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
Phosphofructokinase deficiency, also known as glycogen storage disease type VII or Tarui's disease, is a extremely rare muscular metabolic disorder, with an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern.
Physical abuse is any intentional act causing injury or trauma to another person or animal by way of bodily contact.
Plasmodium falciparum is a unicellular protozoan parasite of humans, and the deadliest species of Plasmodium that cause malaria in humans.
Platelets, also called thrombocytes (from Greek θρόμβος, "clot" and κύτος, "cell"), are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to react to bleeding from blood vessel injury by clumping, thereby initiating a blood clot.
Polymyositis (PM) is a type of chronic inflammation of the muscles (inflammatory myopathy) related to dermatomyositis and inclusion body myositis.
The prothrombin time (PT)—along with its derived measures of prothrombin ratio (PR) and international normalized ratio (INR)—are assays evaluating the extrinsic pathway of coagulation.
A purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound that consists of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring.
The QRS complex is a name for the combination of three of the graphical deflections seen on a typical electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG).
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
Renal function, in nephrology, is an indication of the kidney's condition and its role in renal physiology.
Renal replacement therapy (RRT) is therapy that replaces the normal blood-filtering function of the kidneys.
Reperfusion injury or reperfusion insult, sometimes called ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) or reoxygenation injury, is the tissue damage caused when blood supply returns to tissue (re- + perfusion) after a period of ischemia or lack of oxygen (anoxia or hypoxia).
Rhabdomyolysis is a condition in which damaged skeletal muscle breaks down rapidly.
The Royal Postgraduate Medical School (RPMS) was an independent medical school, based primarily at Hammersmith Hospital in west London.
Salbutamol, also known as albuterol and marketed as Ventolin among other names, is a medication that opens up the medium and large airways in the lungs.
Saline, also known as saline solution, is a mixture of sodium chloride in water and has a number of uses in medicine.
Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped (bacillus) Gram-negative bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae.
The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is a membrane-bound structure found within muscle cells that is similar to the endoplasmic reticulum in other cells.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.
Selenium is a chemical element with symbol Se and atomic number 34.
Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures of the performance of a binary classification test, also known in statistics as a classification function.
Serotonin syndrome (SS) is a group of symptoms that may occur following use of certain serotonergic medications or drugs.
In blood, the serum is the component that is neither a blood cell (serum does not contain white or red blood cells) nor a clotting factor; it is the blood plasma not including the fibrinogens.
Shock is the state of low blood perfusion to tissues resulting in cellular injury and inadequate tissue function.
Short-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency (SCADD), also called ACADS deficiency and SCAD deficiency, is an autosomal recessive fatty acid oxidation disorder which affects enzymes required to break down a certain group of fats called short chain fatty acids.
The stages of HIV infection are acute infection (also known as primary infection), latency and AIDS.
Skeletal muscle is one of three major muscle types, the others being cardiac muscle and smooth muscle.
Skin grafting is a type of graft surgery involving the transplantation of skin.
A snakebite is an injury caused by the bite of a snake, especially a venomous snake.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Sodium bicarbonate (IUPAC name: sodium hydrogen carbonate), commonly known as baking soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3.
Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.
Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.
The Standardbred is an American horse breed best known for its ability in harness racing, where members of the breed compete at either a trot or pace.
Statins, also known as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, are a class of lipid-lowering medications.
Status epilepticus (SE) is a single epileptic seizure lasting more than five minutes or two or more seizures within a five-minute period without the person returning to normal between them.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder.
Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) or succinate-coenzyme Q reductase (SQR) or respiratory Complex II is an enzyme complex, found in many bacterial cells and in the inner mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotes.
Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease.
In electrocardiography, the T wave represents the repolarization, or recovery, of the ventricles.
The Tamm–Horsfall glycoprotein (THP), also known as uromodulin, is a glycoprotein that in humans is encoded by the UMOD gene.
Tetanus, also known as lockjaw, is an infection characterized by muscle spasms.
The Blitz was a German bombing offensive against Britain in 1940 and 1941, during the Second World War.
Therapy (often abbreviated tx, Tx, or Tx) is the attempted remediation of a health problem, usually following a diagnosis.
Thiolases, also known as acetyl-coenzyme A acetyltransferases (ACAT), are enzymes which convert two units of acetyl-CoA to acetoacetyl CoA in the mevalonate pathway.
The Thoroughbred is a horse breed best known for its use in horse racing.
Thrombocytopenia is a condition characterized by abnormally low levels of thrombocytes, also known as platelets, in the blood.
Thrombosis (from Ancient Greek θρόμβωσις thrómbōsis "clotting”) is the formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system.
Torture (from the Latin tortus, "twisted") is the act of deliberately inflicting physical or psychological pain in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or compel some action from the victim.
Transaminases or aminotransferases are enzymes that catalyze a transamination reaction between an amino acid and an α-keto acid.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Uric acid is a heterocyclic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3.
Urinary casts are microscopic cylindrical structures produced by the kidney and present in the urine in certain disease states.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
A urine test strip or dipstick test is a basic diagnostic tool used to determine pathological changes in a patient’s urine in standard urinalysis.
Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, in particular the large arteries and small arterioles.
Venomous Animals Venom is a form of toxin secreted by an animal for the purpose of causing harm to another.
Very long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD) is a fatty-acid metabolism disorder which prevents the body from converting certain fats to energy, particularly during periods without food.
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.
Vitamin E is a group of eight compounds that include four tocopherols and four tocotrienols.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
The 1908 Messina earthquake (also known as the 1908 Messina and Reggio earthquake) occurred on 28 December in Sicily and Calabria, southern Italy with a moment magnitude of 7.1 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of XI (Extreme).
The 1988 Armenian earthquake, also known as the Spitak earthquake (Սպիտակի երկրաշարժ Spitaki yerkrašarž), occurred on December 7 at with a surface wave magnitude of 6.8 and a maximum MSK intensity of X (Devastating).
The 1999 İzmit earthquake (also known as the Kocaeli, Gölcük, or Marmara earthquake) occurred on 17 August at 03:01:40 local time in northwestern Turkey.
3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency (HADH deficiency) is a rare condition that prevents the body from converting certain fats to energy, particularly during fasting.