345 relations: Abbey of Saint Gall, Achilles, Actio, Adoxography, Advertising, Against the Sophists, Akkadian literature, Al-Andalus, Allusion, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Animal communication, Anthropocentrism, Antidosis, Antimetabole, Antistrophe, Antoine de Rivarol, Apheresis (linguistics), Apologue, Apophasis, Aposiopesis, Archaism, Argument, Argumentation theory, Argumentum ad captandum, Aristophanes, Aristotle, Ars dictaminis, Asiatic style, Aspasia, Athens, Attic orators, Atticism, Augustine of Hippo, Averroes, Barbara Cassin, Bernard Lamy, Bible, Bird vocalization, Boethius, Brachyology, Brian Vickers (literary scholar), Bruno Latour, Brutus (Cicero), Caliphate, Cambridge University Press, Casuistry, Catachresis, Catherine of Aragon, Chaïm Perelman, ..., Chiasmus, Chimpanzee, Chinese philosophy, Chironomia, Christine de Pizan, Cicero, Circumlocution, Classical Greece, Classical republicanism, Climax (rhetoric), Cluster criticism, Communication studies, Composition studies, Conceit, Confucianism, Confucius, Constitutive rhetoric, Contingency (philosophy), Conversation theory, Copia: Foundations of the Abundant Style, Corax of Syracuse, Critical thinking, De Inventione, De Oratore, Deductive reasoning, Deirdre McCloskey, Deliberative rhetoric, Demagogue, Demosthenes, Dialectic, Dialogue, Digital rhetoric, Discourse, Discourse analysis, Dispositio, Dynamic and formal equivalence, Edwin Black, Edwin Black (rhetorician), Egyptians, Elocutio, Elocution, Eloquence, Eloquentia Perfecta, Empedocles, Enheduanna, Enthymeme, Epideictic, Erasmus, Ethos, Euphemism, Fallacy, Figure of speech, Figure of thought, Film, Folk taxonomy, Forensic rhetoric, Forensic science, Formal fallacy, Frame analysis, François de Malherbe, Francis Bacon, Freedom of speech, French Revolution, Genre criticism, Geoffrey Chaucer, Geoffrey of Vinsauf, George Puttenham, Gertrude Buck, Gloria E. Anzaldúa, Glossary of rhetorical terms, Gorgias, Grammar, Grammarian (Greco-Roman world), Grand style (rhetoric), Greek language, Groupe µ, Harry Oppenheimer, Harvard College, Harvard University, Harvard University Press, Hector, Helen of Troy, Hendiadys, Henry Peacham (born 1546), Henry VIII of England, Heuristic, History of China, History of Europe, Homer, Homiletics, Horace, Hugh Blair, Hysteron proteron, I. A. Richards, Identification (psychology), Identification in rhetoric, Ideogram, Ideological criticism, Idiom, Iliad, In Praise of Folly, Inductive reasoning, Innuendo, Institutio Oratoria, Inventio, Ipse dixit, Islamic world contributions to Medieval Europe, Isocrates, Jacqueline de Romilly, Jacques Bompaire, Jacques Derrida, Jacques Lacan, James Boyd White, Jerome, Jim A. Kuypers, Joannes Susenbrotus, John Brinsley the Elder, John Dryden, John Evelyn, John Locke, John Milton, John Quincy Adams, Juan Luis Vives, Julian of Norwich, Kalevi Kull, Kenneth Burke, Kenning, Language and thought, Law, Leonard Cox, Liberal arts education, Linguistic turn, Linguistics, Lisa Jardine, List of political slogans, List of speeches, Literary topos, Loeb Classical Library, Logic, Logos, Lucie Olbrechts-Tyteca, Lucius Cornificius, Lyceum (Classical), Lysias, Marc Fumaroli, Marcel Detienne, Marquis de Condorcet, Marshall McLuhan, Martianus Capella, Martin Heidegger, Mass media, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Matthew of Vendôme, Mediation, Medieval debate poetry, Memoria, Mental representation, Merism, Mesopotamia, Metanoia (rhetoric), Michael Leff, Middle Ages, Middle Kingdom of Egypt, Mind, Mind–body dualism, Modal logic, Mogens Herman Hansen, Multimodality, Narrative criticism, Negation, Neo-Aristotelianism (rhetorical criticism), Neo-Assyrian Empire, New rhetorics, Nicolas Boileau-Despréaux, Ode, Odysseus, Omer Talon, Orator (Cicero), Paganism, Parable, Paraphrase, Paraprosdokian, Parlement of Foules, Pathos, Pedagogy, Pericope, Periodic sentence, Perry Miller, Persuasion, Persuasive technology, Petrarch, Petrus Ramus, Phaedrus (dialogue), Phenomenology (philosophy), Philip Melanchthon, Philippe-Joseph Salazar, Philosopher, Phonaesthetics, Photography, Phronesis, Plato, Platonic Academy, Pre-Socratic philosophy, Presses Universitaires de France, Progymnasmata, Pronuntiatio, Propaganda, Prose, Protagoras, Proverb, Psychoanalysis, Psychological manipulation, Public speaking, Quintilian, Radio, Ralf van Bühren, Ramism, Ratio Studiorum, Reason, Renaissance, Renaissance humanism, Rhetoric (Aristotle), Rhetoric of health and medicine, Rhetoric of science, Rhetorica, Rhetorica ad Herennium, Rhetorical criticism, Rhetorical device, Rhetorical operations, Rhetorical reason, Rhetorical situation, Rhetorical stance, Rhetorical velocity, Richard M. Weaver, Richard Vatz, Robert Hariman, Rogerian argument, Roland Barthes, Roman Jakobson, Royal Society, Rule of three (writing), Science, Self-awareness, Semiotics, Sennacherib, Sign Systems Studies, Social, Social constructionism, Society of Jesus, Socratic dialogue, Sophist, Sound bite, Speechwriter, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stephen Toulmin, Strophe, Structuralism, SUNY Press, Synchysis, Synesis, Synonymia, Tautology (rhetoric), Taxonomy (biology), Technical communication, Telegraphy, Tertium comparationis, The Common Topics, The medium is the message, The Owl and the Nightingale, Theory of forms, Thomas Aquinas, Thomas Hobbes, Thomas Nashe, Thomas Sprat, Thomas Wilson (rhetorician), Thomas Wolsey, Tisias, Trivium, Trojan War, Truism, University of California Press, University of Cambridge, University of Chicago, University of Chicago Press, University of Wisconsin Press, Utterance, Verbosity, Vespasian, Virgil, Visual rhetoric, Voice analysis, Walter J. Ong, William Safire, William Shakespeare, Word play. Expand index (295 more) » « Shrink index
The Abbey of Saint Gall (Abtei St.) is a dissolved abbey (747–1805) in a Roman Catholic religious complex in the city of St. Gallen in Switzerland.
In Greek mythology, Achilles or Achilleus (Ἀχιλλεύς, Achilleus) was a Greek hero of the Trojan War and the central character and greatest warrior of Homer's Iliad.
Actio is a term in rhetoric that means the delivery that is given to a speech.
Adoxography is elegant or refined writing that addresses a trivial or base subject.
Advertising is an audio or visual form of marketing communication that employs an openly sponsored, non-personal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea.
Against the Sophists is among the few Isocratic speeches that have survived from Ancient Greece.
Akkadian literature is the ancient literature written in the Akkadian language (Assyrian and Babylonian dialects) written in Mesopotamia (Assyria and Babylonia) during the period spanning the Middle Bronze Age to the Iron Age (roughly the 23rd to 6th centuries BC).
Al-Andalus (الأنْدَلُس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.
Allusion is a figure of speech, in which one refers covertly or indirectly to an object or circumstance from an external context.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Animal communication is the transfer of information from one or a group of animals (sender or senders) to one or more other animals (receiver or receivers) that affects the current or future behavior of the receivers.
Anthropocentrism (from Greek ἄνθρωπος, ánthrōpos, "human being"; and κέντρον, kéntron, "center") is the belief that human beings are the most significant entity of the universe.
Antidosis (Ancient Greek ἀντίδοσις), is the title of a speech treatise by the ancient Greek rhetorician, Isocrates.
In rhetoric, antimetabole is the repetition of words in successive clauses, but in transposed order; for example, "I know what I like, and I like what I know".
Antistrophe (ἀντιστροφή, "a turning back") is the portion of an ode sung by the chorus in its returning movement from west to east, in response to the strophe, which was sung from east to west.
Antoine de Rivarol (26 June 175311 April 1801) was a Royalist French writer during the Revolutionary era.
In phonetics and phonology, apheresis (aphaeresis) is the loss of one or more sounds from the beginning of a word, especially the loss of an unstressed vowel, thus producing a new form called an aphetism.
An apologue or apolog (from the Greek ἀπόλογος, a "statement" or "account") is a brief fable or allegorical story with pointed or exaggerated details, meant to serve as a pleasant vehicle for a moral doctrine or to convey a useful lesson without stating it explicitly.
Apophasis (Greek: ἀπόφασις from ἀπόφημι apophemi, "to say no") is a rhetorical device wherein the speaker or writer brings up a subject by either denying it, or denying that it should be brought up.
Aposiopesis (Classical Greek: ἀποσιώπησις, "becoming silent") is a figure of speech wherein a sentence is deliberately broken off and left unfinished, the ending to be supplied by the imagination, giving an impression of unwillingness or inability to continue.
In language, an archaism (from the ἀρχαϊκός, archaïkós, 'old-fashioned, antiquated', ultimately ἀρχαῖος, archaîos, 'from the beginning, ancient') is the use of a form of speech or writing that is no longer current or that is current only within a few special contexts.
In logic and philosophy, an argument is a series of statements typically used to persuade someone of something or to present reasons for accepting a conclusion.
Argumentation theory, or argumentation, is the interdisciplinary study of how conclusions can be reached through logical reasoning; that is, claims based, soundly or not, on premises.
In rhetoric an argumentum ad captandum, "for capturing" the gullibility of the naïve among the listeners or readers, is an unsound, specious argument designed to appeal to the emotions rather than to the mind.
Aristophanes (Ἀριστοφάνης,; c. 446 – c. 386 BC), son of Philippus, of the deme Kydathenaion (Cydathenaeum), was a comic playwright of ancient Athens.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
The ars dictaminis was the medieval description of the art of prose composition, and more specifically of the writing of letters (dictamen).
The Asiatic style or Asianism (genus orationis Asiaticum, Cicero, Brutus 325) refers to an Ancient Greek rhetorical tendency (though not an organized school) that arose in the third century BC, which, although of minimal relevance at the time, briefly became an important point of reference in later debates about Roman oratory.
Aspasia (Ἀσπασία; c. 470 BCD. Nails, The People of Plato, Hackett Publishing pp 58–59 – c. 400 BC)A.E. Taylor, Plato: The Man and his Work, 41 was an influential immigrant to Classical-era Athens who was the lover and partner of the statesman Pericles.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
The ten Attic orators were considered the greatest orators and logographers of the classical era (5th–4th century BC).
Atticism (meaning "favouring Attica", the region that includes Athens in Greece) was a rhetorical movement that began in the first quarter of the 1st century BC; it may also refer to the wordings and phrasings typical of this movement, in contrast with various contemporary forms of Koine Greek (both literary and vulgar), which continued to evolve in directions guided by the common usages of Hellenistic Greek.
Saint Augustine of Hippo (13 November 354 – 28 August 430) was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy.
Ibn Rushd (ابن رشد; full name; 1126 – 11 December 1198), often Latinized as Averroes, was an Andalusian philosopher and thinker who wrote about many subjects, including philosophy, theology, medicine, astronomy, physics, Islamic jurisprudence and law, and linguistics.
Barbara Cassin (born 24 October 1947, Boulogne-Billancourt) is a French philologist and philosopher.
Bernard Lamy (15 June 1640, in Le Mans, France–29 January 1715, in Rouen, France) was a French Oratorian, mathematician and theologian.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
Bird vocalization includes both bird calls and bird songs.
Anicius Manlius Severinus Boëthius, commonly called Boethius (also Boetius; 477–524 AD), was a Roman senator, consul, magister officiorum, and philosopher of the early 6th century.
Sir Brian William Vickers, FBA (born 1937) is a British academic, now Emeritus Professor at ETH Zurich.
Bruno Latour (born 22 June 1947) is a French philosopher, anthropologist and sociologist.
Cicero's Brutus (also known as De claris oratibus) is a history of Roman oratory.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Casuistry is a method in applied ethics and jurisprudence, often characterised as a critique of principle - or rule-based reasoning.
Catachresis (from Greek κατάχρησις, "abuse"), originally meaning a semantic misuse or error—e.g., using "militate" for "mitigate", "chronic" for "severe", "anachronism" for "anomaly", "alibi" for "excuse", etc.—is also the name given to many different types of figures of speech in which a word or phrase is being applied in a way that significantly departs from conventional (or traditional) usage.
Catherine of Aragon (16 December 1485 – 7 January 1536), was Queen of England from June 1509 until May 1533 as the first wife of King Henry VIII; she was previously Princess of Wales as the wife of Henry's elder brother Arthur.
Chaïm Perelman (20 May 1912, Warsaw – 22 January 1984, Brussels) was a Polish-born philosopher of law, who studied, taught, and lived most of his life in Brussels.
In rhetoric, chiasmus or, less commonly, chiasm (Latin term from Greek χίασμα, "crossing", from the Greek χιάζω, chiázō, "to shape like the letter Χ") is a “reversal of grammatical structures in successive phrases or clauses – but no repetition of words”.
The taxonomical genus Pan (often referred to as chimpanzees or chimps) consists of two extant species: the common chimpanzee and the bonobo.
Chinese philosophy originates in the Spring and Autumn period and Warring States period, during a period known as the "Hundred Schools of Thought", which was characterized by significant intellectual and cultural developments.
Chironomia is the art of using gesticulations or hand gestures to good effect in traditional rhetoric or oratory.
Christine de Pizan (also seen as de Pisan;; 1364 – c. 1430) was an Italian late medieval author.
Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.
Circumlocution (also called circumduction, circumvolution, periphrasis, kenning or ambage), is locution that circles around a specific idea with multiple words rather than directly evoking it with fewer and apter words.
Classical Greece was a period of around 200 years (5th and 4th centuries BC) in Greek culture.
Classical republicanism, also known as civic republicanism or civic humanism, is a form of republicanism developed in the Renaissance inspired by the governmental forms and writings of classical antiquity, especially such classical writers as Aristotle, Polybius, and Cicero.
In rhetoric, a climax (κλῖμαξ, klîmax, "staircase" or "ladder") is a figure of speech in which words, phrases, or clauses are arranged in order of increasing importance.
Cluster criticism is a method of rhetorical criticism in which a critic examines the structural relations and associative meanings between certain main ideas, concepts, or subjects present in a text.
Communication studies or communication sciences is an academic discipline that deals with processes of human communication.
Composition studies (also referred to as composition and rhetoric, rhetoric and composition, writing studies, or simply composition) is the professional field of writing, research, and instruction, focusing especially on writing at the college level in the United States.
In modern literary criticism, in particular of genre fiction, conceit frequently means an extended rhetorical device, summed up in a short phrase, that refers to a situation which either does not exist or exists very infrequently but which is necessary to the plot.
Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.
Confucius (551–479 BC) was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history.
Constitutive rhetoric is a theory of discourse devised by James Boyd White about the capacity of language or symbols to create a collective identity for an audience, especially by means of condensation symbols, literature, and narratives.
In philosophy and logic, contingency is the status of propositions that are neither true under every possible valuation (i.e. tautologies) nor false under every possible valuation (i.e. contradictions).
Conversation theory is a cybernetic and dialectic framework that offers a scientific theory to explain how interactions lead to "construction of knowledge", or "knowing": wishing to preserve both the dynamic/kinetic quality, and the necessity for there to be a "knower".
Copia: Foundations of the Abundant Style is a rhetoric textbook written by Dutch humanist Desiderius Erasmus, and first published in 1512.
Corax (Κόραξ, Korax; fl. 5th century BC) was one of the founders (along with Tisias) of ancient Greek rhetoric.
Critical thinking is the objective analysis of facts to form a judgment.
De Inventione is a handbook for orators that Cicero composed when he was still a young man.
De Oratore (On the Orator; not to be confused with Orator) is a dialogue written by Cicero in 55 BCE.
Deductive reasoning, also deductive logic, logical deduction is the process of reasoning from one or more statements (premises) to reach a logically certain conclusion.
Deirdre Nansen McCloskey (born September 11, 1942), born Donald N. McCloskey, is the Distinguished Professor of Economics, History, English, and Communication at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC).
Deliberative rhetoric (sometimes called legislative oratory) is a rhetorical device that juxtaposes potential future outcomes to communicate support or opposition for a given action or policy.
A demagogue (from Greek δημαγωγός, a popular leader, a leader of a mob, from δῆμος, people, populace, the commons + ἀγωγός leading, leader) or rabble-rouser is a leader in a democracy who gains popularity by exploiting prejudice and ignorance among the common people, whipping up the passions of the crowd and shutting down reasoned deliberation.
Demosthenes (Δημοσθένης Dēmosthénēs;; 384 – 12 October 322 BC) was a Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens.
Dialectic or dialectics (διαλεκτική, dialektikḗ; related to dialogue), also known as the dialectical method, is at base a discourse between two or more people holding different points of view about a subject but wishing to establish the truth through reasoned arguments.
Dialogue (sometimes spelled dialog in American English) is a written or spoken conversational exchange between two or more people, and a literary and theatrical form that depicts such an exchange.
Digital rhetoric is a way of informing, persuading, and inspiring action in an audience through digital media.
Discourse (from Latin discursus, "running to and from") denotes written and spoken communications.
Discourse analysis (DA), or discourse studies, is a general term for a number of approaches to analyze written, vocal, or sign language use, or any significant semiotic event.
Dispositio is the system used for the organization of arguments in Western classical rhetoric.
Dynamic equivalence and formal equivalence, terms coined by Eugene Nida, are two dissimilar translation approaches, achieving differing level of literalness between the source text and the target text, as employed in biblical translation.
Edwin Black is a Jewish-American syndicated columnist and investigative journalist.
Edwin Benjamin Black (October 26, 1929 – January 13, 2007) was one of the leading scholars of rhetorical criticism.
Egyptians (مَصريين;; مِصريّون; Ni/rem/en/kīmi) are an ethnic group native to Egypt and the citizens of that country sharing a common culture and a common dialect known as Egyptian Arabic.
Elocutio is the term for the mastery of stylistic elements in Western classical rhetoric and comes from the Latin loqui, "to speak".
Elocution is the study of formal speaking in pronunciation, grammar, style, and tone.
Eloquence (from French eloquence from Latin eloquentia) is fluent, forcible, elegant or persuasive speaking.
Eloquentia Perfecta, a tradition of the Society of Jesus, is a value of Jesuit rhetoric that revolves around cultivating a person as a whole, as one learns to speak and write for the common good.
Empedocles (Ἐμπεδοκλῆς, Empedoklēs) was a Greek pre-Socratic philosopher and a citizen of Akragas, a Greek city in Sicily.
Enheduanna (Sumerian:, also transliterated as Enheduana, En-hedu-ana, or variants; fl. 23rd century BC) "ca.
An enthymeme (ἐνθύμημα, enthumēma) is a rhetorical syllogism (a three-part deductive argument) used in oratorical practice.
The epideictic oratory, also called ceremonial oratory, or praise-and-blame rhetoric, is one of the three branches, or "species" (eidē), of rhetoric as outlined in Aristotle's Rhetoric, to be used to praise or blame during ceremonies.
Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (28 October 1466Gleason, John B. "The Birth Dates of John Colet and Erasmus of Rotterdam: Fresh Documentary Evidence," Renaissance Quarterly, The University of Chicago Press on behalf of the Renaissance Society of America, Vol. 32, No. 1 (Spring, 1979), pp. 73–76; – 12 July 1536), known as Erasmus or Erasmus of Rotterdam,Erasmus was his baptismal name, given after St. Erasmus of Formiae.
Ethos is a Greek word meaning "character" that is used to describe the guiding beliefs or ideals that characterize a community, nation, or ideology.
A euphemism is a generally innocuous word or expression used in place of one that may be found offensive or suggest something unpleasant.
A fallacy is the use of invalid or otherwise faulty reasoning, or "wrong moves" in the construction of an argument.
A figure of speech or rhetorical figure is figurative language in the form of a single word or phrase.
A figure of thought (figurae sententiarum, schemata dianoias) is a rhetorical device sometimes distinguished from figure of speech.
A film, also called a movie, motion picture, moving pícture, theatrical film, or photoplay, is a series of still images that, when shown on a screen, create the illusion of moving images.
A folk taxonomy is a vernacular naming system, and can be contrasted with scientific taxonomy.
Forensic rhetoric, as coined in Aristotle's On Rhetoric, encompasses any discussion of past action including legal discourse—the primary setting for the emergence of rhetoric as a discipline and theory.
Forensic science is the application of science to criminal and civil laws, mainly—on the criminal side—during criminal investigation, as governed by the legal standards of admissible evidence and criminal procedure.
In philosophy, a formal fallacy, deductive fallacy, logical fallacy or non sequitur (Latin for "it does not follow") is a pattern of reasoning rendered invalid by a flaw in its logical structure that can neatly be expressed in a standard logic system, for example propositional logic.
Frame analysis (also called framing analysis) is a multi-disciplinary social science research method used to analyze how people understand situations and activities.
François de Malherbe (1555 – October 16, 1628) was a French poet, critic, and translator.
Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban, (22 January 15619 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, and author.
Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Genre criticism is a method within rhetorical criticism for analyzing texts in terms of their genre: the set of generic expectations, conventions, and constraints that guide their production and interpretation.
Geoffrey Chaucer (c. 1343 – 25 October 1400), known as the Father of English literature, is widely considered the greatest English poet of the Middle Ages.
Geoffrey of Vinsauf (fl. 1200) is a representative of the early medieval grammarian movement, termed preceptive grammar by James J. Murphy for its interest in teaching ars poetria (1971, vii ff.). Ars poetria is a subdivision of the grammatical art (ars grammatica) which synthesizes "rhetorical" and "grammatical" elements.
George Puttenham (1529–1590) was a 16th-century English writer and literary critic.
Gertrude Buck (July 14, 1871 - Kalamazoo, Michigan, 1922) was one of a group of powerful female rhetoricians of her time.
Gloria Evangelina Anzaldúa (September 26, 1942 – May 15, 2004) was an American scholar of Chicana cultural theory, feminist theory, and queer theory.
Owing to its origin in ancient Greece and Rome, English rhetorical theory frequently employs Greek and Latin words as terms of art.
Gorgias (Γοργίας; c. 485 – c. 380 BC) was a Greek sophist, Siceliote, pre-Socratic philosopher and rhetorician who was a native of Leontini in Sicily.
In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.
In the Greco-Roman world, the grammarian (or grammaticus) was responsible for the second stage in the traditional education system, after a boy had learned his basic Greek and Latin.
The grand style (also referred to as 'high style') is a style of rhetoric, notable for its use of figurative language and for its ability to evoke emotion.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Groupe µ (French for "Group µ") is the collective pseudonym under which a group of Belgian 20th-century semioticians wrote a series of books, presenting an exposition of modern semiotics.
Harry Frederick Oppenheimer (28 October 1908 – 19 August 2000) was a prominent South African businessman, industrialist and philanthropist.
Harvard College is the undergraduate liberal arts college of Harvard University.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
In Greek mythology and Roman mythology, Hector (Ἕκτωρ Hektōr) was a Trojan prince and the greatest fighter for Troy in the Trojan War.
In Greek mythology, Helen of Troy (Ἑλένη, Helénē), also known as Helen of Sparta, or simply Helen, was said to have been the most beautiful woman in the world, who was married to King Menelaus of Sparta, but was kidnapped by Prince Paris of Troy, resulting in the Trojan War when the Achaeans set out to reclaim her and bring her back to Sparta.
Hendiadys (a Latinized form of the Greek phrase ἓν διὰ δυοῖν, hèn dià duoîn, "one through two") is a figure of speech used for emphasis—"The substitution of a conjunction for a subordination".
Henry Peacham (1546–1634), sometimes called Henry Peacham the Elder, was an English curate, best known for his treatise on rhetoric entitled The Garden of Eloquence, first published in 1577.
Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 1509 until his death.
A heuristic technique (εὑρίσκω, "find" or "discover"), often called simply a heuristic, is any approach to problem solving, learning, or discovery that employs a practical method, not guaranteed to be optimal, perfect, logical, or rational, but instead sufficient for reaching an immediate goal.
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.
The history of Europe covers the peoples inhabiting Europe from prehistory to the present.
Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.
Homiletics (ὁμιλητικός homilētikós, from homilos, "assembled crowd, throng"), in religion, is the application of the general principles of rhetoric to the specific art of public preaching.
Quintus Horatius Flaccus (December 8, 65 BC – November 27, 8 BC), known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus (also known as Octavian).
Hugh Blair FRSE (7 April 1718 – 27 December 1800) was a Scottish minister of religion, author and rhetorician, considered one of the first great theorists of written discourse.
The hysteron proteron (from the ὕστερον πρότερον, hýsteron próteron, "later earlier") is a rhetorical device.
Ivor Armstrong Richards (26 February 1893 – 7 September 1979), known as I. A. Richards, was an English educator, literary critic, and rhetorician whose work contributed to the foundations of the New Criticism, a formalist movement in literary theory, which emphasized the close reading of a literary text, especially poetry, in an effort to discover how a work of literature functions as a self-contained, self-referential æsthetic object.
Identification is a psychological process whereby the subject assimilates an aspect, property, or attribute of the other and is transformed wholly or partially, by the model that other provides.
Contemporary rhetoric focuses on cultural contexts and general structures of rhetoric structures.
An ideogram or ideograph (from Greek ἰδέα idéa "idea" and γράφω gráphō "to write") is a graphic symbol that represents an idea or concept, independent of any particular language, and specific words or phrases.
Ideological criticism is a form of rhetorical criticism concerned with critiquing rhetorical artifacts for the dominant ideology they express while silencing opposing or contrary ideologies.
An idiom (idiom, "special property", from translite, "special feature, special phrasing, a peculiarity", f. translit, "one's own") is a phrase or an expression that has a figurative, or sometimes literal, meaning.
The Iliad (Ἰλιάς, in Classical Attic; sometimes referred to as the Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium) is an ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to Homer.
In Praise of Folly, also translated as The Praise of Folly, (Latin: Stultitiae Laus or Moriae Encomium (Greek title: Morias enkomion (Μωρίας ἐγκώμιον); Dutch title: Lof der Zotheid) is an essay written in Latin in 1509 by Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam and first printed in June 1511. Inspired by previous works of the Italian humanist De Triumpho Stultitiae, it is a satirical attack on superstitions and other traditions of European society as well as on the Western Church. Erasmus revised and extended his work, which was originally written in the space of a week while sojourning with Sir Thomas More at More's house in Bucklersbury in the City of London. The title Moriae Encomium had a punning second meaning as In Praise of More. In Praise of Folly is considered one of the most notable works of the Renaissance and played an important role in the beginnings of the Protestant Reformation. "Although Erasmus himself would have denied it vehemently, later reformers found that In Praise of Folly had helped prepare the way for the Protestant Reformation.".
Inductive reasoning (as opposed to ''deductive'' reasoning or ''abductive'' reasoning) is a method of reasoning in which the premises are viewed as supplying some evidence for the truth of the conclusion.
An innuendo is a hint, insinuation or intimation about a person or thing, especially of a denigrating or a derogatory nature.
Institutio Oratoria (English: Institutes of Oratory) is a twelve-volume textbook on the theory and practice of rhetoric by Roman rhetorician Quintilian.
Inventio, one of the five canons of rhetoric, is the method used for the discovery of arguments in Western rhetoric and comes from the Latin word, meaning "invention" or "discovery".
Ipse dixit (Latin for "he said it himself") is an assertion without proof; or a dogmatic expression of opinion.
During the high medieval period, the Islamic world was at its cultural peak, supplying information and ideas to Europe, via Andalusia, Sicily and the Crusader kingdoms in the Levant.
Isocrates (Ἰσοκράτης; 436–338 BC), an ancient Greek rhetorician, was one of the ten Attic orators.
Jacqueline Worms de Romilly (née David, 26 March 1913 – 18 December 2010) was a Franco-Greek philologist, classical scholar and fiction writer.
Jacques Bompaire (16 January 1924 – 6 May 2009) was a 20th-century French Hellenist and scholar of ancient Greek and Greek literature of the Roman and Byzantine period.
Jacques Derrida (born Jackie Élie Derrida;. See also. July 15, 1930 – October 9, 2004) was a French Algerian-born philosopher best known for developing a form of semiotic analysis known as deconstruction, which he discussed in numerous texts, and developed in the context of phenomenology.
Jacques Marie Émile Lacan (13 April 1901 – 9 September 1981) was a French psychoanalyst and psychiatrist who has been called "the most controversial psycho-analyst since Freud".
James Boyd White (born 1938) is an American law professor, literary critic, scholar and philosopher who is generally credited with founding the "Law and Literature" movement and is the preeminent proponent of the analysis of constitutive rhetoric in the analysis of legal texts.
Jerome (Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος; c. 27 March 347 – 30 September 420) was a priest, confessor, theologian, and historian.
Jim A. Kuypers is an American scholar and consultant specializing in communication studies.
Joannes Susenbrotus (also spelled Susembrotus, also known as Johannes or Hans Susenbrot, 1484/1485–1542/1543) was a German humanist, teacher of Latin, and author of textbooks.
John Brinsley the Elder (fl. 1581–1624) was an English schoolmaster, known for his educational works.
John Dryden (–) was an English poet, literary critic, translator, and playwright who was made England's first Poet Laureate in 1668.
John Evelyn, FRS (31 October 1620 – 27 February 1706) was an English writer, gardener and diarist.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
John Milton (9 December 16088 November 1674) was an English poet, polemicist, man of letters, and civil servant for the Commonwealth of England under its Council of State and later under Oliver Cromwell.
John Quincy Adams (July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848) was an American statesman who served as a diplomat, minister and ambassador to foreign nations, and treaty negotiator, United States Senator, U.S. Representative (Congressman) from Massachusetts, and the sixth President of the United States from 1825 to 1829.
Juan Luis Vives (Ioannes Lodovicus Vives; Joan Lluís Vives i March; Jan Ludovicus Vives; 6 March 6 May 1540) was a Spanish (Valencian) scholar and Renaissance humanist who spent most of his adult life in the Southern Netherlands.
Julian of Norwich (c. 8 November 1342 – c. 1416), also called Juliana of Norwich, was an English anchoress and an important Christian mystic and theologian.
Kalevi Kull (born on 12 August 1952, Tartu) is a biosemiotics professor at the University of Tartu, Estonia.
Kenneth Duva Burke (May 5, 1897 – November 19, 1993) was an American literary theorist, as well as poet, essayist, and novelist, who wrote on 20th-century philosophy, aesthetics, criticism, and rhetorical theory.
A kenning (Old Norse pronunciation:, Modern Icelandic pronunciation) is a type of circumlocution, in the form of a compound that employs figurative language in place of a more concrete single-word noun.
A variety of different authors, theories and fields purport influences between language and thought.
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.
Leonard Cox (or Coxe) (c. 1495 – c. 1549) was an English humanist, author of the first book in English on rhetoric.
Liberal arts education (from Latin "free" and "art or principled practice") can claim to be the oldest programme of higher education in Western history.
The linguistic turn was a major development in Western philosophy during the early 20th century, the most important characteristic of which is the focusing of philosophy and the other humanities primarily on the relationship between philosophy and language.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
Lisa Anne Jardine (née Bronowski; 12 April 1944 – 25 October 2015) was a British historian of the early modern period.
The following is a list of notable 18th, 19th, 20th and 21st-century political slogans.
This list of speeches includes those that have gained notability in English or in English translation.
Topos (from τόπος 'place' abbreviated from τόπος κοινός tópos koinós, 'common place'; pl. topoi), in Latin locus (from locus communis), referred in the context of classical Greek rhetoric to a standardised method of constructing or treating an argument.
The Loeb Classical Library (LCL; named after James Loeb) is a series of books, today published by Harvard University Press, which presents important works of ancient Greek and Latin literature in a way designed to make the text accessible to the broadest possible audience, by presenting the original Greek or Latin text on each left-hand page, and a fairly literal translation on the facing page.
Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.
Logos (lógos; from λέγω) is a term in Western philosophy, psychology, rhetoric, and religion derived from a Greek word variously meaning "ground", "plea", "opinion", "expectation", "word", "speech", "account", "reason", "proportion", and "discourse",Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott,: logos, 1889.
Lucie Olbrechts-Tyteca (1899 - 1987) was a Belgian academic and longtime co-worker of the philosopher Chaïm Perelman.
Lucius Cornificius, a member of the plebeian gens Cornificia, was a Roman politician and consul in 35 BC.
The Lyceum (Ancient Greek: Λύκειον, Lykeion) or Lycaeum was a temple dedicated to Apollo Lyceus ("Apollo the wolf-god").
Lysias (Λυσίας; c. 445 BC – c. 380 BC) was a logographer (speech writer) in Ancient Greece.
Marc Fumaroli (born 10 June 1932 in Marseille), is a French historian and essayist.
Marcel Detienne (born 1935) is a Belgian historian and specialist in the study of ancient Greece.
Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas de Caritat, Marquis of Condorcet (17 September 1743 – 29 March 1794), known as Nicolas de Condorcet, was a French philosopher, mathematician, and early political scientist whose Condorcet method in voting tally selects the candidate who would beat each of the other candidates in a run-off election.
Herbert Marshall McLuhan (July 21, 1911December 31, 1980) was a Canadian professor, philosopher, and public intellectual.
Martianus Minneus Felix Capella was a Latin prose writer of Late Antiquity (fl. c. 410–420), one of the earliest developers of the system of the seven liberal arts that structured early medieval education.
Martin Heidegger (26 September 188926 May 1976) was a German philosopher and a seminal thinker in the Continental tradition and philosophical hermeneutics, and is "widely acknowledged to be one of the most original and important philosophers of the 20th century." Heidegger is best known for his contributions to phenomenology and existentialism, though as the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy cautions, "his thinking should be identified as part of such philosophical movements only with extreme care and qualification".
The mass media is a diversified collection of media technologies that reach a large audience via mass communication.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
Matthew of Vendôme (Matheus or Matthaeus Vindocinensis) was a French author of the 12th century, writing in Latin, who had been was a pupil of Bernard Silvestris, at Tours, as he himself writes.
Mediation is a dynamic, structured, interactive process where a neutral third party assists disputing parties in resolving conflict through the use of specialized communication and negotiation techniques.
Medieval debate poetry refers to a genre of poems popular in England and France during the late medieval period (although broadly the same type of debate poems existed in the ancient and medieval Near Eastern literatures, as noted below).
Memoria was the term for aspects involving memory in Western classical rhetoric.
A mental representation (or cognitive representation), in philosophy of mind, cognitive psychology, neuroscience, and cognitive science, is a hypothetical internal cognitive symbol that represents external reality, or else a mental process that makes use of such a symbol: "a formal system for making explicit certain entities or types of information, together with a specification of how the system does this".
In law, a merism is a figure of speech by which a single thing is referred to by a conventional phrase that enumerates several of its parts or lists several synonyms for the same thing.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
Metanoia (from the Greek μετάνοια, metanoia, changing one's mind) in the context of rhetoric is a device used to retract a statement just made, and then state it in a better way.
Michael Leff (1941–2010) was an internationally known U.S. scholar of rhetoric.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Middle Kingdom of Egypt (also known as The Period of Reunification) is the period in the history of ancient Egypt between circa 2050 BC and 1710 BC, stretching from the reunification of Egypt under the impulse of Mentuhotep II of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Twelfth Dynasty.
The mind is a set of cognitive faculties including consciousness, perception, thinking, judgement, language and memory.
Mind–body dualism, or mind–body duality, is a view in the philosophy of mind that mental phenomena are, in some respects, non-physical,Hart, W.D. (1996) "Dualism", in A Companion to the Philosophy of Mind, ed.
Modal logic is a type of formal logic primarily developed in the 1960s that extends classical propositional and predicate logic to include operators expressing modality.
Mogens Herman Hansen FBA (born 20 August 1940, Frederiksberg) is a Danish classical philologist and classical demographer who is one of the leading scholars in Athenian Democracy and the Polis.
In its most basic sense, multimodality is a theory of communication and social semiotics.
Narrative criticism focuses on the stories a speaker or a writer tells to understand how they help us make meaning out of our daily human experiences.
In logic, negation, also called the logical complement, is an operation that takes a proposition P to another proposition "not P", written \neg P (¬P), which is interpreted intuitively as being true when P is false, and false when P is true.
Neo-Aristotelianism is a view of literature and rhetorical criticism propagated by the Chicago School — Ronald S. Crane, Elder Olson, Richard McKeon, Wayne Booth, and others — which means.
The Neo-Assyrian Empire was an Iron Age Mesopotamian empire, in existence between 911 and 609 BC, and became the largest empire of the world up till that time.
New rhetorics is an interdisciplinary fieldAndreea Deciu Ritivoi, Rhetorics: New Rhetorics, in Wolfgang Donsbach (ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Communication, approaching for the broadening of classical rhetorical canon.
Nicolas Boileau-Despréaux (1 November 1636 – 13 March 1711), often known simply as Boileau, was a French poet and critic.
An ode (from ōdḗ) is a type of lyrical stanza.
Odysseus (Ὀδυσσεύς, Ὀδυσεύς, Ὀdysseús), also known by the Latin variant Ulysses (Ulixēs), is a legendary Greek king of Ithaca and the hero of Homer's epic poem the Odyssey.
Omer Talon (Audomarus Talaeus) (c.1510–1562) was a French humanist, a close ally of Petrus Ramus.
Orator was written by Marcus Tullius Cicero in the latter part of the year 46 B.C. It is his last work on rhetoric, three years before his death.
Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).
A parable is a succinct, didactic story, in prose or verse that illustrates one or more instructive lessons or principles.
A paraphrase is a restatement of the meaning of a text or passage using other words.
A paraprosdokian is a figure of speech in which the latter part of a sentence, phrase, or larger discourse is surprising or unexpected in a way that causes the reader or listener to reframe or reinterpret the first part.
The Parlement of Foules (also known as the Parliament of Foules, Parlement of Briddes, Assembly of Fowls, Assemble of Foules, or The Parliament of Birds) is a poem by Geoffrey Chaucer (1343?–1400) made up of approximately 700 lines.
Pathos (plural: pathea;, for "suffering" or "experience"; adjectival form: 'pathetic' from παθητικός) represents an appeal to the emotions of the audience, and elicits feelings that already reside in them.
Pedagogy is the discipline that deals with the theory and practice of teaching and how these influence student learning.
A pericope (Greek περικοπή, "a cutting-out") in rhetoric is a set of verses that forms one coherent unit or thought, suitable for public reading from a text, now usually of sacred scripture.
A periodic sentence is a stylistic device employed at the sentence level, described as one that is not complete grammatically or semantically before the final clause or phrase.
Perry Gilbert Eddy Miller (February 25, 1905 – December 9, 1963) was an American intellectual historian and Harvard University professor.
Persuasion is an umbrella term of influence.
Persuasive technology is broadly defined as technology that is designed to change attitudes or behaviors of the users through persuasion and social influence, but not through coercion.
Francesco Petrarca (July 20, 1304 – July 18/19, 1374), commonly anglicized as Petrarch, was a scholar and poet of Renaissance Italy who was one of the earliest humanists.
Petrus Ramus (Pierre de la Ramée; Anglicized to Peter Ramus; 1515 – 26 August 1572) was an influential French humanist, logician, and educational reformer.
The Phaedrus (Phaidros), written by Plato, is a dialogue between Plato's protagonist, Socrates, and Phaedrus, an interlocutor in several dialogues.
Phenomenology (from Greek phainómenon "that which appears" and lógos "study") is the philosophical study of the structures of experience and consciousness.
Philip Melanchthon (born Philipp Schwartzerdt; 16 February 1497 – 19 April 1560) was a German Lutheran reformer, collaborator with Martin Luther, the first systematic theologian of the Protestant Reformation, intellectual leader of the Lutheran Reformation, and an influential designer of educational systems.
Philippe-Joseph Salazar, a French rhetorician and philosopher, was born on February 10, 1955 in Casablanca, then part of French Morocco.
A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy, which involves rational inquiry into areas that are outside either theology or science.
Phonaesthetics (from the φωνή phōnē, "voice-sound"; and αἰσθητική aisthētikē, "aesthetics") is a branch of phonetics concerned with "the possible connection between sound sequences and meaning", according to Raymond Hickey.
Photography is the science, art, application and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film.
Phronesis (phrónēsis) is an Ancient Greek word for a type of wisdom or intelligence.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
The Academy (Ancient Greek: Ἀκαδημία) was founded by Plato (428/427 BC – 348/347 BC) in ca.
A number of early Greek philosophers active before and during the time of Socrates are collectively known as the Pre-Socratics.
Presses universitaires de France (PUF, English: University Press of France), founded in 1921 by Paul Angoulvent (1899–1976), is the largest French university publishing house.
Progymnasmata (Greek προγυμνάσματα "fore-exercises"; Latin praeexercitamina) are a series of preliminary rhetorical exercises that began in ancient Greece and distended during the Roman Empire.
Pronuntiatio was the discipline of delivering speeches in Western classical rhetoric.
Propaganda is information that is not objective and is used primarily to influence an audience and further an agenda, often by presenting facts selectively to encourage a particular synthesis or perception, or using loaded language to produce an emotional rather than a rational response to the information that is presented.
Prose is a form of language that exhibits a natural flow of speech and grammatical structure rather than a rhythmic structure as in traditional poetry, where the common unit of verse is based on meter or rhyme.
Protagoras (Πρωταγόρας; c. 490 – c. 420 BC)Guthrie, p. 262–263.
A proverb (from proverbium) is a simple and concrete saying, popularly known and repeated, that expresses a truth based on common sense or experience.
Psychoanalysis is a set of theories and therapeutic techniques related to the study of the unconscious mind, which together form a method of treatment for mental-health disorders.
Psychological manipulation is a type of social influence that aims to change the behavior or perception of others through abusive, deceptive, or underhanded tactics.
Public speaking (also called oratory or oration) is the process or act of performing a speech to a live audience.
Marcus Fabius Quintilianus (35 – 100 AD) was a Roman rhetorician from Hispania, widely referred to in medieval schools of rhetoric and in Renaissance writing.
Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.
Ralf van Bühren (born 3 February 1962) is a German art historian, theologian, and Church historian, who teaches at the Pontifical University of Santa Croce in Rome.
Ramism was a collection of theories on rhetoric, logic, and pedagogy based on the teachings of Petrus Ramus, a French academic, philosopher, and Huguenot convert, who was murdered during the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre in August 1572.
The Ratio atque Institutio Studiorum Societatis Iesu (The Official Plan for Jesuit Education), often abbreviated as Ratio Studiorum (Latin: Plan of Studies), was a document that standardized the globally influential system of Jesuit education in 1599.
Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Renaissance humanism is the study of classical antiquity, at first in Italy and then spreading across Western Europe in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries.
Aristotle's Rhetoric (Rhētorikḗ; Ars Rhetorica) is an ancient Greek treatise on the art of persuasion, dating from the 4th century BC.
The Rhetoric of Health and Medicine (or Medical Rhetoric) is an academic discipline concerning language and symbols in health and medicine.
Rhetoric of science is a body of scholarly literature exploring the notion that the practice of science is a rhetorical activity.
Rhetorica is the official publication of the International Society for the History of Rhetoric.
The Rhetorica ad Herennium (Rhetoric: For Herennius), formerly attributed to Cicero or Cornificius, but in fact of unknown authorship, sometimes ascribed to an unnamed doctor, is the oldest surviving Latin book on rhetoric, dating from the late 80s BC, and is still used today as a textbook on the structure and uses of rhetoric and persuasion.
Rhetorical criticism analyzes the symbolic artifacts of discourse — the words, phrases, images, gestures, performances, texts, films, etc.
In rhetoric, a rhetorical device, resource of language, or stylistic device is a technique that an author or speaker uses to convey to the listener or reader a meaning with the goal of persuading them towards considering a topic from a different perspective, using sentences designed to encourage or provoke an emotional display of a given perspective or action.
In classical rhetoric, figures of speech are classified as one of the four fundamental rhetorical operations or quadripartita ratio: addition (adiectio), omission (detractio), permutation (immutatio) and transposition (transmutatio).
Rhetorical reason is the faculty of discovering the crux of the matter.
The rhetorical situation is the context of a rhetorical event that consists of an issue, an audience, and a set of constraints.
"Rhetorical stance" is the position of a speaker or writer in relation to audience, topic, and situational context.
Rhetorical velocity is a term originating from the fields of Composition Studies and Rhetoric used to describe how rhetoricians may strategically theorize and anticipate the third party recomposition of their texts.
Richard Malcolm Weaver, Jr (March 3, 1910 – April 1, 1963) was an American scholar who taught English at the University of Chicago.
Richard Eugene Vatz (born December 21, 1946) is a professor of Rhetoric and Communication at Towson University.
Robert Hariman (born June 17, 1951) is an American scholar of rhetoric and public culture.
Rogerian argument (or Rogerian rhetoric) is a conflict-solving technique based on seeking common ground instead of polarizing debate.
Roland Gérard Barthes (12 November 1915 – 26 March 1980) was a French literary theorist, philosopher, linguist, critic, and semiotician.
Roman Osipovich Jakobson (Рома́н О́сипович Якобсо́н; October 11, 1896Kucera, Henry. 1983. "Roman Jakobson." Language: Journal of the Linguistic Society of America 59(4): 871–883. – July 18,, compiled by Stephen Rudy 1982) was a Russian–American linguist and literary theorist.
The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.
The rule of three is a writing principle that suggests that a trio of events or characters is more humorous, satisfying, or effective than other numbers in execution of the story and engaging the reader.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
Self-awareness is the capacity for introspection and the ability to recognize oneself as an individual separate from the environment and other individuals.
Semiotics (also called semiotic studies) is the study of meaning-making, the study of sign process (semiosis) and meaningful communication.
Sennacherib was the king of Assyria from 705 BCE to 681 BCE.
Sign Systems Studies is a peer-reviewed academic journal on semiotics edited at the Department of Semiotics of the University of Tartu and published by the University of Tartu Press.
Living organisms including humans are social when they live collectively in interacting populations, whether they are aware of it, and whether the interaction is voluntary or involuntary.
Social constructionism or the social construction of reality (also social concept) is a theory of knowledge in sociology and communication theory that examines the development of jointly constructed understandings of the world that form the basis for shared assumptions about reality.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
Socratic dialogue (Σωκρατικὸς λόγος) is a genre of literary prose developed in Greece at the turn of the fourth century BCE.
A sophist (σοφιστής, sophistes) was a specific kind of teacher in ancient Greece, in the fifth and fourth centuries BC.
A sound bite is a short clip of speech or music extracted from a longer piece of audio, often used to promote or exemplify the full length piece.
A speechwriter is a person who is hired to prepare and write speeches that will be delivered by another person.
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users.
Stephen Edelston Toulmin (25 March 1922 – 4 December 2009) was a British philosopher, author, and educator.
A strophe is a poetic term originally referring to the first part of the ode in Ancient Greek tragedy, followed by the antistrophe and epode.
In sociology, anthropology, and linguistics, structuralism is the methodology that implies elements of human culture must be understood by way of their relationship to a larger, overarching system or structure.
The State University of New York Press (or SUNY Press), is a university press and a Center for Scholarly Communication.
Synchysis is a rhetorical technique wherein words are intentionally scattered to create bewilderment, or for some other purpose.
Synesis is a traditional grammatical/rhetorical term derived from Greek σύνεσις (originally meaning "unification, meeting, sense, conscience, insight, realization, mind, reason").
In rhetoric, Synonymia (Greek: syn, "alike" + onoma, "name") is the use of several synonyms together to amplify or explain a given subject or term.
In rhetoric, a tautology (from Greek ταὐτός, "the same" and λόγος, "word/idea") is an argument which repeats an assertion using different phrasing.
Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.
Technical communication is a means to convey scientific, engineering, and technique or other technical information.
Telegraphy (from Greek: τῆλε têle, "at a distance" and γράφειν gráphein, "to write") is the long-distance transmission of textual or symbolic (as opposed to verbal or audio) messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message.
Tertium comparationis (Latin for "the third of the comparison") is the quality that two things which are being compared have in common.
In classical rhetoric, the Common Topics were a short list of four traditional topics regarded as suitable to structure an argument.
"The medium is the message" is a phrase coined by Marshall McLuhan meaning that the form of a medium embeds itself in any message it would transmit or convey, creating a symbiotic relationship by which the medium influences how the message is perceived.
The Owl and the Nightingale is a twelfth- or thirteenth-century Middle English poem detailing a debate between an owl and a nightingale as overheard by the poem's narrator.
The theory of Forms or theory of Ideas is Plato's argument that non-physical (but substantial) forms (or ideas) represent the most accurate reality.
Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church.
Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.
Thomas Nashe (baptised November 1567 – c. 1601) is considered the greatest of the English Elizabethan pamphleteers.
Thomas Sprat, FRS (1635 – 20 May 1713) was an English churchman, Bishop of Rochester from 1684.
Sir Thomas Wilson (1524–1581) was an English diplomat and judge who served as a privy councillor and secretary of state (1577-81) to Queen Elizabeth I. He is now remembered principally for his Logique (1551) and The Arte of Rhetorique (1553), which have been called "the first complete works on logic and rhetoric in English." He also wrote A Discourse upon Usury by way of Dialogue and Orations (1572), and he was the first to publish a translation of Demosthenes into English.
Thomas Wolsey (c. March 1473 – 29 November 1530; sometimes spelled Woolsey or Wulcy) was an English churchman, statesman and a cardinal of the Catholic Church.
Tisias (Τεισίας; fl. 5th century BC), along with Corax of Syracuse, was one of the founders of ancient Greek rhetoric.
The trivium is the lower division of the seven liberal arts and comprises grammar, logic, and rhetoric (input, process, and output).
In Greek mythology, the Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans (Greeks) after Paris of Troy took Helen from her husband Menelaus, king of Sparta.
A truism is a claim that is so obvious or self-evident as to be hardly worth mentioning, except as a reminder or as a rhetorical or literary device, and is the opposite of falsism.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.
The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
The University of Wisconsin Press (sometimes abbreviated as UW Press) is a non-profit university press publishing peer-reviewed books and journals.
In spoken language analysis, an utterance is the smallest unit of speech.
Verbosity or verboseness is speech or writing that uses more words than necessary (for example, using "Despite the fact that" instead of "Although").
Vespasian (Titus Flavius Vespasianus;Classical Latin spelling and reconstructed Classical Latin pronunciation: Vespasian was from an equestrian family that rose into the senatorial rank under the Julio–Claudian emperors. Although he fulfilled the standard succession of public offices and held the consulship in AD 51, Vespasian's renown came from his military success; he was legate of Legio II ''Augusta'' during the Roman invasion of Britain in 43 and subjugated Judaea during the Jewish rebellion of 66. While Vespasian besieged Jerusalem during the Jewish rebellion, emperor Nero committed suicide and plunged Rome into a year of civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors. After Galba and Otho perished in quick succession, Vitellius became emperor in April 69. The Roman legions of Roman Egypt and Judaea reacted by declaring Vespasian, their commander, emperor on 1 July 69. In his bid for imperial power, Vespasian joined forces with Mucianus, the governor of Syria, and Primus, a general in Pannonia, leaving his son Titus to command the besieging forces at Jerusalem. Primus and Mucianus led the Flavian forces against Vitellius, while Vespasian took control of Egypt. On 20 December 69, Vitellius was defeated, and the following day Vespasian was declared emperor by the Senate. Vespasian dated his tribunician years from 1 July, substituting the acts of Rome's Senate and people as the legal basis for his appointment with the declaration of his legions, and transforming his legions into an electoral college. Little information survives about the government during Vespasian's ten-year rule. He reformed the financial system of Rome after the campaign against Judaea ended successfully, and initiated several ambitious construction projects, including the building of the Flavian Amphitheatre, better known today as the Roman Colosseum. In reaction to the events of 68–69, Vespasian forced through an improvement in army discipline. Through his general Agricola, Vespasian increased imperial expansion in Britain. After his death in 79, he was succeeded by his eldest son Titus, thus becoming the first Roman emperor to be directly succeeded by his own natural son and establishing the Flavian dynasty.
Publius Vergilius Maro (traditional dates October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period.
Visual Rhetoric is a means of communication through the use of visual images and texts.
Voice analysis is the study of speech sounds for purposes other than linguistic content, such as in speech recognition.
Walter Jackson Ong (November 30, 1912–August 12, 2003) was an American Jesuit priest, professor of English literature, cultural and religious historian and philosopher.
William Lewis Safir (December 17, 1929 – September 27, 2009), better known as William SafireSafire, William (1986).
William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.
Word play or wordplay (also: play-on-words) is a literary technique and a form of wit in which words used become the main subject of the work, primarily for the purpose of intended effect or amusement.
Classical rhetoric, Classical rhetorics, Five Canons of Rhetoric, French rhetoric, Linguistic skills, Political rhetoric, Rethoric, Retorics, Rhetor, Rhetorical, Rhetorical Strategies, Rhetorical invention, Rhetorical units, Rhetorically, Rhetorician, Rhetoricians, Rhetorics, The Five Canons of Rhetoric, Wordcraft.