498 relations: A Bridge Too Far (book), A Bridge Too Far (film), Aare, Acher, Adolf Hitler, Adolphe Thiers, Ahr, Alamannia, Alb (Upper Rhine), Albula (river), Albula Pass, Alemanni, Alemannic German, Alpine orogeny, Alpine Rhine, Alps, Alsace, Alsace-Lorraine, Alter Rhein, Amer (river), Amsterdam, Amsterdam–Rhine Canal, Anatolia, Ancient Rome, Andernach, Angeren, Animal sanctuary, Appeasement, Archipelago, Ardennes, Argen, Argentoratum, Arnhem, Au am Rhein, Augustus, Austria, Austria–Switzerland border, Avers Rhine, Bad Honnef, Baden, Baden-Württemberg, Basel, Bavaria, Before Present, Belgium, Beneden Merwede, Bergse Maas, Berkel, Bingen am Rhein, Birs (river), ..., Black Forest, Black Sea deluge hypothesis, Bonn, Border, Bosporus, Boundaries between the continents of Earth, Boven Merwede, Brakel, Bregenzer Ach, Breisach, Brest, France, Bronze Age, Brownfield land, Burgundian Netherlands, Canal of Drusus, Canton of Aargau, Canton of Basel-Stadt, Canton of Grisons, Canton of Lucerne, Canton of Schaffhausen, Canton of Thurgau, Canton of Ticino, Canton of Zürich, Casta, Celtic languages, Celts, Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine, Central German, Channel River, Chur, Cicero, Classical antiquity, Client state, Cold War, Cologne, Confederation of the Rhine, County of Holland, Danube, Das Rheingold, Düssel, Düsseldorf, De Biesbosch, Delta Works, Den Oever, Der Ring des Nibelungen, Dettifoss, Deventer, Die Wacht am Rhein, Diepoldsau, Dischma, Dischmabach, Disentis, Distributary, Doggerland, Domleschg (valley), Donkey, Dordrecht, Dordtsche Kil, Dormagen, Dornbirner Ach, Dortmund–Ems Canal, Drachenfels (Siebengebirge), Drainage basin, Drainage divide, Duisburg, Early New High German, Eifel, Eltville, Elz (Rhine), Emmerich am Rhein, Emmerich Rhine Bridge, Emscher, Eocene, Erft, Ergolz, Erosion, Estuary, European Parliament, European wars of religion, EV15 The Rhine Cycle Route, Finsteraarhorn, First French Empire, Flüela Pass, Flims rockslide, Floodplain, France, 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Cornelius Ryan's A Bridge Too Far gives an account of Operation Market Garden, a failed Allied attempt to break through German lines at Arnhem in the occupied Netherlands during World War II.
A Bridge Too Far is a 1977 epic war film based on the 1974 book of the same name by Cornelius Ryan, adapted by William Goldman.
The Aare or Aar is a tributary of the High Rhine and the longest river that both rises and ends entirely within Switzerland.
The Acher is a 53.6-kilometre-long river and right-hand tributary of the Rhine in the county of Ortenau, in the south German state of Baden-Württemberg.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Marie Joseph Louis Adolphe Thiers (15 April 17973 September 1877) was a French statesman and historian.
--> Ahr is a river in Germany, a left tributary of the Rhine.
Alamannia or Alemannia was the territory inhabited by the Germanic Alemanni after they broke through the Roman limes in 213 CE.
The Alb is a river in the Northern Black Forest in Germany.
Albula (German; Alvra) is a river of Switzerland, a tributary of Hinterrhein (near Thusis).
Albula Pass (Romansh: Pass d'Alvra or, Albulapass) (el. 2315 m) is a Swiss mountain pass in the canton of Graubünden.
The Alemanni (also Alamanni; Suebi "Swabians") were a confederation of Germanic tribes on the Upper Rhine River.
Alemannic (German) is a group of dialects of the Upper German branch of the Germanic language family.
The Alpine orogeny or Alpide orogeny is an orogenic phase in the Late Mesozoic (Eoalpine) and the current Cenozoic that has formed the mountain ranges of the Alpide belt.
The Alpine Rhine Valley (Alpenrheintal) is a glacial alpine valley, formed by the part of the Alpine Rhine (German) between the confluence of the Anterior Rhine and Posterior Rhine at Reichenau and the Alpine Rhine's mouth at Lake Constance.
The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.
Alsace (Alsatian: ’s Elsass; German: Elsass; Alsatia) is a cultural and historical region in eastern France, on the west bank of the upper Rhine next to Germany and Switzerland.
The Imperial Territory of Alsace-Lorraine (Reichsland Elsaß-Lothringen or Elsass-Lothringen, or Alsace-Moselle) was a territory created by the German Empire in 1871, after it annexed most of Alsace and the Moselle department of Lorraine following its victory in the Franco-Prussian War.
The Alter Rhein (German for Old Rhine) is the old river bed of the Alpine Rhine in St. Gallen and Vorarlberg in the Alpine Rhine Valley, which was cut off when the Rhine was straightened during the 20th century.
The Amer is a river in the Dutch province of Noord-Brabant.
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.
The Amsterdam–Rhine Canal or Amsterdam-Rijnkanaal is a canal in the Netherlands that was built to connect the port city of Amsterdam to the main shipping artery of the Rhine.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Andernach is a town in the district of Mayen-Koblenz, in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, of currently about 30,000 inhabitants.
Angeren is a village in the municipality of Lingewaard, Gelderland province, Netherlands.
An animal sanctuary is a facility where animals are brought to live and be protected for the rest of their lives.
Appeasement in an international context is a diplomatic policy of making political or material concessions to an aggressive power in order to avoid conflict.
An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small number of scattered islands.
The Ardennes (L'Ardenne; Ardennen; L'Årdene; Ardennen; also known as the Ardennes Forest or Forest of Ardennes) is a region of extensive forests, rough terrain, rolling hills and ridges formed by the geological features of the Ardennes mountain range and the Moselle and Meuse River basins.
The Argen is a river in Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
Argentoratum or Argentorate was the ancient name of the city of Strasbourg.
Arnhem (or; Arnheim, Frisian: Arnhim, South Guelderish: Èrnem) is a city and municipality situated in the eastern part of the Netherlands.
Au am Rhein is a municipality in the district of Rastatt in Baden-Württemberg in Germany.
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
The modern states of Austria and Switzerland share a border with a length of 180 km in two parts, separated by Liechtenstein, the longer stretch running across the Grison Alps and the shorter one following the Alpine Rhine to its mouth at Lake Constance.
The Avers Rhine (Ragn da Ferrera, Averser Rhein) is a tributary of the Hinterrhein/Rein Posteriur in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.
Bad Honnef is a spa town in Germany near Bonn in the Rhein-Sieg district, North Rhine-Westphalia.
Baden is a historical German territory.
Baden-Württemberg is a state in southwest Germany, east of the Rhine, which forms the border with France.
Basel (also Basle; Basel; Bâle; Basilea) is a city in northwestern Switzerland on the river Rhine.
Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.
Before Present (BP) years is a time scale used mainly in geology and other scientific disciplines to specify when events occurred in the past.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
The Beneden Merwede is a stretch of river in the Netherlands, mainly fed by the river Rhine.
The Bergse Maas (pre-1947 spelling: Bergsche Maas) is a canal that was constructed in 1904 to be a branch of the Maas River (French: Meuse) in the Dutch province of North Brabant.
The Berkel is a river in the Netherlands and Germany.
Bingen am Rhein is a town in the Mainz-Bingen district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
The Birs (French: Birse) is a long river in Switzerland that flows through the Jura region and ends as a tributary to the Rhine between Basel and Birsfelden.
The Black Forest (Schwarzwald) is a large forested mountain range in the state of Baden-Württemberg in southwest Germany.
The Black Sea deluge is a hypothesized catastrophic rise in the level of the Black Sea circa 5600 BCE from waters from the Mediterranean Sea breaching a sill in the Bosphorus strait.
The Federal City of Bonn is a city on the banks of the Rhine in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, with a population of over 300,000.
Borders are geographic boundaries of political entities or legal jurisdictions, such as governments, sovereign states, federated states, and other subnational entities.
The Bosporus or Bosphorus;The spelling Bosporus is listed first or exclusively in all major British and American dictionaries (e.g.,,, Merriam-Webster,, and Random House) as well as the Encyclopædia Britannica and the.
The boundaries between the continents of Earth are generally a matter of geographical convention.
The Boven Merwede is a stretch of river in the Netherlands, mainly fed by the river Rhine.
Brakel is a municipality in the Belgian province of East Flanders in the Denderstreek and the Flemish Ardennes.
The Bregenzer Ach (also: Bregenzer Ache) is the main river of the Bregenz Forest, in the Austrian state of Vorarlberg.
Breisach (formerly Altbreisach) is a town with approximately 16,500 inhabitants, situated along the Rhine in the Rhine Valley, in the district Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald, Baden-Württemberg, Germany, about halfway between Freiburg and Colmar — 20 kilometres away from each — and about 60 kilometres north of Basel near the Kaiserstuhl.
Brest is a city in the Finistère département in Brittany.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Brownfield land is a term used in urban planning to describe any previously developed land that is not currently in use, whether contaminated or not or, in North America, more specifically to describe land previously used for industrial or commercial purposes with known or suspected pollution including soil contamination due to hazardous waste.
In the history of the Low Countries, the Burgundian Netherlands (Pays-Bas Bourguignons., Bourgondische Nederlanden, Burgundeschen Nidderlanden, Bas Payis borguignons) were a number of Imperial and French fiefs ruled in personal union by the House of Valois-Burgundy and their Habsburg heirs in the period from 1384 to 1482.
The Canals of Drusus (Fossas Drusianae) were Roman canals constructed for military purposes by Nero Claudius Drusus around 12 BC.
The canton of Aargau (German: Kanton; sometimes anglicized Argovia; see also other names) is one of the more northerly cantons of Switzerland.
The canton of Basel-Stadt (Kanton Basel-Stadt, canton of Basel-City, canton de Bâle-Ville, Cantone di Basilea Città) is one of the 26 cantons of Switzerland, and the smallest of the cantons by area.
The canton of (the) Grisons, or canton of Graubünden is the largest and easternmost canton of Switzerland.
The canton of Lucerne (Kanton Luzern) is a canton of Switzerland.
The canton of Schaffhausen, also canton of Schaffouse (Schaffhausen) is the northernmost canton of Switzerland.
The canton of Thurgau (German:, anglicized as Thurgovia) is a northeast canton of Switzerland.
The canton of Ticino, formally the Republic and Canton of Ticino (Repubblica e Cantone Ticino; Canton Tesin; Kanton Tessin; canton du Tessin, chantun dal Tessin) is the southernmost canton of Switzerland.
The canton of Zürich (Kanton) has a population (as of) of.
A casta was a term to describe mixed-race individuals in Spanish America, resulting from unions of European whites (españoles), Amerinds (indios), and Africans (negros).
The Celtic languages are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
The Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine (CCNR; Commission Centrale pour la Navigation du Rhin) is an international organisation whose function is to encourage European prosperity by guaranteeing a high level of security for navigation of the Rhine and environs.
Central German (Mitteldeutsche Dialekte) is a group of High German dialects spoken from the Rhineland in the west to the former eastern territories of Germany.
The Channel River was the extension of the river Rhine in modern-day Netherlands, the River Thames in modern-day England and other rivers into what is now the English Channel during periods of low sea level during the ice ages.
Chur or Coire (or; Cuira or; Coira; Coire)Others: CVRIA, CVRIA RHAETORVM and CVRIA RAETORVM is the capital and largest town of the Swiss canton of Grisons and lies in the Grisonian Rhine Valley, where the Rhine turns towards the north, in the northern part of the canton.
Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
A client state is a state that is economically, politically, or militarily subordinate to another more powerful state in international affairs.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Cologne (Köln,, Kölle) is the largest city in the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the fourth most populated city in Germany (after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich).
The Confederation of the Rhine (Rheinbund; French: officially États confédérés du Rhin, but in practice Confédération du Rhin) was a confederation of client states of the First French Empire.
The County of Holland was a State of the Holy Roman Empire and from 1432 part of the Burgundian Netherlands, from 1482 part of the Habsburg Netherlands and from 1648 onward, Holland was the leading province of the Dutch Republic, of which it remained a part until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
Das Rheingold (The Rhinegold), WWV 86A, is the first of the four music dramas that constitute Richard Wagner's Der Ring des Nibelungen, or in English, 'The Ring of the Nibelung'.
The Düssel is a small right tributary of the river Rhine in North Rhine Westphalia, Germany.
Düsseldorf (Low Franconian, Ripuarian: Düsseldörp), often Dusseldorf in English sources, is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the seventh most populous city in Germany. Düsseldorf is an international business and financial centre, renowned for its fashion and trade fairs.
De Biesbosch ('forest of sedges' or 'rushwoods') National Park, is one of the largest national parks of the Netherlands and one of the last extensive areas of freshwater tidal wetlands in Northwestern Europe.
The Delta Works (Deltawerken) is a series of construction projects in the southwest of the Netherlands to protect a large area of land around the Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt delta from the sea.
Den Oever (in English, the shore, the coast) is a village in the Dutch province of North Holland.
(The Ring of the Nibelung), WWV 86, is a cycle of four German-language epic music dramas composed by Richard Wagner.
Dettifoss is a waterfall in Vatnajökull National Park in Northeast Iceland, and is reputed to be the most powerful waterfall in Europe.
Deventer is a city and municipality in the Salland region of the province of Overijssel, Netherlands.
"" (The Watch/Guard on the Rhine) is a German patriotic anthem.
Diepoldsau is a municipality in the Wahlkreis (constituency) of Rheintal in the canton of St. Gallen in Switzerland.
The Dischma is a valley on the territory of the Swiss municipality of Davos.
The Dischmabach is a river of approximately 15 km long in the river system of Albula.
Disentis (German) or Mustér (Romansh), with its official name Disentis/Mustér is a village and a municipality in the Surselva Region in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.
A distributary, or a distributary channel, is a stream that branches off and flows away from a main stream channel.
Doggerland is the name of a land mass now beneath the southern North Sea that connected Great Britain to continental Europe.
The Domleschg (Tumleastga) is a valley in Graubünden in Switzerland.
The donkey or ass (Equus africanus asinus) is a domesticated member of the horse family, Equidae.
Dordrecht, colloquially Dordt, historically in English named Dort, is a city and municipality in the Western Netherlands, located in the province of South Holland.
The Dordtse Kil (pre-1947 spelling: Dordtsche Kil) is a short river in South Holland in the Netherlands.
Dormagen is a town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany in the Rhein-Kreis Neuss.
The Dornbirner Ach (also called Dornbirner Ache) is a stream in Vorarlberg, Austria, with its source in the mountains near the Alpine village Ebnit.
The Dortmund–Ems Canal is a long canal in Germany between the inland port of the city of Dortmund and the sea port of Emden.
The Drachenfels ("Dragon's Rock") is a hill in the Siebengebirge uplands between Königswinter and Bad Honnef in Germany.
A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water.
A drainage divide, water divide, divide, ridgeline, watershed, or water parting is the line that separates neighbouring drainage basins.
Duisburg (locally) is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
Early New High German (ENHG) is a term for the period in the history of the German language, generally defined, following Wilhelm Scherer, as the period 1350 to 1650.
The Eifel (Äifel) is a low mountain range in western Germany and eastern Belgium.
Eltville am Rhein (from Alta Villa, Latin for "high estate, high town", corrupted to Eldeville, Elfeld and later Eltville) is a town in the Rheingau-Taunus-Kreis in the Regierungsbezirk of Darmstadt in Hesse, Germany.
The Elz is a river in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, a right tributary of the Rhine.
Emmerich am Rhein meaning Emmerich on the Rhine (Low Rhenish and Emmerik) is a town and municipality in the northwest of the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia.
The Emmerich Rhine Bridge ('Rheinbrücke Emmerich') is a suspension bridge located in Emmerich am Rhein, Germany.
The Emscher is a river, a tributary of the Rhine, that flows through the Ruhr area in North Rhine-Westphalia in western Germany.
The Eocene Epoch, lasting from, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic Era.
The Erft is a river in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
The Ergolz is the main river in the canton of Basel-Landschaft, Switzerland.
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that remove soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).
An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea.
The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).
The European wars of religion were a series of religious wars waged mainly in central and western, but also northern Europe (especially Ireland) in the 16th and 17th century.
EuroVelo 15 (EV15), named the Rhine Cycle Route, is a EuroVelo long-distance cycling route running 1230km along the Rhine river valley from the headwaters of the Rhine in Andermatt in Switzerland to the river's mouth in Hoek van Holland in the Netherlands.
The Finsteraarhorn is the highest mountain in the Bernese Alps in Switzerland and the most prominent peak of Switzerland.
The First French Empire (Empire Français) was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century.
Flüela Pass (elevation 2383 m) is a high mountain pass in the Swiss Alps in the canton of Graubünden.
The Flims rockslide occurred about 10,000 years ago in what is now eastern Switzerland.
A floodplain or flood plain is an area of land adjacent to a stream or river which stretches from the banks of its channel to the base of the enclosing valley walls, and which experiences flooding during periods of high discharge.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The border between the states of France and Germany has a length of about.
Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks (Regnum Francorum), or Frankish Empire was the largest post-Roman Barbarian kingdom in Western Europe.
Franconia (Franken, also called Frankenland) is a region in Germany, characterised by its culture and language, and may be roughly associated with the areas in which the East Franconian dialect group, locally referred to as fränkisch, is spoken.
Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.
Frankish (reconstructed Frankish: *italic), Old Franconian or Old Frankish was the West Germanic language spoken by the Franks between the 4th and 8th century.
The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.
Fußach is a municipality in the district of Bregenz in the Austrian state of Vorarlberg.
Gaißau is a municipality in the district of Bregenz in the Austrian state of Vorarlberg.
Ancient Galatia (Γαλατία, Galatía) was an area in the highlands of central Anatolia (Ankara, Çorum, Yozgat Province) in modern Turkey.
Gallia Narbonensis (Latin for "Gaul of Narbonne", from its chief settlement) was a Roman province located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France.
Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
Gaulish was an ancient Celtic language that was spoken in parts of Europe as late as the Roman Empire.
The Güferhorn is a mountain in the Lepontine Alps, located between the valleys of Vals and Hinterrhein in Graubünden.
Gelgia (Romansh, Julia) is a river in the Grisons canton, eastern Switzerland.
Geomorphology (from Ancient Greek: γῆ, gê, "earth"; μορφή, morphḗ, "form"; and λόγος, lógos, "study") is the scientific study of the origin and evolution of topographic and bathymetric features created by physical, chemical or biological processes operating at or near the Earth's surface.
German nationalism is the nationalist idea that Germans are a nation, promotes the unity of Germans and German-speakers into a nation state, and emphasizes and takes pride in the national identity of Germans.
"Germania" was the Roman term for the geographical region in north-central Europe inhabited mainly by Germanic peoples.
Germania Inferior ("Lower Germany") was a Roman province located on the west bank of the Rhine.
Germania Superior ("Upper Germania") was an imperial province of the Roman Empire.
The Germanic (or "German") Heroic Age, so called in analogy to the Heroic Age of Greek mythology, is the period of early historic or quasi-historic events reflected in Germanic heroic poetry.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
"Germanic Wars" is a name given to a series of wars between the Romans and various Germanic tribes between 113 BC and 596 AD.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The border between the modern states of Germany and Switzerland extends to 362 km, mostly following the High Rhine between Lake Constance and Basel.
A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.
The Glarus Alps (Glarner Alpen) are a mountain range in central Switzerland.
Glatt is the name of a lesser affluent to the High Rhine in the Unterland of the canton of Zurich, Switzerland.
The Glogn (Romansh, Glenner) is a whitewater river in Graubünden.
Gorinchem, also called Gorkum, is a city and municipality in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland.
The Grand Canal of Alsace is a canal in eastern France, channeling the Upper Rhine river.
Hagnau am Bodensee is a commune and a village in the district of Bodensee in Baden-Württemberg in Germany.
The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Western and Central European culture of Early Iron Age Europe from the 8th to 6th centuries BC, developing out of the Urnfield culture of the 12th century BC (Late Bronze Age) and followed in much of its area by the La Tène culture.
Hardinxveld-Giessendam is a municipality in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland.
The Haringvliet is a large inlet of the North Sea, in the province of South Holland in the Netherlands.
Höchst is a municipality in the district of Bregenz in the Austrian state of Vorarlberg.
Heinzenberg (Mantogna) is the western side of Hinterrhein valley in Swiss canton of Graubünden between the Viamala and the narrow valley in Rothenbrunnen.
The Hercynian Forest was an ancient and dense forest that stretched eastward from the Rhine River across southern Germany and formed the northern boundary of that part of Europe known to writers of antiquity.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
Hesse or Hessia (Hessen, Hessian dialect: Hesse), officially the State of Hesse (German: Land Hessen) is a federal state (''Land'') of the Federal Republic of Germany, with just over six million inhabitants.
Het Scheur (Dutch for "The Rip") is a branch of the Rhine-Meuse delta in South Holland, Netherlands, that flows west from the confluence of the Oude Maas and Nieuwe Maas branches past the towns of Rozenburg and Maassluis.
The High German languages or High German dialects (hochdeutsche Mundarten) comprise the varieties of German spoken south of the Benrath and Uerdingen isoglosses in central and southern Germany, Austria, Liechtenstein, Switzerland, and Luxembourg, as well as in neighboring portions of France (Alsace and northern Lorraine), Italy (South Tyrol), the Czech Republic (Bohemia), and Poland (Upper Silesia).
The High Rhine (Hochrhein) is the name used for the part of the Rhine that flows westbound from Lake Constance to Basel.
The Hinterrhein (German; Rein Posteriur; Posterior Rhine) is one of the two initial tributaries of the Rhine (less in length but bigger by volume) in the canton of Graubünden in Switzerland, flowing from the village Hinterrhein near the San Bernardino Pass through the Rheinwald valley into a gorge called Roflaschlucht.
The history of geography includes many histories of geography which have differed over time and between different cultural and political groups.
Hollands Diep (pre-1947 spelling: Hollandsch Diep) is a wide river in the Netherlands and an estuary of the Rhine and Meuse river.
The Hollandse (or Hollandsche) IJssel ("Holland IJssel", as opposed to the 'regular' or Gelderland IJssel) is a branch of the Rhine delta that flows westward from Nieuwegein on river Lek through IJsselstein, Gouda and Capelle aan den IJssel to Krimpen aan den IJssel, where it ends in the Nieuwe Maas.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
The Hook of Holland (Hoek van Holland) is a town in the southwestern corner of Holland (hence the name; hoek means "corner"), at the mouth of the New Waterway shipping canal into the North Sea.
The Hunsrück is a low mountain range in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
IJmuiden is a port city in the Dutch province of North Holland and is the main town in the municipality of Velsen.
The river IJssel (Iessel(t)), sometimes called Gelderse IJssel ("Gueldern IJssel") to avoid confusion with the Hollandse IJssel, is the branch of the Rhine in the Dutch provinces of Gelderland and Overijssel.
The IJsselmeer (West Frisian language: Iselmar), is a closed off inland bay in the central Netherlands bordering the provinces of Flevoland, North Holland and Friesland.
The Ill is a river in Alsace, in north-eastern France.
The Ill (all capitals: ILL) is a 72 km long tributary of the Rhine in the western Austrian province of Vorarlberg.
The Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (IEW; "Indo-European Etymological Dictionary") was published in 1959 by the Austrian-German comparative linguist and Celtic languages expert Julius Pokorny.
An inland port is a port on an inland waterway, such as a river, lake, or canal, which may or may not be connected to the ocean.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
The Jastorf culture was an Iron Age material culture in what are now southern Scandinavia and north Germany, spanning the 6th to 1st centuries BC, forming the southern part of the Pre-Roman Iron Age.
Johann Gottfried Tulla (born 20 March 1770 in Karlsruhe; died 27 March 1828 in Paris) was a German engineer who accomplished the straightening of the Rhine, improving navigation and alleviating the effects of flooding.
The Julier Pass (Romansh: Pass dal Güglia, German: Julierpass, Italian Passo del Giulia) (el. 2284 m) is a mountain pass in Switzerland, in the Albula Range of the Alps.
The Jura Mountains (locally; Massif du Jura; Juragebirge; Massiccio del Giura) are a sub-alpine mountain range located north of the Western Alps, mainly following the course of the France–Switzerland border.
The Jurassic (from Jura Mountains) was a geologic period and system that spanned 56 million years from the end of the Triassic Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Cretaceous Period Mya.
Jutland (Jylland; Jütland), also known as the Cimbric or Cimbrian Peninsula (Cimbricus Chersonesus; Den Kimbriske Halvø; Kimbrische Halbinsel), is a peninsula of Northern Europe that forms the continental portion of Denmark and part of northern Germany.
Kampen is a city and municipality in the province of Overijssel, Netherlands.
Karlsruhe (formerly Carlsruhe) is the second-largest city in the state of Baden-Württemberg, in southwest Germany, near the French-German border.
Katwijk is a coastal municipality and town in the province of South Holland, which is situated in the mid-western part of the Netherlands.
Köln-Düsseldorfer (KD) is a river cruise operator based in Cologne, Germany.
Königswinter is a city and summer resort in the Rhein-Sieg district, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
Kehl is a town in southwestern Germany in the Ortenaukreis, Baden-Württemberg.
Kinderdijk is a village in the Netherlands, belonging to the municipality of Molenwaard, in the province South Holland, about east of Rotterdam.
The Kingdom of France (Royaume de France) was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe.
The Kingdom of the Burgundians or First Kingdom of Burgundy was established by Germanic Burgundians in the Rhineland and then in Savoy in the 5th century.
The Kinzig is a river in southwestern Germany, a right tributary of the Rhine.
Cleves (Kleve; Kleef; Clèves; Clivia) is a town in the Lower Rhine region of northwestern Germany near the Dutch border and the river Rhine.
Koblenz (Coblence), spelled Coblenz before 1926, is a German city situated on both banks of the Rhine where it is joined by the Moselle.
Koblenz (or Coblenz) is a town and municipality in the district of Zurzach in the canton of Aargau in Switzerland.
Konstanz (locally; formerly English: Constance, Czech: Kostnice, Latin: Constantia) is a university city with approximately 83,000 inhabitants located at the western end of Lake Constance in the south of Germany, bordering Switzerland.
Kornwerderzand (West Frisian: Koarnwertersân) is a settlement on the Afsluitdijk, a major dam in the Netherlands that links Friesland with North Holland.
Krefeld, also known as Crefeld until 1929, is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
Kreuzlingen is a municipality in the district of Kreuzlingen in the canton of Thurgau in north-eastern Switzerland.
The Kromme Rijn ("Crooked Rhine", for its many bends) is a river in the central Netherlands.
The La Tène culture was a European Iron Age culture named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel in Switzerland, where thousands of objects had been deposited in the lake, as was discovered after the water level dropped in 1857.
Lago di Lei is a reservoir in the Valle di Lei, powering the Hinterrhein storage power stations.
| The Lahn is a -long, right (or eastern) tributary of the Rhine in Germany.
Lake Constance (Bodensee) is a lake on the Rhine at the northern foot of the Alps, and consists of three bodies of water: the Obersee or Upper Lake Constance, the Untersee or Lower Lake Constance, and a connecting stretch of the Rhine, called the Seerhein.
Lake Zürich (Swiss German/Alemannic: Zürisee; German: Zürichsee) is a lake in Switzerland, extending southeast of the city of Zürich.
Land development is altering the landscape in any number of ways such as.
The Landquart is a river of Switzerland, a right tributary of the Rhine.
The Landwasser (German, lit.: water of/for the land) is a river in Switzerland, canton of Graubünden.
A language border or language boundary is the line separating two language areas.
The laryngeal theory aims to produce greater regularity in the reconstruction of Proto-Indo-European (PIE) phonology than from the reconstruction that is produced by the comparative method.
In the Earth's climate history the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) was the last time period during the last glacial period when ice sheets were at their greatest extension.
The Lauter (in its upper course also: Wieslauter) is a river in Germany and France, left tributary of the Rhine.
Legio I Germanica, the 1st Germanic Legion, was a legion of the Imperial Roman army, possibly founded in 48 BC by Gaius Julius Caesar to fight for him in the civil war against Pompey.
Legio secunda Augusta ("Augustus' Second Legion") was a legion of the Imperial Roman army that was founded during the late Roman republic.
Legio quinta alaudae ("Lark-crested Fifth Legion"), sometimes also known as Gallica, was a legion of the Imperial Roman army founded in 52 BC by the general Gaius Julius Caesar (dictator of Rome 49-44 BC).
Legio tertia decima Geminia, in English the 13th Twin Legion, also known as Legio tertia decima Gemina, was a legion of the Imperial Roman army.
Legio vigesima Valeria Victrix, in English Twentieth Victorious Valeria Legion was a legion of the Imperial Roman army.
Legio vigesima prima rapax ("Rapacious Twenty-First Legion") was a legion of the Imperial Roman army.
The Leiblach is a 34 km long tributary of Lake Constance and the Rhine River.
Leiden (in English and archaic Dutch also Leyden) is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands.
The Leidse Rijn (Dutch for "Leiden's Rhine") is a canal in the province of Utrecht, Netherlands.
The Lek is a river in the western Netherlands of some 60 km in length.
The Lepontine Alps (Lepontinische Alpen, Alpes lépontines, Alpi Lepontine) are a mountain range in the north-western part of the Alps.
Leverkusen is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany on the eastern bank of the Rhine.
Liechtenstein, officially the Principality of Liechtenstein (Fürstentum Liechtenstein), is a doubly landlocked German-speaking microstate in Central Europe.
The Limes Germanicus (Latin for Germanic frontier) was a line of frontier (limes) fortifications that bounded the ancient Roman provinces of Germania Inferior, Germania Superior and Raetia, dividing the Roman Empire and the unsubdued Germanic tribes from the years 83 to about 260 AD.
Lindau (officially in German: Lindau (Bodensee)) is a major town and an island on the eastern side of Lake Constance (Bodensee in German).
The Linge is a river in the Betuwe that is 99.8 km long, which makes it one of the longest rivers that flow entirely within the Netherlands.
Lippe is a Kreis (district) in the east of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
The Lippe is a river in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
Numerous castles are found in the German state of Rhineland-Palatinate.
This list of old waterbodies of the Rhine contains a selection of ox-bow lakes and meanders of the River Rhine which go under various names that mean Old Rhine or Old Arm: Alter Rhein, Altrhein, Altrheinarm, Altrheinzug, Altarm, Rheinaltarm or Restrhein.
This page lists the principal rivers of Europe with their main attributes.
The following are lists of World Heritage Sites in Europe.
Loess (from German Löss) is a clastic, predominantly silt-sized sediment that is formed by the accumulation of wind-blown dust.
The Lorelei (Loreley) is a 132 m (433 ft) high, steep slate rock on the right bank of the river Rhine in the Rhine Gorge (or Middle Rhine) at Sankt Goarshausen in Germany.
Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.
Low German or Low Saxon (Plattdütsch, Plattdüütsch, Plattdütsk, Plattduitsk, Nedersaksies; Plattdeutsch, Niederdeutsch; Nederduits) is a West Germanic language spoken mainly in northern Germany and the eastern part of the Netherlands.
The Duchy of Lower Lorraine, or Lower Lotharingia (also referred to as Lothier or Lottier in titles), was a stem duchy established in 959, of the medieval Kingdom of Germany, which encompassed almost all of the modern Netherlands (including Friesland), central and eastern Belgium, Luxemburg, the northern part of the German Rhineland province and the eastern parts of France's Nord-Pas de Calais region.
The Lower Rhine (Niederrhein; kilometres 660 to 1,033 of the river Rhine) flows from Bonn, Germany, to the North Sea at Hoek van Holland, Netherlands (including the Nederrijn or "Nether Rhine" within the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta); alternatively, Lower Rhine may be refer to the part upstream of Pannerdens Kop, excluding the Nederrijn.
The Lower Rhine region or Niederrhein is a region around the Lower Rhine section of the river Rhine in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany between approximately Oberhausen and Krefeld in the East and the Dutch border around Kleve in the West.
The Ludendorff Bridge (sometimes referred to as the Bridge at Remagen) was in early March 1945 one of two remaining bridges across the river Rhine in Germany when it was captured during the Battle of Remagen by United States Army forces during the closing weeks of World War II.
Ludwigshafen am Rhein is a city in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, on the Rhine opposite Mannheim.
Lustenau (Alemannic: Luschnou) is a town in the Austrian state of Vorarlberg in the district of Dornbirn.
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.
The Maas–Waal Canal (Dutch: Maas–Waalkanaal) is a canal in the Netherlands that connects the river Meuse (Dutch: Maas) to the river Waal.
The Main (is a river in Germany. With a length of (including its 52 km long source river White Main), it is the longest right tributary of the Rhine. It is also the longest river lying entirely in Germany (if the Weser and the Werra are considered as two separate rivers; together they are longer). The largest cities along the Main are Frankfurt am Main and Würzburg.
Mainau also referred to as Mav(e)no(w), Maienowe (in 1242), Maienow (in 1357), Maienau, Mainowe (in 1394) und Mainaw (in 1580) is an island in Lake Constance (on the Southern shore of the Überlinger See near the city of Konstanz, Baden-Württemberg, Germany).
Satellite view of Mainz (south of the Rhine) and Wiesbaden Mainz (Mogontiacum, Mayence) is the capital and largest city of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany.
Mannheim (Palatine German: Monnem or Mannem) is a city in the southwestern part of Germany, the third-largest in the German state of Baden-Württemberg after Stuttgart and Karlsruhe with a 2015 population of approximately 305,000 inhabitants.
A marine transgression is a geologic event during which sea level rises relative to the land and the shoreline moves toward higher ground, resulting in flooding.
The Marksburg is a castle above the town of Braubach in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
Maurus Servius Honoratus was a late fourth-century and early fifth-century grammarian, with the contemporary reputation of being the most learned man of his generation in Italy; he was the author of a set of commentaries on the works of Virgil.
A meander is one of a series of regular sinuous curves, bends, loops, turns, or windings in the channel of a river, stream, or other watercourse.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
The Merwede (etymology uncertain, possibly derived from the ancient Dutch Merwe or Merowe, a word meaning "wide water") is the name of several connected stretches of river in The Netherlands, between the cities of Woudrichem, Dordrecht and Papendrecht.
The Mesozoic Era is an interval of geological time from about.
The Meuse (la Meuse; Walloon: Moûze) or Maas (Maas; Maos or Maas) is a major European river, rising in France and flowing through Belgium and the Netherlands before draining into the North Sea.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Middle Dutch is a collective name for a number of closely related West Germanic dialects (whose ancestor was Old Dutch) spoken and written between 1150 and 1500.
Middle Francia (Francia media) was a short-lived Frankish kingdom which was created in 843 by the Treaty of Verdun after an intermittent civil war between the grandsons of Charlemagne resulted in division of the united empire.
Between Bingen and Bonn, Germany, the river Rhine flows as the Middle Rhine (Mittelrhein) through the Rhine Gorge, a formation created by erosion, which happened at about the same rate as an uplift in the region, leaving the river at about its original level, and the surrounding lands raised.
The Migration Period was a period during the decline of the Roman Empire around the 4th to 6th centuries AD in which there were widespread migrations of peoples within or into Europe, mostly into Roman territory, notably the Germanic tribes and the Huns.
Millingen aan de Rijn is a former municipality and a town in the eastern Netherlands, in the municipality of Berg en Dal (formerly known as Groesbeek).
The Miocene is the first geological epoch of the Neogene Period and extends from about (Ma).
The Mittelland Canal, also known as the Midland Canal, (Mittellandkanal) is a major canal in central Germany.
The Moder (la Moder, die Moder) is a long river in northeastern France; it begins in Zittersheim and ends at the river Rhine.
Monheim am Rhein is a town on the right (eastern) bank of the river Rhine in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
The Moselle (la Moselle,; Mosel; Musel) is a river flowing through France, Luxembourg, and Germany.
The Murg is an 80.2-kilometre-long river (including its headstream, the Rechtmurg) and a right tributary of the Rhine in Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
The Nahe is a river in Rhineland-Palatinate and Saarland, Germany, a left tributary to the Rhine.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
A natural border is a border between states or their subdivisions which is concomitant with natural formations such as rivers, mountain ranges, or deserts.
A natural region is a basic geographic unit.
A nature reserve (also called a natural reserve, bioreserve, (natural/nature) preserve, or (national/nature) conserve) is a protected area of importance for wildlife, flora, fauna or features of geological or other special interest, which is reserved and managed for conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research.
The Neckar is a river in Germany, mainly flowing through the southwestern state of Baden-Württemberg, with a short section through Hesse.
Course of the Nederrijn Nederrijn ("Nether Rhine"; not to be confused with the section called Lower Rhine further upstream) is the name of the Dutch part of the Rhine from the confluence at the town of Angeren of the cut-off Rhine bend of Oude Rijn and the Pannerdens Kanaal (which was dug to form the new connection between the Waal and Nederrijn branches).
Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus (January 14, 38 BC – summer of 9 BC), born Decimus Claudius Drusus, also called Drusus Claudius Nero, Drusus, Drusus I, Nero Drusus, or Drusus the Elder was a Roman politician and military commander.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
The Nette is a small river in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, a left tributary of the Rhine.
Neuss (spelled Neuß until 1968; Limburgish: Nüss; Latin: Novaesium) is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
Neuwied is a town in the north of the German state of Rhineland-Palatinate, capital of the District of Neuwied.
The Nibelungenlied (Middle High German: Der Nibelunge liet or Der Nibelunge nôt), translated as The Song of the Nibelungs, is an epic poem from around 1200 written in Middle High German.
Niederkassel is a town in the Rhein-Sieg district, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, with a population of around 37,000 people.
The Nieuwe Maas ("New Meuse") is a distributary of the Rhine River, and a former distributary of the Maas River, in the Dutch province of South Holland.
The Nieuwe Merwede ("New Merwede") is a canal, mainly fed by the river Rhine, that was constructed in 1870 to form a branch in the Rhine-Meuse delta.
The Nieuwe Waterweg ("New Waterway") is a ship canal in the Netherlands from het Scheur (a branch of the Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt delta) west of the town of Maassluis to the North Sea at Hook of Holland: the Maasmond, where the Nieuwe Waterweg connects to the Maasgeul.
Nijmegen (Nijmeegs: Nimwegen), historically anglicized as Nimeguen, is a municipality and a city in the Dutch province of Gelderland.
The Noord ("North") is a short tidal river in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland.
The North German Plain or Northern Lowland (Norddeutsches Tiefland) is one of the major geographical regions of Germany.
North Rhine-Westphalia (Nordrhein-Westfalen,, commonly shortened to NRW) is the most populous state of Germany, with a population of approximately 18 million, and the fourth largest by area.
The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.
Oberalp Pass (Romansh: Alpsu or Cuolm d'Ursera, German: Oberalppass) (el. 2044 m.) is a high mountain pass in the Swiss Alps connecting the cantons of Graubünden and Uri between Disentis and Andermatt.
Oberriet is a municipality in the Wahlkreis (constituency) of Rheintal in the canton of St. Gallen in Switzerland.
The Obersee (German for "Upper Lake"), also known as Upper Lake Constance, is the much larger of the two parts of Lake Constance, the other part being the Untersee ("Lower Lake").
The Obersee ("upper lake") is the smaller of the two parts of Zürichsee (Lake Zürich) in the cantons of St. Gallen and Schwyz in Switzerland.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
Old European (Alteuropäisch) is the term used by Hans Krahe (1964) for the language of the oldest reconstructed stratum of European hydronymy (river names) in Central and Western Europe.
Old High German (OHG, Althochdeutsch, German abbr. Ahd.) is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the period from around 700 to 1050.
Old Irish (Goídelc; Sean-Ghaeilge; Seann Ghàidhlig; Shenn Yernish; sometimes called Old Gaelic) is the name given to the oldest form of the Goidelic languages for which extensive written texts are extant.
The Old Rhine Bridge at Konstanz spans the Seerhein.
Old Saxony is the original homeland of the Saxons in the northwest corner of modern Germany and roughly corresponds today to the modern German state of Lower Saxony, Westphalia, Nordalbingia (Holstein, southern part of Schleswig-Holstein) and western Saxony-Anhalt.
The Oligocene is a geologic epoch of the Paleogene Period and extends from about 33.9 million to 23 million years before the present (to). As with other older geologic periods, the rock beds that define the epoch are well identified but the exact dates of the start and end of the epoch are slightly uncertain.
Operation Market Garden (17–25 September 1944) was an unsuccessful Allied military operation planned, and predominantly led, by the British.
Paulus Orosius (born 375, died after 418 AD) — less often Paul Orosius in English — was a Gallaecian Chalcedonian priest, historian and theologian, a student of Augustine of Hippo.
Oude IJssel (Dutch), literally old IJssel, or Issel (German) is a river in Germany and the Netherlands approximately 82 km long.
The Oude Maas (Old Meuse) is a distributary of the Rhine River, and a former distributary of the Maas River, in the Dutch province of South Holland.
Oude Rijn ("Old Rhine") is the name of a long former bend in river Rhine in the Dutch province of Gelderland.
The Oude Rijn (Old Rhine) is a branch of the Rhine delta in the Dutch provinces of Utrecht and South Holland.
Palatine German or Pfaelzisch (Pälzisch; Pfälzisch) is a West Franconian dialect of German which is spoken in the Upper Rhine Valley roughly in an area between the cities of Zweibrücken, Kaiserslautern, Alzey, Worms, Ludwigshafen am Rhein, Mannheim, Heidelberg, Speyer, Landau, Wörth am Rhein and the border to the Alsace region in France but also beyond.
The Pannerdens Kanaal (Pannerden Canal) is a canal in the Netherlands that was dredged between 1701 and 1709 to cut off a large, shallow bend of river Rhine and so improve river traffic and water regulation.
Pannonia was a province of the Roman Empire bounded north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia.
The Paradies Glacier (Paradiesgletscher) is a 2.27 km long glacier (2007) situated in the Lepontine Alps in the canton of Graubünden in Switzerland.
The Peace of Westphalia (Westfälischer Friede) was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster that virtually ended the European wars of religion.
The Pfinz is a right tributary of the Rhine in Baden-Württemberg.
Piz Lunghin (2,780 m) is a mountain in the Swiss canton of Graubünden, located in the Albula range, overlooking the Maloja Pass.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
The Pleistocene (often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations.
The Plessur is a river, long, and a right tributary of the Rhine running through the Swiss canton of Graubünden.
The Pliocene (also Pleiocene) Epoch is the epoch in the geologic timescale that extends from 5.333 million to 2.58 million years BP.
Plobsheim is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
A polder is a low-lying tract of land enclosed by dikes that form an artificial hydrological entity, meaning it has no connection with outside water other than through manually operated devices.
In physics, potential energy is the energy possessed by an object because of its position relative to other objects, stresses within itself, its electric charge, or other factors.
The pre-Celtic period in the prehistory of Central and Western Europe occurred before the expansion of the Celts or their culture in Iron Age Europe and Anatolia (9th to 6th centuries BC), but after the emergence of the Proto-Celtic language and cultures.
The Proto-Celtic language, also called Common Celtic, is the reconstructed ancestor language of all the known Celtic languages.
Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; German: Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German: Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The roots of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) are basic parts of words that carry a lexical meaning, so-called morphemes.
The Pyrenees (Pirineos, Pyrénées, Pirineus, Pirineus, Pirenèus, Pirinioak) is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between Spain and France.
Pytheas of Massalia (Ancient Greek: Πυθέας ὁ Μασσαλιώτης Pythéas ho Massaliōtēs; Latin: Pytheas Massiliensis; fl. 4th century BC), was a Greek geographer and explorer from the Greek colony of Massalia (modern-day Marseille).
The Rabiusa (Rabiosa, i.e. "Raging", in the local German dialect Rii, i.e. "Rhine") is a 32 km long tributary of the Rhine.
The Radolfzeller Aach (also known as Hegauer Aach) is a right or north tributary of the Rhine in the south of Baden-Württemberg (Germany).
Rapids are sections of a river where the river bed has a relatively steep gradient, causing an increase in water velocity and turbulence.
Rüdesheim am Rhein is a German winemaking town in the Rhine Gorge, and part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site in this region.
Reforestation is the natural or intentional restocking of existing forests and woodlands (forestation) that have been depleted, usually through deforestation.
Reichenau (La Punt) is a village in the municipality of Tamins in the Canton of Graubünden, Switzerland, where the two Rhine tributaries Vorderrhein and Hinterrhein meet, forming the Alpine Rhine.
The Rein da Curnera (in Curnerarhein) is a right tributary of the Anterior Rhine and one of the main tributaries of the Rhine (see Sources of the Rhine).
The Rein da Maighels (Maighelserrhein) is one of the main tributaries of the Rhine (see Sources of the Rhine) and is a tributary to the Rein da Curnera.
The Rein da Medel (Reno di Medel; Medelser Rhein) is the longest headwater of the Rhine.
The Rein da Tuma is a river in Switzerland, in the Canton of Graubünden.
Remagen is a town in Germany in the Land Rhineland-Palatinate, in the district of Ahrweiler.
The Rench is a right-hand tributary of the Rhine in the Ortenau (Central Baden, Germany).
The Reno is a river of Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy.
Res Gestae Divi Augusti (Eng. The Deeds of the Divine Augustus) is the funerary inscription of the first Roman emperor, Augustus, giving a first-person record of his life and accomplishments.
The Rhône (Le Rhône; Rhone; Walliser German: Rotten; Rodano; Rôno; Ròse) is one of the major rivers of Europe and has twice the average discharge of the Loire (which is the longest French river), rising in the Rhône Glacier in the Swiss Alps at the far eastern end of the Swiss canton of Valais, passing through Lake Geneva and running through southeastern France.
Rheineck is a municipality in the Wahlkreis (constituency) of Rheintal in the canton of St. Gallen in Switzerland.
The Rheinwald (literally "Rhine Forest", but derived from Latin Rheni vallis meaning "Rhine Valley"; Romansh: Valrain) is a valley in the Canton of Graubünden in Switzerland.
The Rheinwaldhorn (Adula) is the highest point in the Swiss canton of Ticino at 3,402 metres above sea level.
The Rhenish Massif, Rhine Massif or Rhenish Uplands (Rheinisches Schiefergebirge: 'Rhenish Slate Mountains') is a geologic massif in western Germany, eastern Belgium, Luxembourg and northeastern France.
The Rhine crisis of 1840 was a diplomatic crisis between the Kingdom of France and the German Confederation, caused by the attempt by the French prime minister Adolphe Thiers to use the threat of an invasion of Germany as leverage in a dispute over the Near East.
The Rhine Falls (Rheinfall, singular) is the largest waterfall in Switzerland and Europe.
The Rhine Gorge is a popular name for the Upper Middle Rhine Valley, a 65 km section of the Rhine between Koblenz and Bingen in Germany.
The Rhine knee or Rhine's knee (Rheinknie) is the name of several distinctive bends in the course of the river Rhine.
Burg Rheinstein in Trechtingshausen was the first castle to be rebuilt in the 19th Century Stolzenfels Castle in Koblenz, an example of the Rhine romanticism Werner Chapel in Bacharach The Rhine romanticism was the interpretation of the landscape conditions and history of the Rhine Valley in the cultural-historical period of the romanticism, by the end of the 18th century until the late 19th century and was continued in all forms of art expression.
The Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region (Metropolregion Rhein-Ruhr) is the largest metropolitan region in Germany with over 10 million inhabitants.
The Rhine–Herne Canal (Rhein-Herne-Kanal) is a transportation canal in the Ruhr area of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, with five canal locks.
The Rhine–Main–Danube Canal (German: Rhein-Main-Donau-Kanal; also called Main-Danube Canal, RMD Canal or Europa Canal), in Bavaria, Germany, connects the Main and the Danube rivers across the European Watershed, running from Bamberg via Nuremberg to Kelheim.
The Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta or Helinium is a river delta in the Netherlands formed by the confluence of the Rhine, the Meuse and the Scheldt rivers.
The Rhineland (Rheinland, Rhénanie) is the name used for a loosely defined area of Western Germany along the Rhine, chiefly its middle section.
Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz) is one of the 16 states (Bundesländer) of the Federal Republic of Germany.
As a given name or surname, Rian may refer to.
Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 181313 February 1883) was a German composer, theatre director, polemicist, and conductor who is chiefly known for his operas (or, as some of his later works were later known, "music dramas").
Ripuarian (also Ripuarian Franconian or Ripuarisch Platt) is a German dialect group, part of the West Central German language group.
River bifurcation (from furca, fork) occurs when a river flowing in a single stream separates into two or more separate streams (called distributaries) which continue downstream.
A river delta is a landform that forms from deposition of sediment carried by a river as the flow leaves its mouth and enters slower-moving or stagnant water.
A river island is any exposed land within a river.
The River Thames is a river that flows through southern England, most notably through London.
The Rofla Gorge (Puntcrap, Roflaschlucht) is an ancient and narrow section of the river Hinterrhein/Rein Posteriur between Sufers and Andeer in the canton of Graubünden.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Romansh (also spelled Romansch, Rumantsch, or Romanche; Romansh:, rumàntsch, or) is a Romance language spoken predominantly in the southeastern Swiss canton of Grisons (Graubünden), where it has official status alongside German and Italian.
The Rotach is a 39 km long tributary of Lake Constance and the Rhine in the German state of Baden-Württemberg.
Rotterdam is a city in the Netherlands, in South Holland within the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt river delta at the North Sea.
The Ruhr (Ruhrgebiet), or the Ruhr district, Ruhr region, Ruhr area or Ruhr valley, is a polycentric urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
__notoc__ The Ruhr is a river in western Germany (North Rhine-Westphalia), a right tributary (east-side) of the Rhine.
Ruinaulta is a canyon created by the Anterior Rhine between Ilanz/Glion and Reichenau in the debris of the Flims Rockslide just upstream of its confluence with the Posterior Rhine at Reichenau in the Grisons, eastern Switzerland.
The Saint-Gotthard Massif (German: Gotthardmassiv or Sankt-Gotthard-Massiv) is a mountain range in the Alps in Switzerland, located at the border of four cantons: Valais, Ticino, Uri and Graubünden.
Sankt Goarshausen (abbreviated St. Goarshausen) is a town located in the Rhein-Lahn-Kreis in Nassau on the eastern shore of the Rhine, in the section known as the Rhine Gorge, directly across the river from Sankt Goar, in the German state Rhineland-Palatinate.
Sargans is a municipality in the Wahlkreis (constituency) of Sarganserland in the canton of St. Gallen in Switzerland.
Schaffhausen (Schafuuse; Schaffhouse; Sciaffusa; Schaffusa; Shaffhouse) is a town with historic roots, a municipality in northern Switzerland, and the capital of the canton of the same name; it has an estimated population of 36,000.
The Schams north of Andeer. In the top left, the ruins of Cagliatscha Castle The Schams ((Val) Schons) is a section of the Hinterrhein valley in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.
The Scheldt (l'Escaut, Escô, Schelde) is a long river in northern France, western Belgium and the southwestern part of the Netherlands.
The Scheldt–Rhine Canal (Schelde-Rijnkanaal) in Belgium and the Netherlands connects Antwerp with the Volkerak, and thereby the Scheldt with the Rhine.
The Schussen is a long tributary of the Bodensee (Lake Constance) and, via the lake, enters the Rhine River in the southern portion of Upper Swabia in Baden-Württemberg (Germany).
Schweinfurt (in German literally 'swine ford') is a city in the Lower Franconia region of Bavaria in Germany on the right bank of the navigable Main River, which is spanned by several bridges here, 27 km northeast of Würzburg.
Schweizerisches Idiotikon ("the Swiss idioticon", also known as Wörterbuch der schweizerdeutschen Sprache "Dictionary of the Swiss German language") is an ongoing, major project of lexicography of the Swiss German dialects.
Scythia (Ancient Greek: Σκυθική, Skythikē) was a region of Central Eurasia in classical antiquity, occupied by the Eastern Iranian Scythians, encompassing Central Asia and parts of Eastern Europe east of the Vistula River, with the eastern edges of the region vaguely defined by the Greeks.
Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently transported by the action of wind, water, or ice, and/or by the force of gravity acting on the particles.
Sedimentation is the tendency for particles in suspension to settle out of the fluid in which they are entrained and come to rest against a barrier.
The Seefelder Aach is a river in the districts of Sigmaringen and Bodenseekreis, Tübingen region, southern Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
The Seerhein ("Lake Rhine") is a river about four kilometres long, in the basin of Lake Constance.
The Seeztal (or Seez Valley) is a valley of the canton of St. Gallen, Switzerland, extending to the east of Lake Walen for some 10 km, formed by the river Seez.
The Seine (La Seine) is a river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France.
The Sertig Valley is located in the municipality of Davos, south of the town, in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.
Seven Days to the River Rhine (Sem' dney do reki Reyn) was a top-secret military simulation exercise developed in 1979 by the Warsaw Pact.
The Sieg is a river in North Rhine-Westphalia and Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany named after the Sigambrer.
Sigismund (26 October 1427 – 4 March 1496), a member of the House of Habsburg, was Duke of Austria from 1439 (elevated to Archduke in 1477) until his death.
Sils im Domleschg (Romansh: Seglias) is a municipality in the Viamala Region in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.
Slag is the glass-like by-product left over after a desired metal has been separated (i.e., smelted) from its raw ore.
A sluice (from the Dutch "sluis") is a water channel controlled at its head by a gate.
Lake Toma in the Swiss canton of Graubünden is generally regarded as the source of the Rhine.
Speyer (older spelling Speier, known as Spire in French and formerly as Spires in English) is a town in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, with approximately 50,000 inhabitants.
Spijk is a small town in the eastern Netherlands.
The Spui is a small tidal river in South Holland in the Netherlands, separating the islands of Voorne-Putten and Hoekse Waard.
St. Gallen or traditionally St Gall, in German sometimes Sankt Gallen (St Gall; Saint-Gall; San Gallo; Son Gagl) is a Swiss town and the capital of the canton of St. Gallen.
Stein am Rhein (abbrv. as Stein a. Rh.) is a historic town and a municipality in the canton of Schaffhausen in Switzerland.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
Strasbourg (Alsatian: Strossburi; Straßburg) is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament.
Stream capture, river capture, river piracy or stream piracy is a geomorphological phenomenon occurring when a stream or river drainage system or watershed is diverted from its own bed, and flows instead down the bed of a neighbouring stream.
Subsidence is the motion of a surface (usually, the earth's surface) as it shifts downward relative to a datum such as sea level.
Surselva District (District da la Surselva) is a former administrative district in the canton of the Grisons, Switzerland.
Swabia (Schwaben, colloquially Schwabenland or Ländle; in English also archaic Suabia or Svebia) is a cultural, historic and linguistic region in southwestern Germany.
A swamp is a wetland that is forested.
The Alpine region of Switzerland, conventionally referred to as the Swiss Alps (Schweizer Alpen, Alpes suisses, Alpi svizzere, Alps svizras), represents a major natural feature of the country and is, along with the Swiss Plateau and the Swiss portion of the Jura Mountains, one of its three main physiographic regions.
Swisstopo is the official name for the Swiss Federal Office of Topography (in German: Bundesamt für Landestopografie; French: Office fédéral de topographie; Italian: Ufficio federale di topografia; Romansh: Uffizi federal da topografia), Switzerland's national mapping agency.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
The Tamina is a river in Switzerland that originates on the flanks of Piz Sardona in the Glarus Alps and flows eastwards and northwards to finally merge with the Alpine Rhine after about 18 km total length.
Tamins (Tumein) is a village and a municipality in the Imboden Region in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.
The Taunus is a mountain range in Hesse, Germany located north of Frankfurt.
The Tödi, is a mountain massif and with the mountain peak Piz Russein the highest mountain in the Glarus Alps and the highest summit in the canton of Glarus, Switzerland.
The Töss is a river of the canton of Zürich.
Tectonic subsidence is the sinking of the Earth's crust on a large scale, relative to crustal-scale features or the geoid.
Tectonic uplift is the portion of the total geologic uplift of the mean Earth surface that is not attributable to an isostatic response to unloading.
The Tethys Ocean (Ancient Greek: Τηθύς), Tethys Sea or Neotethys was an ocean during much of the Mesozoic Era located between the ancient continents of Gondwana and Laurasia, before the opening of the Indian and Atlantic oceans during the Cretaceous Period.
The Bridge at Remagen is a 1969 DeLuxe Color war film starring George Segal, Ben Gazzara and Robert Vaughn in Panavision.
The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648.
Thur is a river in north-eastern Switzerland.
Tides are the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the Moon and the Sun and the rotation of Earth.
The Tomasee (Romansh: Lai da Tuma or Lag da Toma) is a lake at the northern face of Piz Badus, above the village of Tschamut in Grisons, Switzerland.
The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end.
The Triassic is a geologic period and system which spans 50.6 million years from the end of the Permian Period 251.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Jurassic Period Mya.
In physical geography, tundra is a type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons.
The Ubii around AD 30 The Ubii were a Germanic tribe first encountered dwelling on the right bank of the Rhine in the time of Julius Caesar, who formed an alliance with them in 55 BC in order to launch attacks across the river.
Uerdingen is a district of the city of Krefeld, Germany, with a population of 18,507.
The Uerdingen Line (named after Uerdingen by Georg Wenker) is the isogloss within West Germanic languages that separates dialects which preserve the -k sound in the first person singular pronoun word "ik" (north of the line) from dialects in which the word final -k has changed to word final -ch in the word "ich" (IPA) (south of the line).
The Untersee (German for Lower Lake), also known as Lower Lake Constance, is the smaller of the two lakes that together form Lake Constance and forms part of the boundary between Switzerland and Germany.
The Upper Rhine (Oberrhein) is the section of the Rhine in the Upper Rhine Plain between Basle in Switzerland and Bingen in Germany.
The Upper Rhine Plain, Rhine Rift Valley or Upper Rhine Graben (German: Oberrheinische Tiefebene, Oberrheinisches Tiefland or Oberrheingraben, French: Vallée du Rhin) is a major rift, about and on average, between Basel in the south and the cities of Frankfurt/Wiesbaden in the north.
An urban area is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment.
Utrecht is a city and municipality in the Netherlands, capital and most populous city of the province of Utrecht.
Vaduz is the capital of Liechtenstein and also the seat of the national parliament.
The Valser Rhine (Valser Rhein) is a source of the river Rhine in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.
The Variscan or Hercynian orogeny is a geologic mountain-building event caused by Late Paleozoic continental collision between Euramerica (Laurussia) and Gondwana to form the supercontinent of Pangaea.
The Vecht is a Rhine branch in the Dutch province of Utrecht.
Viamala or Via Mala (which in Romansh literally means "bad path") is an ancient and notorious section of a path along the river Hinterrhein between Zillis-Reischen and Thusis in the Canton of Graubünden.
Viticulture (from the Latin word for vine) is the science, production, and study of grapes.
The Vogelberg is a 3,218 metres high mountain of the Lepontine Alps, located on the border between the Swiss cantons of Ticino and Graubünden.
Vorarlberg is the westernmost federal state (Bundesland) of Austria.
The Vorderrhein (German; English: Anterior Rhine; in the local Sursilvan language: Rein Anteriur) is one of the two sources of the Rhine.
The Vosges (or; Vogesen), also called the Vosges Mountains, are a range of low mountains in eastern France, near its border with Germany.
The Waal (Dutch) is the main distributary branch of the river Rhine flowing approximately through the Netherlands.
Wageningen is a municipality and a historic town in the central Netherlands, in the province of Gelderland.
The Walensee is one of the larger lakes in Switzerland.
The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland among the Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War.
A water gap is a gap that flowing water has carved through a mountain range or mountain ridge.
A waterfall is a place where water flows over a vertical drop or a series of steep drops in the course of a stream or river.
Württemberg is a historical German territory.
Wesel is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
Wesseling is an industrial German city on the Rhine bordering Cologne city on the south.
In medieval historiography, West Francia (Latin: Francia occidentalis) or the Kingdom of the West Franks (regnum Francorum occidentalium) was the western part of Charlemagne's Empire, inhabited and ruled by the Germanic Franks that forms the earliest stage of the Kingdom of France, lasting from about 840 until 987.
The Western Allied invasion of Germany was coordinated by the Western Allies during the final months of hostilities in the European theatre of World War II.
The Westerwald (literally 'Western Forest') is a low mountain range on the right bank of the river Rhine in the German federal states of Rhineland-Palatinate, Hesse and North Rhine-Westphalia.
Widnau is a municipality in the Wahlkreis (constituency) of Rheintal in the canton of St. Gallen in Switzerland.
The Wied is a river in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, and the right tributary of the Rhine.
Wiesbaden is a city in central western Germany and the capital of the federal state of Hesse.
The Wiese is a river, 57.8 kilometres long, and a right-hand tributary of the Rhine in southwest Germany and northwest Switzerland.
Wijk bij Duurstede is a municipality and a city in the central Netherlands.
Windisch is a municipality in the district of Brugg in the canton of Aargau in Switzerland.
The Witenwasserenstock (3,082 m) is a peak between the Swiss cantons of Valais and Uri, located in the Lepontine Alps.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Worms is a city in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, situated on the Upper Rhine about south-southwest of Frankfurt-am-Main.
The Wupper is a right tributary of the Rhine in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
The Wutach is a river, 91 kilometres long, in the southeastern part of the Black Forest in the German state of Baden-Württemberg.
Xanten (Lower Franconian Santen) is a town in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
Zaltbommel (known also, historically and colloquially, as Bommel) is a municipality and a city in the Netherlands.
Zons, formerly known as Feste Zons (Fortress Zons), today officially called Stadt Zons (Zons Town) is an old town in Germany on the west bank of the Lower Rhine between Cologne and Düsseldorf.
The Zuiderzee (old spelling Zuyderzee) was a shallow bay of the North Sea in the northwest of the Netherlands, extending about 100 km (60 miles) inland and at most 50 km (30 miles) wide, with an overall depth of about 4 to 5 metres (13–16 feet) and a coastline of about 300 km (200 miles).
Zutphen is a city and municipality located in the province of Gelderland, Netherlands.
Zwolle is a city and municipality in the northeastern Netherlands serving as Overijssel's capital.
Alpenrhein River, Length of the Rhine, Rayn, Rhein (river), Rhein River, Rhine (river), Rhine Estuary, Rhine River, Rhine basin, Rhine mouth, Rhine river, Rhine valley, Rhinen, Rhinewater, Rijn, River Rhein, River Rhine, River Rhine Pollution: November 1986, The Rhine, Upper Rhine River Plains.