297 relations: Abel Muzorewa, Acting president, Adansonia, Aden Emergency, Administrator of the Government, African nationalism, Afrikaans, Afrikaners, Air Rhodesia Flight 825, Air Rhodesia Flight 827, Alec Douglas-Home, Annexation of Goa, António de Oliveira Salazar, Anthrax, Appellate court, Attack on Altena Farm, Australia, Australian Labor Party, Ban (law), Battle of Dien Bien Phu, Bechuanaland Protectorate, Beira Patrol, Beira, Mozambique, Beitbridge, Bicameralism, Bonn, Botswana, Botulinum toxin, Brachystegia, Breadbasket, British South Africa Company, British South Africa Police, Bulawayo, Byrd Amendment (1971), Cabinet of Rhodesia, Canberra, Cape Town, Capital punishment, Carnation Revolution, Cassia (genus), Cecil Rhodes, Celtis africana, Central Intelligence Organisation, Certificate of origin, Chinhoyi, Cholera, Christianity, Christopher Soames, Chromium, Civil and political rights, ..., Clifford Dupont, Cold War, Coloureds, Combretum, Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth realm, Company rule in Rhodesia, Consensus decision-making, Constitutional monarchy, Consul (representative), Counter-insurgency, Crown colony, Détente, De facto embassy, De Havilland Vampire, Decadence, Decolonisation of Africa, Decolonization, Diplomatic recognition, Diversification (marketing strategy), Dombeya, Dominant minority, Dominion, Eastern Bloc, Economic sanctions, Edward Heath, Edward Pearce, Baron Pearce, Elizabeth II, Embassy of the United Kingdom, Washington, D.C., Embassy of Zimbabwe, London, English Electric Canberra, English language, Ethnic groups in Europe, Federal government of the United States, Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, Flag of Rhodesia, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Free World, FRELIMO, Garfield Todd, Gloriosa (genus), God Save the Queen, Gough Whitlam, Government of France, Hansard, Harare, Harold Wilson, Hawker Hunter, Head of state, Henry Everard, Henry Kissinger, Hibiscus, High Court of Australia, House of Assembly, House of Assembly (Zimbabwe), Hugh Beadle, Hugo Grotius, Humphrey Gibbs, Ian Smith, Illustrated Life Rhodesia, Incendiary device, Internal Settlement, International asset recovery, International Monetary Fund, International sanctions, Internment, Interventionism (politics), Iran, Israel, Johannesburg, John Vorster, Joshua Nkomo, Kariba, Zimbabwe, Kenneth Kaunda, Labour Party (UK), Lancaster House, Lancaster House Agreement, Land reform in Zimbabwe, Landlocked country, Latin, Leonotis, Lisbon, List of historical unrecognized states and dependencies, London School of Economics, Lonrho, Lord Richard Cecil, Lusaka, Mahogany, Majority rule, Malawi, Malayan Emergency, Maputo, Margaret Thatcher, Mashonaland, Miombo, Mopane, Morgan Tsvangirai, Mount Nyangani, Mozambique, MRAP, Multiracialism, Mutare, Namibia, Nanjing, National Party (South Africa), National service, Ndabaningi Sithole, New South Wales, New Zealand, No independence before majority rule, No-go area, Non-interventionism, Northern Ndebele language, Northern Ndebele people, Northern Rhodesia, Nyasaland, Operation Dingo, Organization of American States, Oxford University Press, P. K. van der Byl, Pahlavi dynasty, Pan-Africanism, Parathion, Paris, Parliamentary republic, Pioneer Column, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, Political apathy, Political violence, Portugal, Portuguese Mozambique, President of Rhodesia, Pretoria, Prime Minister of Rhodesia, Public opinion, Quadripoint, Racial discrimination, Reading Eagle, Record-Journal, Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe, Responsible government, Rhodesia (region), Rhodesia Labour Party, Rhodesia's Unilateral Declaration of Independence, Rhodesian African Rifles, Rhodesian Air Force, Rhodesian Bush War, Rhodesian constitutional referendum, 1969, Rhodesian dollar, Rhodesian Front, Rhodesian mission in Lisbon, Rhodesian pound, Rhodesian Security Forces, Rhodie, Ricin, Rise, O Voices of Rhodesia, Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 6th Marquess of Salisbury, Robert Mugabe, Ronald Reid-Daly, Royal charter, Royal Navy, Sarasota Herald-Tribune, Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, Self-determination, Self-governing colony, Self-sustainability, Selous Scouts, Semi-presidential system, Senate, Senate of Zimbabwe, Senegalia nigrescens, Shona language, Shona people, SKS, South Africa, South African Republic, Southern Africa, Southern Rhodesia, Southern Rhodesian independence referendum, 1964, Southern Rhodesian Legislative Assembly, Southern Rhodesian Legislative Council, Soviet Union, Spider lily, Springer Publishing, Steel, Strangler fig, Succession of states, Sun Journal (Lewiston, Maine), Surface-to-air missile, Switzerland, Sydney, Teak, Thallium, The Age, The Chronicle (Zimbabwe), The Guardian, The Herald (Glasgow), The Herald (Zimbabwe), The London Gazette, The New York Times, The Rand Daily Mail, The Washington Post, Tobacco, Tokyo, Transmission tower, Transvaal (province), Treason, Tropical climate, Typhoid fever, Typhus, Union of South Africa, United African National Council, United Kingdom, United Methodist Church, United Nations General Assembly, United Nations Security Council, United Nations Security Council Resolution 216, United States, United States Senate, Universal suffrage, Việt Minh, Vickers Viscount, Victoria Falls, Victoria Falls Conference (1975), Vietnam War, Washington, D.C., West Germany, White people in Zimbabwe, Willie Hamilton, Winston Field, Wisteria, Zambezi, Zambia, ZANU–PF, Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army, Zimbabwe African National Union, Zimbabwe African People's Union, Zimbabwe Broadcasting Corporation, Zimbabwe Government of National Unity of 2009, Zimbabwe People's Revolutionary Army, Zimbabwe Rhodesia, 15th parallel south, 19th century, 23rd parallel south, 25th meridian east, 34th meridian east. 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Bishop Abel Tendekayi Muzorewa (14 April 1925 – 8 April 2010) served as Prime Minister of Zimbabwe Rhodesia from the Internal Settlement to the Lancaster House Agreement in 1979.
An acting president is a person who temporarily fills the role of a country's president when the incumbent president is unavailable (such as by illness or a vacation) or when the post is vacant (such as for death, injury, resignation, dismissal).
Adansonia is a genus of deciduous trees known as baobabs.
The Aden Emergency, also known as the Radfan Uprising, was an insurgency against the British Crown forces in the British controlled territories of South Arabia which now form part of Yemen.
An Administrator (Administrator of the Government, Officer Administering the Government) in the constitutional practice of some countries in the Commonwealth is a person who fulfils a role similar to that of a Governor or a Governor-General.
African nationalism is an umbrella term which refers to a group of political ideologies, mainly within Sub-Saharan Africa, which are based on the idea of national self-determination and the creation of nation states.
Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent, Botswana and Zimbabwe.
Afrikaners are a Southern African ethnic group descended from predominantly Dutch settlers first arriving in the 17th and 18th centuries.
Air Rhodesia Flight 825 was a scheduled passenger flight that was shot down by the Zimbabwe People's Revolutionary Army (ZIPRA) on 3 September 1978, during the Rhodesian Bush War.
Air Rhodesia Flight 827, the Umniati, was a scheduled flight between Kariba and Salisbury that was shot down on 12 February 1979 by Zimbabwe People's Revolutionary Army (ZIPRA) guerrillas using a Strela 2 missile soon after take-off.
Alexander Frederick Douglas-Home, Baron Home of the Hirsel, (2 July 1903 – 9 October 1995) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from October 1963 to October 1964.
The Annexation of Goa was the process in which the Republic of India annexed the former Portuguese Indian territories of Goa, Daman and Diu, starting with the "armed action" carried out by the Indian Armed Forces in December 1961.
António de Oliveira Salazar (28 April 1889 – 27 July 1970) was a Portuguese statesman who served as Prime Minister of Portugal from 1932 to 1968.
Anthrax is an infection caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis.
An appellate court, commonly called an appeals court, court of appeals (American English), appeal court (British English), court of second instance or second instance court, is any court of law that is empowered to hear an appeal of a trial court or other lower tribunal.
The Attack on Altena Farm occurred in the early hours of 21 December 1972, during the third phase of the Rhodesian Bush War.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The Australian Labor Party (ALP, also Labor, was Labour before 1912) is a political party in Australia.
A ban is a formal or informal prohibition of something.
The Battle of Dien Bien Phu (Bataille de Diên Biên Phu; Chiến dịch Điện Biên Phủ) was the climactic confrontation of the First Indochina War between the French Union's French Far East Expeditionary Corps and Viet Minh communist-nationalist revolutionaries.
The Bechuanaland Protectorate was a protectorate established on 31 March 1885, by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in southern Africa.
The Beira Patrol was a blockade of oil shipments to Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) through Beira, Mozambique, resulting from United Nations trade sanctions on Rhodesia.
Beira is the third largest city in Mozambique.
Beitbridge is a border town in the province of Matabeleland South, Zimbabwe.
A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.
The Federal City of Bonn is a city on the banks of the Rhine in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, with a population of over 300,000.
Botswana, officially the Republic of Botswana (Lefatshe la Botswana), is a landlocked country located in Southern Africa.
Botulinum toxin (BTX) or Botox is a neurotoxic protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species.
Brachystegia is a genus of tree of the sub-family Caesalpinioideae that is native to tropical Africa.
The breadbasket of a country is a region which, because of richness of soil and/or advantageous climate, produces large quantities of wheat or other grain.
The British South Africa Company (BSAC or BSACo) was established following the amalgamation of Cecil Rhodes' Central Search Association and the London-based Exploring Company Ltd which had originally competed to exploit the expected mineral wealth of Mashonaland but united because of common economic interests and to secure British government backing.
The British South Africa Police (BSAP) was, for most of its existence, the police force of Rhodesia (renamed Zimbabwe in 1980).
Bulawayo is the second-largest city in Zimbabwe after the capital Harare, with, as of the ever disputed 2012 census, a population of 653,337 while Bulawayo Municipal records indicate a population of 1,200,750.
The Byrd Amendment—named for its author, Senator Harry F. Byrd, Jr. of Virginia—was a 1971 amendment to the U.S. Federal Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act.
This list includes cabinet ministers from 11 November 1965, when Rhodesia declared independence, to 1979.
Canberra is the capital city of Australia.
Cape Town (Kaapstad,; Xhosa: iKapa) is a coastal city in South Africa.
Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.
The Carnation Revolution (Revolução dos Cravos), also referred to as the 25th of April (vinte e cinco de Abril), was initially a military coup in Lisbon, Portugal, on 25 April 1974 which overthrew the authoritarian regime of the Estado Novo.
Cassia is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae, and the subfamily Caesalpinioideae.
Cecil John Rhodes PC (5 July 1853 – 26 March 1902) was a British businessman, mining magnate and politician in southern Africa who served as Prime Minister of the Cape Colony from 1890 to 1896.
Celtis africana, the white stinkwood, is a deciduous tree in the family Cannabaceae.
The Central Intelligence Organisation (CIO) is the national intelligence agency or "secret police" of Zimbabwe.
A certificate of origin (often abbreviated to C/O or CoO) is a document used in international trade.
Chinhoyi, known until 1982 as Sinoia, is a town in Zimbabwe.
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Arthur Christopher John Soames, Baron Soames, (12 October 1920 – 16 September 1987) was a British politician, a member of the Conservative Party and son-in-law of Winston Churchill.
Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.
Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals.
Clifford Walter Dupont, GCLM, ID (6 December 1905 – 28 June 1978) was a Rhodesian politician who served in the internationally unrecognised positions of Officer Administrating the Government (from 1965 until 1970) and President (from 1970 to 1975).
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Coloureds (Kleurlinge) are a multiracial ethnic group native to Southern Africa who have ancestry from various populations inhabiting the region, including Khoisan, Bantu speakers, Afrikaners, and sometimes also Austronesians and South Asians.
Combretum, the bushwillows or combretums, make up the type genus of the family Combretaceae.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
A Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state that is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations and shares the same person, currently Queen Elizabeth II, as its head of state and reigning constitutional monarch, but retains a Crown legally distinct from the other realms.
The British South Africa Company's administration of what became Rhodesia was chartered in 1889 by Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, and began with the Pioneer Column's march north-east to Mashonaland in 1890.
Consensus decision-making is a group decision-making process in which group members develop, and agree to support a decision in the best interest of the whole.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
A consul is an official representative of the government of one state in the territory of another, normally acting to assist and protect the citizens of the consul's own country, and to facilitate trade and friendship between the people of the two countries.
A counter-insurgency or counterinsurgency (COIN) can be defined as "comprehensive civilian and military efforts taken to simultaneously defeat and contain insurgency and address its root causes".
Crown colony, dependent territory and royal colony are terms used to describe the administration of United Kingdom overseas territories that are controlled by the British Government.
Détente (meaning "relaxation") is the easing of strained relations, especially in a political situation.
A de facto embassy is an office or organisation that serves de facto as an embassy in the absence of normal or official diplomatic relations among countries, usually to represent nations which lack full diplomatic recognition, regions or dependencies of countries, or territories over which sovereignty is disputed.
The de Havilland Vampire is a British jet fighter developed and manufactured by the de Havilland Aircraft Company.
The word decadence, which at first meant simply "decline" in an abstract sense, is now most often used to refer to a perceived decay in standards, morals, dignity, religious faith, or skill at governing among the members of the elite of a very large social structure, such as an empire or nation state.
The decolonisation of Africa took place in the mid-to-late 1950s, very suddenly, with little preparation.
Decolonization (American English) or decolonisation (British English) is the undoing of colonialism: where a nation establishes and maintains its domination over one or more other territories.
Diplomatic recognition in international law is a unilateral political act with domestic and international legal consequences, whereby a state acknowledges an act or status of another state or government in control of a state (may be also a recognized state).
Diversification is a corporate strategy to enter into a new market or industry in which the business doesn't currently operate, while also creating a new product for that new market.
Dombeya is a flowering plant genus.
A dominant minority is a minority group that has overwhelming political, economic, or cultural dominance in a country, despite representing a small fraction of the overall population (a demographic minority).
Dominions were semi-independent polities under the British Crown, constituting the British Empire, beginning with Canadian Confederation in 1867.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
Economic sanctions are commercial and financial penalties applied by one or more countries against a targeted country, group, or individual.
Sir Edward Richard George Heath (9 July 1916 – 17 July 2005), often known as Ted Heath, was a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1970 to 1974 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1965 to 1975.
Edward Holroyd Pearce, Baron Pearce, (9 February 1901 – 26 November 1990) was a British judge.
Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.
The British Embassy Washington (commonly known in the United States as the Embassy of the United Kingdom, Washington, D.C.) is the British sovereign's diplomatic mission to the United States of America, representing the United Kingdom and the United Kingdom's interests.
The Embassy of Zimbabwe in London is the diplomatic mission of Zimbabwe in the United Kingdom.
The English Electric Canberra is a British first-generation jet-powered medium bomber that was manufactured during the 1950s.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The Indigenous peoples of Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the nations of Europe.
The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.
The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, also known as the Central African Federation (CAF), was a semi-independent federation of three southern African territories – the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia and the British protectorates of Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland – between 1953 and 1963.
The flag of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) changed many times as a result of political changes in the country.
The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO), commonly called the Foreign Office, is a department of the Government of the United Kingdom.
The term Free World is a politically-charged propaganda term that was used during the Cold War to refer to the Western Bloc.
The Mozambique Liberation Front (FRELIMO), from the Portuguese Frente de Libertação de Moçambique is the dominant political party in Mozambique.
Sir Reginald Stephen Garfield Todd (13 July 1908 – 13 October 2002) was a liberal Prime Minister of Southern Rhodesia from 1953 to 1958 and later became an opponent of white minority rule in Rhodesia.
Gloriosa is a genus of 12 species in the plant family Colchicaceae, and include the formerly recognised genus Littonia.
"God Save the Queen" (alternatively "God Save the King", depending on the gender of the reigning monarch) is the national or royal anthem in a number of Commonwealth realms, their territories, and the British Crown dependencies.
Edward Gough Whitlam (11 July 191621 October 2014) was the 21st Prime Minister of Australia, serving from 1972 to 1975.
The Government of the French Republic (Gouvernement de la République française) exercises executive power in France.
Hansard is the traditional name of the transcripts of Parliamentary Debates in Britain and many Commonwealth countries.
Harare (officially named Salisbury until 1982) is the capital and most populous city of Zimbabwe.
James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, (11 March 1916 – 24 May 1995) was a British Labour politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1964 to 1970 and from 1974 to 1976.
The Hawker Hunter is a transonic British jet-powered fighter aircraft that was developed by Hawker Aircraft for the Royal Air Force (RAF) during the late 1940s and early 1950s.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
Lieutenant-Colonel Henry Breedon Everard GCLM ICD DSO TD (21 February 1897 – 7 August 1980) was a railway engineer and executive who briefly became the Acting President of Rhodesia during the U.D.I. period.
Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger, May 27, 1923) is an American statesman, political scientist, diplomat and geopolitical consultant who served as the United States Secretary of State and National Security Advisor under the presidential administrations of Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford.
Hibiscus is a genus of flowering plants in the mallow family, Malvaceae.
The High Court of Australia is the supreme court in the Australian court hierarchy and the final court of appeal in Australia.
House of Assembly is a name given to the legislature or lower house of a bicameral parliament.
The House of Assembly of Zimbabwe is the lower chamber of Zimbabwe's bicameral Parliament.
Sir Thomas Hugh William Beadle (6 February 1905 – 14 December 1980) was a Rhodesian lawyer, politician and judge who served as his country's Chief Justice from 1961 to 1977.
Hugo Grotius (10 April 1583 – 28 August 1645), also known as Huig de Groot or Hugo de Groot, was a Dutch jurist.
Sir Humphrey Vicary Gibbs, (22 November 19025 November 1990) was the penultimate Governor of the colony of Southern Rhodesia (1959–1970) who served through, and opposed, the Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) in 1965.
Ian Douglas Smith (8 April 1919 – 20 November 2007) was a politician, farmer and fighter pilot who served as Prime Minister of Rhodesia (or Southern Rhodesia; today Zimbabwe) from 1964 to 1979.
Illustrated Life Rhodesia was a fortnightly picture magazine published in Salisbury, Rhodesia, by the Graham Publishing Company, from at least 1968 to at least 1978.
Incendiary weapons, incendiary devices or incendiary bombs are weapons designed to start fires or destroy sensitive equipment using fire (and sometimes used as anti-personnel weaponry), that use materials such as napalm, thermite, magnesium powder, chlorine trifluoride, or white phosphorus.
The Internal Settlement was an agreement which was signed on 3 March 1978 between Prime Minister of Rhodesia Ian Smith and the moderate African nationalist leaders comprising Bishop Abel Muzorewa, Ndabaningi Sithole and Senator Chief Jeremiah Chirau.
International asset recovery is any effort by governments to repatriate the proceeds of corruption hidden in foreign jurisdictions.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
International sanctions are political and economic decisions that are part of diplomatic efforts by countries, multilateral or regional organizations against states or organizations either to protect national security interests, or to protect international law, and defend against threats to international peace and security.
Internment is the imprisonment of people, commonly in large groups, without charges or intent to file charges, and thus no trial.
Interventionism is a policy of non-defensive (proactive) activity undertaken by a nation-state, or other geo-political jurisdiction of a lesser or greater nature, to manipulate an economy and/or society.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Johannesburg (also known as Jozi, Joburg and Egoli) is the largest city in South Africa and is one of the 50 largest urban areas in the world.
Balthazar Johannes "B.
Joshua Mqabuko Nyongolo Nkomo (19 June 1917Jessup, John E. An Encyclopedic Dictionary of Conflict and Conflict Resolution, 1945–1996. p. 533. – 1 July 1999) was a Zimbabwean politician who served as Vice President of Zimbabwe from 1987 to 1999.
Kariba is a town in Mashonaland West province, Zimbabwe, located close to the Kariba Dam at the north-western end of Lake Kariba, near the Zambian border.
Kenneth David Buchizya Kaunda (born 28 April 1924), also known as KK, is a Zambian former politician who served as the first President of Zambia from 1964 to 1991.
The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.
Lancaster House (previously known as York House and Stafford House) is a mansion in the St James's district in the West End of London.
The Lancaster House Agreement, signed on the 21st December 1979, allowed for the creation and recognition of the Republic of Zimbabwe, replacing the unrecognised state of Rhodesia created by Ian Smith's Unilateral Declaration of Independence in 1965.
Land reform in Zimbabwe officially began in 1980 with the signing of the Lancaster House Agreement, as an effort to more equitably distribute land between black subsistence farmers and white Zimbabweans of European ancestry, who had traditionally enjoyed superior political and economic status.
A landlocked state or landlocked country is a sovereign state entirely enclosed by land, or whose only coastlines lie on closed seas.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Leonotis is a genus of flowering plants in the family Lamiaceae.
Lisbon (Lisboa) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 552,700, Census 2011 results according to the 2013 administrative division of Portugal within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2.
These lists of historical unrecognized or partially recognized states or governments give an overview of extinct geopolitical entities that wished to be recognized as sovereign states, but did not enjoy worldwide diplomatic recognition.
The London School of Economics (officially The London School of Economics and Political Science, often referred to as LSE) is a public research university located in London, England and a constituent college of the federal University of London.
Lonrho is a London-based conglomerate that is engaged in multiple business sectors in Africa mainly agribusiness, infrastructure, transport, hospitality and support services.
Lord Richard Valentine Gascoyne-Cecil (26 January 1948 – 20 April 1978) was a British soldier, Conservative politician and freelance journalist who was killed in Rhodesia whilst covering the country's Bush War.
Lusaka is the capital and largest city of Zambia.
Mahogany is a kind of wood—the straight-grained, reddish-brown timber of three tropical hardwood species of the genus Swietenia, indigenous to the AmericasBridgewater, Samuel (2012).
Majority rule is a decision rule that selects alternatives which have a majority, that is, more than half the votes.
Malawi (or; or maláwi), officially the Republic of Malawi, is a landlocked country in southeast Africa that was formerly known as Nyasaland.
The Malayan Emergency (Darurat Malaya) was a guerrilla war fought in pre- and post-independence Federation of Malaya, from 1948 until 1960.
Maputo (formerly named Lourenço Marques until 1976) is the capital and most populous city of Mozambique.
Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, (13 October 19258 April 2013) was a British stateswoman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990.
Mashonaland is a region in northern Zimbabwe.
Miombo is the vernacular word for Brachystegia, a genus of tree comprising a large number of tree species together with Julbernadia species in woodlands.
Colophospermum mopane, commonly called mopane, mophane, mopani, balsam tree, butterfly tree, or turpentine tree, is a tree in the legume family (Fabaceae), that grows in hot, dry, low-lying areas, in elevation, in the far northern parts of southern Africa.
Morgan Richard Tsvangirai (10 March 1952 – 14 February 2018) was a Zimbabwean politician who was Prime Minister of Zimbabwe from 2009 to 2013.
Mount Nyangani (formerly Mount Inyangani) is the highest mountain in Zimbabwe at 2,592 m (8,504 ft).
Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique) is a country in Southeast Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and Swaziland and South Africa to the southwest.
Mine-Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) is a term for United States military vehicles produced as part of the MRAP program that are designed specifically to withstand improvised explosive device (IED) attacks and ambushes.
Multiracialism is an ideology used by people who want to acknowledge that most societies are composed of people from more than one races or different cultural background, a diverse mix of people with differences in ethnicity, language, culture, religion, or traditions, but are seeking to avoid supporting the policies and ideology associated with Multiculturalism.
Mutare (known as Umtali until 1983) is the fourth largest city in Zimbabwe, with an urban population of approximately 188,243 and rural population of approximately 260,567.
Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia (German:; Republiek van Namibië), is a country in southern Africa whose western border is the Atlantic Ocean.
Nanjing, formerly romanized as Nanking and Nankin, is the capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China and the second largest city in the East China region, with an administrative area of and a total population of 8,270,500.
The National Party (Nasionale Party), also known as the Nationalist Party, was a political party in South Africa founded in 1914 and disbanded in 1997.
National service is a system of either compulsory or voluntary government service, usually military service.
Ndabaningi Sithole (31 July 1920 – 12 December 2000) founded the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU), a militant organisation that opposed the government of Rhodesia, in July 1963.
New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state on the east coast of:Australia.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
No independence before majority rule (abbreviated NIBMAR) was a policy adopted by the United Kingdom requiring the implementation of majority rule in a colony, rather than rule by the white colonial minority, before the empire granted its colony independence.
A "no-go area" (or "no-go zone") is an area in a town barricaded off to civil authorities by a force such as a paramilitary, or an area barred to certain individuals or groups.
Non-interventionism or non-intervention is a foreign policy that holds that political rulers should avoid alliances with other nations but still retain diplomacy and avoid all wars unless related to direct self-defense.
Northern Ndebele, also called Sindebele, Zimbabwean Ndebele or North Ndebele, and formerly known as Matabele, is an African language belonging to the Nguni group of Bantu languages, spoken by the Northern Ndebele people, or Matabele, of Zimbabwe.
The Northern Ndebele people (amaNdebele) are a Bantu nation and ethnic group in Southern Africa, who share a common Ndebele culture and Ndebele language.
Northern Rhodesia was a protectorate in south central Africa, formed in 1911 by amalgamating the two earlier protectorates of Barotziland-North-Western Rhodesia and North-Eastern Rhodesia.
Nyasaland, or the Nyasaland Protectorate, was a British Protectorate located in Africa, which was established in 1907 when the former British Central Africa Protectorate changed its name.
Operation Dingo, also known as the Raid on Chimoio and Tembué, was a major raid conducted by the Rhodesian Security Forces against the Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army (ZANLA) headquarters of Robert Mugabe at Chimoio and a smaller camp at Tembue in Mozambique from 23–25 November 1977.
The Organization of American States (Organización de los Estados Americanos, Organização dos Estados Americanos, Organisation des États américains), or the OAS or OEA, is a continental organization that was founded on 30 April 1948, for the purposes of regional solidarity and cooperation among its member states.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pieter Kenyon Fleming-Voltelyn van der Byl, GLM ID (11 November 1923 – 15 November 1999) was a Rhodesian politician who served as his country's Foreign Minister from 1974 to 1979 as a member of the Rhodesian Front (RF).
The Pahlavi dynasty (دودمان پهلوی) was the ruling house of the imperial state of Iran from 1925 until 1979, when the 2,500 years of continuous Persian monarchy was overthrown and abolished as a result of the Iranian Revolution.
Pan-Africanism is a worldwide intellectual movement that aims to encourage and strengthen bonds of solidarity between all people of African descent.
Parathion, also called parathion-ethyl or diethyl parathion and locally known as "Folidol", is an organophosphate insecticide and acaricide.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament).
The Pioneer Column was a force raised by Cecil Rhodes and his British South Africa Company in 1890 and used in his efforts to annexe the territory of Mashonaland, later part of Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe).
The Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, also known simply as the "PG", is the largest daily newspaper serving metropolitan Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States.
Political apathy is a feeling of disinterest in the sense of politics or apathy towards politics.
Political violence is a broad term used to describe violence perpetrated by either persons or governments to achieve political goals.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
Portuguese Mozambique (Moçambique) or Portuguese East Africa (África Oriental Portuguesa) are the common terms by which Mozambique is designated when referring to the historic period when it was a Portuguese overseas territory.
The position of President of Rhodesia was the head of state of Rhodesia from 1970 to 1979.
Pretoria is a city in the northern part of Gauteng, South Africa.
The Prime Minister of Rhodesia (before 1964, of Southern Rhodesia) was the head of government in Rhodesia.
Public opinion consists of the desires, wants, and thinking of the majority of the people; it is the collective opinion of the people of a society or state on an issue or problem.
A quadripoint is a point on the Earth that touches the border of four distinct territories.
Racial discrimination refers to discrimination against individuals on the basis of their race.
The Reading Eagle is the major daily newspaper in Reading, Pennsylvania, in the United States.
The Record-Journal is an American daily newspaper based in Meriden, Connecticut, that dates back to the years immediately following the American Civil War.
The Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe is the central bank of Zimbabwe.
Responsible government is a conception of a system of government that embodies the principle of parliamentary accountability, the foundation of the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy.
Rhodesia is a historical region in southern Africa whose formal boundaries evolved between the 1890s and 1980.
The Rhodesia Labour Party was a political party which existed in Southern Rhodesia from 1923 until the 1950s.
The Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) was a statement adopted by the Cabinet of Rhodesia on 11 November 1965, announcing that Rhodesia, a British territory in southern Africa that had governed itself since 1923, now regarded itself as an independent sovereign state.
The Rhodesian African Rifles (RAR) were a regiment of the Rhodesian Army.
The Rhodesian Air Force (RhAF) was an air force based in Salisbury (now Harare) which represented several entities under various names between 1935 and 1980: originally serving the British self-governing colony of Southern Rhodesia, it was the air arm of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland between 1953 and 31 December 1963; of Southern Rhodesia once again from 1 January 1964; and of the unrecognised nation of Rhodesia following its Unilateral Declaration of Independence from Britain on 11 November 1965.
The Rhodesian Bush War—also known as the Second Chimurenga or the Zimbabwe War of Liberation—was a civil war that took place from July 1964 to December 1979 in the unrecognised country of Rhodesia (later Zimbabwe-Rhodesia).
A double referendum was held in Rhodesia on 20 June 1969, in which voters were asked whether they were in favour of or against a) the adoption of a republican form of government and b) the proposals for a new Constitution, as set out in a White Paper and published in a Gazette Extraordinary on 21 May 1969. Both proposals were approved. The country was subsequently declared a republic on 2 March 1970.
The dollar (R$) was the currency of Rhodesia between 1970 and 1980.
The Rhodesian Front was a conservative political party in Rhodesia (or Southern Rhodesia) when the country was under white minority rule.
The Rhodesian mission in Lisbon (Missão da Rodésia em Lisboa), the capital of Portugal, operated from September 1965 to May 1975.
The pound was the currency of Southern Rhodesia from 1964 to 1965 and Rhodesia from 1965 until 1970.
The Rhodesian Security Forces were the military forces of the Rhodesian government.
Rhodie is a colloquial term typically applied to a white Zimbabwean or expatriate Rhodesian.
Ricin, a lectin (a carbohydrate-binding protein) produced in the seeds of the castor oil plant, Ricinus communis, is a highly potent toxin.
"Rise, O Voices of Rhodesia" (or "Voices of Rhodesia") was the national anthem of the unrecognised state of Rhodesia and Zimbabwe Rhodesia (renamed Zimbabwe in 1980) between 1974 and 1979.
Robert Edward Peter Gascoyne-Cecil, 6th Marquess of Salisbury, DL (24 October 1916 – 11 July 2003), styled Viscount Cranborne from 1947 to 1972, was a British landowner and Conservative politician.
Robert Gabriel Mugabe (born 21 February 1924) is a former Zimbabwean politician and revolutionary who served as Prime Minister of Zimbabwe from 1980 to 1987 and then as President from 1987 to 2017.
Lieutenant Colonel Ronald "Ron" Francis Reid-Daly (September 22, 1928 – August 9, 2010) founded and commanded the elite Selous Scouts special forces unit that fought during the Rhodesian Bush War.
A royal charter is a formal document issued by a monarch as letters patent, granting a right or power to an individual or a body corporate.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
The Sarasota Herald-Tribune is a daily newspaper located in Sarasota, Florida, founded in 1925 as the Sarasota Herald.
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, normally referred to as the Foreign Secretary, is a senior, high-ranking official within the Government of the United Kingdom and head of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office.
The right of people to self-determination is a cardinal principle in modern international law (commonly regarded as a jus cogens rule), binding, as such, on the United Nations as authoritative interpretation of the Charter's norms.
In the British Empire, a self-governing colony was a colony with an elected government in which elected rulers were able to make most decisions without referring to the colonial power with nominal control of the colony.
Self-sustainability (also called self-sufficiency) is the state of not requiring any aid, support, or interaction for survival; it is a type of personal or collective autonomy.
The Selous Scouts was a special forces regiment of the Rhodesian Army that operated from 1973 until the reconstitution of the country as Zimbabwe in 1980.
A semi-presidential system or dual executive system is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter two being responsible for the legislature of a state.
A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or chamber of a bicameral legislature or parliament.
The Senate of Zimbabwe is the upper chamber of the country's bicameral Parliament.
The Knobthorn (Senegalia nigrescens) is a deciduous African tree, growing up to 18 m tall, that is found in savanna regions from West Africa to South Africa.
Shona (chiShona) is the most widely spoken Bantu language as a first language and is native to the Shona people of Zimbabwe.
The Shona are a group of Bantu ethnic group native to Zimbabwe and neighbouring countries.
The SKS is a Soviet semi-automatic carbine chambered for the 7.62×39mm round, designed in 1943 by Sergei Gavrilovich Simonov.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
The South African Republic (Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek, ZAR), often referred to as the Transvaal and sometimes as the Republic of Transvaal, was an independent and internationally recognised country in Southern Africa from 1852 to 1902.
Southern Africa is the southernmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics, and including several countries.
The Colony of Southern Rhodesia was a self-governing British Crown colony in southern Africa from 1923 to 1980, the predecessor state of modern Zimbabwe.
A referendum on independence was held in Southern Rhodesia on 5 November 1964.
The Southern Rhodesian Legislative Assembly was the legislature of Southern Rhodesia from 1924 to 1970.
The Southern Rhodesian Legislative Council was the inaugural governing body for the British South Africa Company (BSAC) territory of Southern Rhodesia (today Zimbabwe) before its replacement by the Southern Rhodesian Legislative Assembly in 1923, when the country achieved responsible government, and duly became a self-governing colony within the British Empire.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spider lily is the common name for a number of different plant species within the family Amaryllidaceae which belong to the following genera.
Springer Publishing is an American publishing company of academic journals and books, focusing on the fields of nursing, gerontology, psychology, social work, counseling, public health, and rehabilitation (neuropsychology).
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
Strangler fig is the common name for a number of tropical and subtropical plant species, including some banyans and unrelated vines, including among many other species.
Succession of states is a theory and practice in international relations regarding successor states.
The Sun Journal is a newspaper published in Lewiston, Maine, US, and covers the west of Maine.
A surface-to-air missile (SAM, pronunced), or ground-to-air missile (GTAM, pronounced), is a missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy aircraft or other missiles.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania.
Teak (Tectona grandis) is a tropical hardwood tree species placed in the flowering plant family Lamiaceae.
Thallium is a chemical element with symbol Tl and atomic number 81.
The Age is a daily newspaper that has been published in Melbourne, Australia, since 1854.
The Chronicle is a popular daily newspaper in Zimbabwe.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Herald is a Scottish broadsheet newspaper founded in 1783.
The Herald is a state-owned daily newspaper published in Harare, the capital of Zimbabwe.
The London Gazette is one of the official journals of record of the British government, and the most important among such official journals in the United Kingdom, in which certain statutory notices are required to be published.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Rand Daily Mail was a South African newspaper published from 1902 until it was controversially closed in 1985 after adopting an outspoken anti-apartheid stance in the midst of a massive clampdown on activists by the security forces.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.
, officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and has been the capital since 1869.
A transmission tower or power tower (electricity pylon in the United Kingdom, Canada and parts of Europe) is a tall structure, usually a steel lattice tower, used to support an overhead power line.
The Province of the Transvaal (Provinsie van die Transvaal), commonly referred to as the Transvaal, was a province of South Africa from 1910 until the end of apartheid in 1994, when a new constitution subdivided it.
In law, treason is the crime that covers some of the more extreme acts against one's nation or sovereign.
A tropical climate in the Köppen climate classification is a non-arid climate in which all twelve months have mean temperatures of at least.
Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to ''Salmonella'' typhi that causes symptoms.
Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases that include epidemic typhus, scrub typhus and murine typhus.
The Union of South Africa (Unie van Zuid-Afrika, Unie van Suid-Afrika) is the historic predecessor to the present-day Republic of South Africa.
The United African National Council (UANC) was a political party in Zimbabwe.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Methodist Church (UMC) is a mainline Protestant denomination and a major part of Methodism.
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 216 was adopted by the United Nations Security Council on 12 November 1965, the day after the British Dependency of Southern Rhodesia's Unilateral Declaration of Independence from the British Empire as the state of Rhodesia.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprise the legislature of the United States.
The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all adult citizens, regardless of property ownership, income, race, or ethnicity, subject only to minor exceptions.
Việt Minh (abbreviated from Việt Nam độc lập đồng minh, French: "Ligue pour l'indépendance du Viêt Nam", English: “League for the Independence of Vietnam") was a national independence coalition formed at Pác Bó by Hồ Chí Minh on May 19, 1941.
The Vickers Viscount was a British medium-range turboprop airliner first flown in 1948 by Vickers-Armstrongs.
Victoria Falls (Tokaleya Tonga: Mosi-oa-Tunya, "The Smoke that Thunders") is a waterfall in southern Africa on the Zambezi River at the border between Zambia and Zimbabwe.
The Victoria Falls Conference took place on the 26th August 1975 aboard a South African Railways train halfway across the Victoria Falls Bridge on the border between the unrecognised state of Rhodesia (today Zimbabwe) and Zambia.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.
White Zimbabweans (historically referred to as white Rhodesians or simply Rhodesians) are people from the southern African country Zimbabwe who are white.
William Winter Hamilton (26 June 1917 – 26 January 2000) was a British politician who served as a Labour Member of Parliament for constituencies in Fife, Scotland between 1950 and 1987.
Winston Joseph Field CMG, MBE (June 6, 1904– March 17, 1969) was a Rhodesian politician.
Wisteria is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae), that includes ten species of woody climbing vines that are native to China, Korea, and Japan and as an introduced species to the Eastern United States.
The Zambezi (also spelled Zambeze and Zambesi) is the fourth-longest river in Africa, the longest east-flowing river in Africa and the largest flowing into the Indian Ocean from Africa.
Zambia, officially the Republic of Zambia, is a landlocked country in south-central Africa, (although some sources prefer to consider it part of the region of east Africa) neighbouring the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the north-east, Malawi to the east, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia to the south, and Angola to the west.
The Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front (ZANU–PF) has been the ruling party in Zimbabwe since independence in 1980.
Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of roughly million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980. Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then government and from which it withdrew from in December 2003. It is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule; he was the President of Zimbabwe from 1987 until his resignation in 2017. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, who was burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator". The country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état. On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed.
Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army (ZANLA) was the military wing of the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU), a militant African nationalist organisation that participated in the Rhodesian Bush War against white minority rule of Rhodesia (modern Zimbabwe).
The Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU) was a militant organisation that fought against white minority rule in Rhodesia, formed as a split from the Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU).
The Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU) is a Zimbabwean political party.
The Zimbabwe Broadcasting Corporation (ZBC) is the state-controlled broadcaster in Zimbabwe.
The Government of National Unity refers to Zimbabwe's coalition government that was formed on 13 February 2009 following the inaugurations of Morgan Tsvangirai as Prime Minister and Thokozani Khuphe and Arthur Mutambara as Deputy Prime Ministers.
Zimbabwe People's Revolutionary Army (ZIPRA) was the armed wing of the Zimbabwe African People's Union, a Marxist–Leninist political party in Rhodesia.
Zimbabwe Rhodesia was an unrecognised state that existed from 1 June 1979 to 12 December 1979.
The 15th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 15 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 19th century was a century that began on January 1, 1801, and ended on December 31, 1900.
The 23rd parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 23 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane, about 50 km north of the Tropic of Capricorn.
The meridian 25° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The meridian 34° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Turkey, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.