61 relations: Amino acid, Apoptosis, Archaerhodopsin, Arrestin, Bacteriorhodopsin, Beta-Carotene, Biological pigment, Channelrhodopsin, Chromophore, Cofactor (biochemistry), Color vision, Cone cell, Covalent bond, Cryogenics, Cryptochrome, Cyclic guanosine monophosphate, Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase, Femtosecond, Franz Christian Boll, G protein, G protein–coupled receptor, George Wald, Guanosine monophosphate, Guanylate cyclase, Halorhodopsin, Infrared spectroscopy, Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells, Ion channel, Isomerization, Kinase, Light, Lipid bilayer, Lysine, Melanopsin, Opsin, Photobleaching, Photopsin, Phototroph, Picosecond, Prokaryote, Protein, Proteorhodopsin, Proton pump, Receptor (biochemistry), Retina, Retinal, Retinitis pigmentosa, Rod cell, Schiff base, Second messenger system, ..., Sequence homology, Structural Classification of Proteins database, Transducin, Transmembrane domain, Ubiquitin, Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, Visual phototransduction, Vitamin A, Wavelength, X-linked congenital stationary night blindness, X-ray crystallography. Expand index (11 more) » « Shrink index
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
Archaerhodopsin (alternatively known as bacterio-opsin) is a family of receptor proteins that respond to light, found in Archaea.
Arrestins (abbreviated Arr) are a small family of proteins important for regulating signal transduction at G protein-coupled receptors.
Bacteriorhodopsin is a protein used by Archaea, most notably by Halobacteria, a class of the Euryarchaeota.
β-Carotene is an organic, strongly colored red-orange pigment abundant in plants and fruits.
Biological pigments, also known simply as pigments or biochromes, are substances produced by living organisms that have a color resulting from selective color absorption.
Channelrhodopsins are a subfamily of retinylidene proteins (rhodopsins) that function as light-gated ion channels.
A chromophore is the part of a molecule responsible for its color.
A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity.
Color vision is the ability of an organism or machine to distinguish objects based on the wavelengths (or frequencies) of the light they reflect, emit, or transmit.
Cone cells, or cones, are one of three types of photoreceptor cells in the retina of mammalian eyes (e.g. the human eye).
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
In physics, cryogenics is the production and behaviour of materials at very low temperatures.
Cryptochromes (from the Greek κρυπτός χρώμα, "hidden colour") are a class of flavoproteins that are sensitive to blue light.
Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a cyclic nucleotide derived from guanosine triphosphate (GTP).
3'5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases are a family of phosphodiesterases.
A femtosecond is the SI unit of time equal to 10−15 or 1/1,000,000,000,000,000 of a second; that is, one quadrillionth, or one millionth of one billionth, of a second.
Franz Boll (February 26, 1849, Neubrandenburg – December 19, 1879, Rome) was a German physiologist and histologist.
G proteins, also known as guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside cells, and are involved in transmitting signals from a variety of stimuli outside a cell to its interior.
G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.
George David Wald (November 18, 1906 – April 12, 1997) was an American scientist who studied pigments in the retina.
Guanosine monophosphate (GMP), also known as 5'-guanidylic acid or guanylic acid (conjugate base guanylate), is a nucleotide that is used as a monomer in RNA.
Guanylate cyclase (also known as guanyl cyclase, guanylyl cyclase, or GC) is a lyase enzyme.
Halorhodopsin is a light-gated ion pump, specific for chloride ions, found in archaea, known as halobacteria.
Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy or vibrational spectroscopy) involves the interaction of infrared radiation with matter.
Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), also called photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGC), or melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs), are a type of neuron in the retina of the mammalian eye.
Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins that allow ions to pass through the channel pore.
In chemistry isomerization (also isomerisation) is the process by which one molecule is transformed into another molecule which has exactly the same atoms, but the atoms have a different arrangement e.g. A-B-C → B-A-C (these related molecules are known as isomers). In some molecules and under some conditions, isomerization occurs spontaneously.
In biochemistry, a kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of phosphate groups from high-energy, phosphate-donating molecules to specific substrates.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
The lipid bilayer (or phospholipid bilayer) is a thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid molecules.
Lysine (symbol Lys or K) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Melanopsin is a type of photopigment belonging to a larger family of light-sensitive retinal proteins called opsins and encoded by the gene Opn4.
Opsins are a group of proteins, made light-sensitive, via the chromophore retinal found in photoreceptor cells of the retina.
In optics, photobleaching (sometimes termed fading) is the photochemical alteration of a dye or a fluorophore molecule such that it permanently is unable to fluoresce.
Photopsins (also known as Cone opsins) are the photoreceptor proteins found in the cone cells of the retina that are the basis of color vision.
Phototrophs (Gr: φῶς, φωτός.
A picosecond is an SI unit of time equal to 10−12 or 1/1,000,000,000,000 (one trillionth) of a second.
A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Proteorhodopsin (also known as pRhodopsin) is a family of over 50 photoactive retinylidene proteins, a larger family of transmembrane proteins that use retinal as a chromophore for light-mediated functionality, in this case, a proton pump.
A proton pump is an integral membrane protein that builds up a proton gradient across a biological membrane.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.
Retinal is also known as retinaldehyde.
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a genetic disorder of the eyes that causes loss of vision.
Rod cells are photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye that can function in less intense light than the other type of visual photoreceptor, cone cells.
A Schiff base (named after Hugo Schiff) is a compound with the general structure R2C.
Second messengers are intracellular signaling molecules released by the cell in response to exposure to extracellular signaling molecules—the first messengers.
Sequence homology is the biological homology between DNA, RNA, or protein sequences, defined in terms of shared ancestry in the evolutionary history of life.
The Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP) database is a largely manual classification of protein structural domains based on similarities of their structures and amino acid sequences.
Transducin (Gt) is a protein naturally expressed in vertebrate retina rods and cones and it is very important in vertebrate phototransduction.
Transmembrane domain usually denotes a transmembrane segment of single alpha helix of a transmembrane protein.
Ubiquitin is a small (8.5 kDa) regulatory protein found in most tissues of eukaryotic organisms, i.e. it occurs ''ubiquitously''.
Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy or ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry (UV–Vis or UV/Vis) refers to absorption spectroscopy or reflectance spectroscopy in the ultraviolet-visible spectral region.
Visual phototransduction is the sensory transduction of the visual system.
Vitamin A is a group of unsaturated nutritional organic compounds that includes retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, and several provitamin A carotenoids (most notably beta-carotene).
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
X-linked congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB) is a rare X-linked non-progressive retinal disorder.
X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.