115 relations: Alveolar and postalveolar approximants, American English, Andalusian Spanish, Approximant consonant, Asturian language, Australian Aboriginal languages, Australian English, Barranquilla, Bilabial trill, Brazilian Portuguese, Bulgarian language, Canarian Spanish, Caribbean Spanish, Cartagena, Colombia, Castúo, Catalan language, Clitic, Colombian Spanish, Compensatory lengthening, Correlation and dependence, Cyrillic script, Czech language, Danish language, Dental and alveolar flaps, Dental, alveolar and postalveolar trills, Dutch language, English language, Er (Cyrillic), Extremadura, Family resemblance, Flap consonant, Formant, French language, Fricative consonant, Frisian languages, German language, Greek alphabet, Guttural R, Haitian Creole, Ian Maddieson, Indonesian language, Infinitive, International Phonetic Alphabet, Italian language, Japanese language, Kastamonu, Khmer language, Korean language, Language Contact and Lexical Enrichment in Israeli Hebrew, Lateral consonant, ..., Latin script, Leonese dialect, Linking and intrusive R, Liquid consonant, Malay language, Malay Peninsula, Mexico, Middle Chinese, Modern Hebrew, Montería, North Region, Brazil, Northeast Region, Brazil, Norwegian language, Occitan language, Old English, Orthography, Palatine uvula, Palgrave Macmillan, Phonetics, Phonotactics, Pinyin, Polish language, Portuguese language, Pronunciation of English /r/, R, R-colored vowel, Received Pronunciation, Retroflex approximant, Retroflex flap, Rho, Rhoticity in English, Rio de Janeiro (state), Russian language, San Andrés, San Andrés y Providencia, Santa Marta, São Paulo (state), Søren Kierkegaard, Scottish English, Semivowel, Sonority hierarchy, South Region, Brazil, Southeast Region, Brazil, Spanish dialects and varieties, Spanish language, Standard Chinese phonology, Sweden, Swedish language, Swiss Standard German, Syllable, Trill consonant, Tucumán Province, Turkey, Turkic languages, Turkish language, Ukrainian language, Uvular consonant, Uvular trill, Uyghur language, Uyghurs, Vietnamese phonology, Voiced uvular fricative, Voiceless uvular fricative, Vowel, Welsh phonology, Yaqui language. Expand index (65 more) » « Shrink index
The alveolar approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States.
The Andalusian varieties of Spanish (Spanish: andaluz; Andalusian: andalú) are spoken in Andalusia, Ceuta, Melilla, and Gibraltar.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
Asturian (asturianu,Art. 1 de la formerly also known as bable) is a West Iberian Romance language spoken in Principality of Asturias, Spain.
The Australian Aboriginal languages consist of around 290–363 languages belonging to an estimated twenty-eight language families and isolates, spoken by Aboriginal Australians of mainland Australia and a few nearby islands.
Australian English (AuE, en-AU) is a major variety of the English language, used throughout Australia.
Barranquilla is a city and municipality located in northern Colombia.
The bilabial trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
Brazilian Portuguese (português do Brasil or português brasileiro) is a set of dialects of the Portuguese language used mostly in Brazil.
Canarian Spanish (Spanish: español de las Canarias, español canario, habla canaria, isleño, dialecto canario or vernacular canario) is a variant of standard Spanish spoken in the Canary Islands by the Canarian people.
Caribbean Spanish (Spanish: español caribeño) is the general name of the Spanish dialects spoken in the Caribbean region.
The city of Cartagena, known in the colonial era as Cartagena de Indias (Cartagena de Indias), is a major port founded in 1533, located on the northern coast of Colombia in the Caribbean Coast Region.
Castúo is the generic name for the dialects of Spanish spoken in the autonomous community of Extremadura, in Spain.
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
A clitic (from Greek κλιτικός klitikos, "inflexional") is a morpheme in morphology and syntax that has syntactic characteristics of a word, but depends phonologically on another word or phrase.
Colombian Spanish (Spanish: español colombiano) is a grouping of the varieties of Spanish spoken in Colombia.
Compensatory lengthening in phonology and historical linguistics is the lengthening of a vowel sound that happens upon the loss of a following consonant, usually in the syllable coda, or of a vowel in an adjacent syllable.
In statistics, dependence or association is any statistical relationship, whether causal or not, between two random variables or bivariate data.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.
Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
The alveolar tap or flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The alveolar trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Er (Р р; italics: Р р) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Extremadura (is an autonomous community of western Iberian Peninsula whose capital city is Mérida, recognised by the State of Autonomy of Extremadura. It is made up of the two largest provinces of Spain: Cáceres and Badajoz. It is bordered by the provinces of Salamanca and Ávila (Castile and León) to the north; by provinces of Toledo and Ciudad Real (Castile–La Mancha) to the east, and by the provinces of Huelva, Seville, and Córdoba (Andalusia) to the south; and by Portugal to the west. Its official language is Spanish. It is an important area for wildlife, particularly with the major reserve at Monfragüe, which was designated a National Park in 2007, and the International Tagus River Natural Park (Parque Natural Tajo Internacional). The government of Extremadura is called. The Day of Extremadura is celebrated on 8 September. It coincides with the Catholic festivity of Our Lady of Guadalupe.
Family resemblance (Familienähnlichkeit) is a philosophical idea made popular by Ludwig Wittgenstein, with the best known exposition given in his posthumously published book Philosophical Investigations (1953).
In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another.
A formant, as defined by James Jeans, is a harmonic of a note that is augmented by a resonance.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
The Frisian languages are a closely related group of Germanic languages, spoken by about 500,000 Frisian people, who live on the southern fringes of the North Sea in the Netherlands and Germany.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.
In common parlance, "guttural R" is the phenomenon whereby a rhotic consonant (an "R-like" sound) is produced in the back of the vocal tract (usually with the uvula) rather than in the front portion thereof and thus as a guttural consonant.
Haitian Creole (kreyòl ayisyen,; créole haïtien) is a French-based creole language spoken by 9.6–12million people worldwide, and the only language of most Haitians.
Ian Maddieson is a linguist who was at University of California, Berkeley, and is now an adjunct professor emeritus at the University of New Mexico.
Indonesian (bahasa Indonesia) is the official language of Indonesia.
Infinitive (abbreviated) is a grammatical term referring to certain verb forms existing in many languages, most often used as non-finite verbs.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
Kastamonu is the capital district of the Kastamonu Province, Turkey.
Khmer or Cambodian (natively ភាសាខ្មែរ phiəsaa khmae, or more formally ខេមរភាសា kheemaʾraʾ phiəsaa) is the language of the Khmer people and the official language of Cambodia.
The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.
Language Contact and Lexical Enrichment in Israeli Hebrew is a scholarly book written by linguist Ghil'ad Zuckermann, published in 2003 by Palgrave Macmillan.
A lateral is an l-like consonant in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
Leonese is a set of vernacular Romance dialects spoken in the northern and western portions of the historical region of León in Spain (the modern provinces of León, Zamora, and Salamanca) and a few adjoining areas in Portugal.
Linking R and intrusive R are sandhi or linking phenomena involving the appearance of the rhotic consonant (which normally corresponds to the letter) between two consecutive morphemes where it would not normally be pronounced.
In phonetics, liquids or liquid consonants are a class of consonants consisting of lateral consonants like 'l' together with rhotics like 'r'.
Malay (Bahasa Melayu بهاس ملايو) is a major language of the Austronesian family spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore.
The Malay Peninsula (Tanah Melayu, تانه ملايو; คาบสมุทรมลายู,, မလေး ကျွန်းဆွယ်, 马来半岛 / 馬來半島) is a peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Middle Chinese (formerly known as Ancient Chinese) or the Qieyun system (QYS) is the historical variety of Chinese recorded in the Qieyun, a rime dictionary first published in 601 and followed by several revised and expanded editions.
Montería is a municipality and city located in northern Colombia and is the capital of the Department of Córdoba.
The North Region of Brazil (Região Norte do Brasil) is the largest Region of Brazil, corresponding to 45.27% of the national territory.
The Northeast Region of Brazil (Região Nordeste do Brasil) is one of the five official and political regions of the country according to the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics.
Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.
Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc (langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.
The palatine uvula, usually referred to as simply the uvula, is a conic projection from the posterior edge of the middle of the soft palate, composed of connective tissue containing a number of racemose glands, and some muscular fibers (musculus uvulae).
Palgrave Macmillan is an international academic and trade publishing company.
Phonetics (pronounced) is the branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.
Phonotactics (from Ancient Greek phōnḗ "voice, sound" and tacticós "having to do with arranging") is a branch of phonology that deals with restrictions in a language on the permissible combinations of phonemes.
Hanyu Pinyin Romanization, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Pronunciation of the phoneme /r/ in the English language has many variations in different dialects.
R (named ar/or) is the 18th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
In phonetics, an r-colored or rhotic vowel (also called a retroflex vowel, vocalic r, or a rhotacized vowel) is a vowel that is modified in a way that results in a lowering in frequency of the third formant.
Received Pronunciation (RP) is an accent of Standard English in the United Kingdom and is defined in the Concise Oxford English Dictionary as "the standard accent of English as spoken in the south of England", although it can be heard from native speakers throughout England and Wales.
The retroflex approximant is a type of consonant used in some languages.
The retroflex flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
Rho (uppercase Ρ, lowercase ρ or ϱ; ῥῶ) is the 17th letter of the Greek alphabet.
Rhoticity in English refers to English speakers' pronunciation of the historical rhotic consonant, and is one of the most prominent distinctions by which varieties of English can be classified.
Rio de Janeiro is one of the 27 federative units of Brazil.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
San Andrés is the capital city of the department of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina, in Colombia.
Santa Marta, officially Distrito Turístico, Cultural e Histórico de Santa Marta ("Touristic, Cultural and Historic District of Santa Marta"), is a city in Colombia.
São Paulo is one of the 26 states of the Federative Republic of Brazil and is named after Saint Paul of Tarsus.
Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a Danish philosopher, theologian, poet, social critic and religious author who is widely considered to be the first existentialist philosopher.
Scottish English refers to the varieties of English spoken in Scotland.
In phonetics and phonology, a semivowel or glide, also known as a non-syllabic vocoid, is a sound that is phonetically similar to a vowel sound but functions as the syllable boundary, rather than as the nucleus of a syllable.
A sonority hierarchy or sonority scale is a ranking of speech sounds (or phones) by amplitude.
The South Region of Brazil (Região Sul do Brasil) is one of the five regions of Brazil.
The Southeast Region of Brazil (Região Sudeste do Brasil) is composed by the states of Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.
Some of the regional varieties of the Spanish language are quite divergent from one another, especially in pronunciation and vocabulary, and less so in grammar.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
This article summarizes the phonology (the sound system, or in more general terms, the pronunciation) of Standard Chinese (Standard Mandarin).
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
Swiss Standard German (Schweizer Standarddeutsch), or Swiss High German (Schweizer Hochdeutsch or Schweizerhochdeutsch), referred to by the Swiss as Schriftdeutsch, or Hochdeutsch, is the written form of one of four official languages in Switzerland, besides French, Italian and Romansh.
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the active articulator and passive articulator.
Tucumán is the most densely populated, and the smallest by land area, of the provinces of Argentina.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants.
The uvular trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The Uyghur or Uighur language (Уйғур тили, Uyghur tili, Uyƣur tili or, Уйғурчә, Uyghurche, Uyƣurqə), formerly known as Eastern Turki, is a Turkic language with 10 to 25 million speakers, spoken primarily by the Uyghur people in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of Western China.
The Uyghurs or Uygurs (as the standard romanisation in Chinese GB 3304-1991) are a Turkic ethnic group who live in East and Central Asia.
This article is a technical description of the sound system of the Vietnamese language, including phonetics and phonology.
The voiced uvular fricative or approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless uvular fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
The phonology of Welsh is characterised by a number of sounds that do not occur in English and are rare in European languages, such as the voiceless alveolar lateral fricative and several voiceless sonorants (nasals and liquids), some of which result from consonant mutation.
Yaqui (or Hiaki), locally known as Yoeme or Yoem Noki, is a Native American language of the Uto-Aztecan family.