98 relations: Acyl CoA dehydrogenase, Almond, Ampicillin, Anemia, Angular cheilitis, ASME BPE, ATCC (company), B vitamins, Baby food, Bacillus subtilis, Bacteria, BASF, Biotin, Breakfast cereal, Candida (fungus), Cellular respiration, Cheese, Corynebacterium, Cyanocobalamin, Dairy product, Dietary Reference Intake, Dietary supplement, Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, E number, Egg as food, Electron transport chain, Eremothecium gossypii, European Food Safety Authority, Factory, Flavin adenine dinucleotide, Flavin group, Flavin mononucleotide, Flavoprotein, Flour, Fluorescence, Folate, Food coloring, Generic drug, Glutathione, Glutathione reductase, Grain, Health system, Hemoglobin, Jaundice, Kidney, Leaf vegetable, Legume, Levomefolic acid, Light therapy, Liver (food), ..., Malaria, Megaloblastic anemia, Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, Micrococcus luteus, Migraine, Milk, Mold, Mushroom, Mycelium, NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (H+-translocating), Nasolabial fold, National Academy of Medicine, Niacin, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, Over-the-counter drug, Pasta, Paul Gyorgy, Pellagra, Philtrum, Plasmodium, Pregnancy, Pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase, Red blood cell, Redox, Reference Daily Intake, Retinal dehydrogenase, Retinol, Ribitol, Riboflavin, Riboflavin kinase, Riboflavin synthase, Ribose, Rice, Scrotum, South Korea, Stomatitis, Strain (biology), Succinate dehydrogenase, Terumo, Third World, Tryptophan, Ultraviolet, Vacuole, Vitamin, Vitamin A, Vulva, WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate. Expand index (48 more) » « Shrink index
Acyl-CoA dehydrogenases (ACADs) are a class of enzymes that function to catalyze the initial step in each cycle of fatty acid β-oxidation in the mitochondria of cells.
The almond (Prunus dulcis, syn. Prunus amygdalus) is a species of tree native to Mediterranean climate regions of the Middle East, from Syria and Turkey to India and Pakistan, although it has been introduced elsewhere.
Ampicillin is an antibiotic used to prevent and treat a number of bacterial infections, such as respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, meningitis, salmonellosis, and endocarditis.
Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.
Angular cheilitis (AC) is inflammation of one or both corners of the mouth.
ASME BPE (American Society of Mechanical Engineers: Bioprocessing Equipment) is an international standard developed as an aid for the design and construction of equipment intended for use in the manufacturing of biopharmaceuticals.
ATCC or the American Type Culture Collection is a nonprofit organization which collects, stores, and distributes standard reference microorganisms, cell lines and other materials for research and development.
B vitamins are a class of water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism.
Baby food is any soft, easily consumed food other than breastmilk or infant formula that is made specifically for human babies between four to six months and two years old.
Bacillus subtilis, known also as the hay bacillus or grass bacillus, is a Gram-positive, catalase-positive bacterium, found in soil and the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants and humans.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
BASF SE is a German chemical company and the largest chemical producer in the world.
Biotin is a water-soluble B vitamin, also called vitamin B7 and formerly known as vitamin H or coenzyme R. Biotin is composed of a ureido ring fused with a tetrahydrothiophene ring.
Breakfast cereal is a food product made from processed cereal grains that is often eaten as a breakfast in primarily Western societies.
Candida is a genus of yeasts and is the most common cause of fungal infections worldwide.
Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.
Cheese is a dairy product derived from milk that is produced in a wide range of flavors, textures, and forms by coagulation of the milk protein casein.
Corynebacterium is a genus of bacteria that are Gram-positive and aerobic.
Cyanocobalamin is a synthetic form of 12.
Dairy products, milk products or lacticinia are a type of food produced from or containing the milk of mammals, primarily cattle, water buffaloes, goats, sheep, camels, and humans.
The Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) is a system of nutrition recommendations from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academies (United States).
A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid.
Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD), also known as dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase, mitochondrial, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DLD gene.
E numbers are codes for substances that are permitted to be used as food additives for use within the European Union and EFTA.
Eggs are laid by female animals of many different species, including birds, reptiles, amphibians, mammals, and fish, and have been eaten by humans for thousands of years.
An electron transport chain (ETC) is a series of complexes that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors via redox (both reduction and oxidation occurring simultaneously) reactions, and couples this electron transfer with the transfer of protons (H+ ions) across a membrane.
(also known as Ashbya gossypii) is a filamentous fungus or mold closely related to yeast, but growing exclusively in a filamentous way.
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is the agency of the European Union (EU) that provides independent scientific advice and communicates on existing and emerging risks associated with the food chain.
A factory or manufacturing plant is an industrial site, usually consisting of buildings and machinery, or more commonly a complex having several buildings, where workers manufacture goods or operate machines processing one product into another.
In biochemistry, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is a redox cofactor, more specifically a prosthetic group of a protein, involved in several important enzymatic reactions in metabolism.
Flavin (from Latin flavus, "yellow") is the common name for a group of organic compounds based on pteridine, formed by the tricyclic heterocycle isoalloxazine.
Flavin mononucleotide (FMN), or riboflavin-5′-phosphate, is a biomolecule produced from riboflavin (vitamin B2) by the enzyme riboflavin kinase and functions as prosthetic group of various oxidoreductases including NADH dehydrogenase as well as cofactor in biological blue-light photo receptors.
Flavoproteins are proteins that contain a nucleic acid derivative of riboflavin: the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) or flavin mononucleotide (FMN).
Flour is a powder made by grinding raw grains or roots and used to make many different foods.
Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.
Folate, distinct forms of which are known as folic acid, folacin, and vitamin B9, is one of the B vitamins.
Food coloring, or color additive, is any dye, pigment or substance that imparts color when it is added to food or drink.
A generic drug is a pharmaceutical drug that is equivalent to a brand-name product in dosage, strength, route of administration, quality, performance, and intended use, but does not carry the brand name.
Glutathione (GSH) is an important antioxidant in plants, animals, fungi, and some bacteria and archaea.
Glutathione reductase (GR) also known as glutathione-disulfide reductase (GSR) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the GSR gene.
A grain is a small, hard, dry seed, with or without an attached hull or fruit layer, harvested for human or animal consumption.
A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.
Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.
Jaundice, also known as icterus, is a yellowish or greenish pigmentation of the skin and whites of the eyes due to high bilirubin levels.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Leaf vegetables, also called leafy greens, salad greens, pot herbs, vegetable greens, or simply greens, are plant leaves eaten as a vegetable, sometimes accompanied by tender petioles and shoots.
A legume is a plant or its fruit or seed in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae).
Levomefolic acid (INN) (also known as L-5-MTHF, L-methylfolate and L-5-methyltetrahydrofolate and (6S)-5-methyltetrahydrofolate, and (6S)-5-MTHF) is the primary biologically active form of folate used at the cellular level for DNA reproduction, the cysteine cycle and the regulation of homocysteine.
Light therapy—or phototherapy, classically referred to as heliotherapy—consists of exposure to daylight or to specific wavelengths of light using polychromatic polarised light, lasers, light-emitting diodes, fluorescent lamps, dichroic lamps or very bright, full-spectrum light.
The liver of mammals, fowl, and fish is commonly eaten as food by humans.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
Megaloblastic anemia (or megaloblastic anaemia) is an anemia (of macrocytic classification) that results from inhibition of DNA synthesis during red blood cell production.
Methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the methyl cycle, and it is encoded by the MTHFR gene.
Micrococcus luteus is a Gram-positive, to Gram-variable, nonmotile, coccus, tetrad-arranging, pigmented, saprotrophic bacterium that belongs to the family Micrococcaceae.
A migraine is a primary headache disorder characterized by recurrent headaches that are moderate to severe.
Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals.
A mold or mould (is a fungus that grows in the form of multicellular filaments called hyphae.
A mushroom, or toadstool, is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source.
Fungal mycelium Mycelium is the vegetative part of a fungus or fungus-like bacterial colony, consisting of a mass of branching, thread-like hyphae.
NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (also referred to as Type I NADH dehydrogenase and mitochondrial Complex I especially in humans) is an enzyme of the respiratory chains of myriad organisms from bacteria to humans.
The nasolabial folds, commonly known as "smile lines" or "laugh lines", are facial features.
The National Academy of Medicine (NAM), formerly called the Institute of Medicine (IoM), is an American nonprofit, non-governmental organization.
Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid, is an organic compound and a form of vitamin B3, an essential human nutrient.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, abbreviated NADP or, in older notation, TPN (triphosphopyridine nucleotide), is a cofactor used in anabolic reactions, such as lipid and nucleic acid synthesis, which require NADPH as a reducing agent.
Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional, as opposed to prescription drugs, which may be sold only to consumers possessing a valid prescription.
Pasta is a staple food of traditional Italian cuisine, with the first reference dating to 1154 in Sicily.
Paul György (April 7, 1893 – March 1, 1976) was a Hungarian-born American biochemist, nutritionist, and pediatrician best known for his discovery of three B vitamins: riboflavin, B6, and biotin.
Pellagra is a disease caused by a lack of the vitamin niacin (vitamin B3).
The philtrum (philtrum, φίλτρον philtron, lit. "love charm"), or medial cleft, is a vertical indentation in the middle area of the upper lip, common to many mammals, extending in humans from the nasal septum to the tubercle of the upper lip.
Plasmodium is a genus of unicellular eukaryotes that are obligate parasites of vertebrates and insects.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
Pyridoxine 5’-phosphate oxidase is an enzyme that catalyzes several reactions in the vitamin B6 metabolism pathway.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
The Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily intake level of a nutrient that is considered to be sufficient to meet the requirements of 97–98% of healthy individuals in every demographic in the United States.
In enzymology, a retinal dehydrogenase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction The 3 substrates of this enzyme are retinal, NAD+, and H2O, whereas its 3 products are retinoic acid, NADH, and H+.
Retinol, also known as Vitamin A1, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
Ribitol, or adonitol, is a crystalline pentose alcohol (C5H12O5) formed by the reduction of ribose.
Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
In enzymology, a riboflavin kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and riboflavin, whereas its two products are ADP and FMN.
Riboflavin synthase is an enzyme that catalyzes the final reaction of riboflavin biosynthesis: (2) 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine → riboflavin + 5-amino-6-ribitylamino-2,4(1''H'',3''H'')-pyrimidinedione.
Ribose is a carbohydrate with the formula C5H10O5; specifically, it is a pentose monosaccharide (simple sugar) with linear form H−(C.
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).
The scrotum is an anatomical male reproductive structure that consists of a suspended dual-chambered sack of skin and smooth muscle that is present in most terrestrial male mammals and located under the penis.
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
Stomatitis is inflammation of the mouth and lips.
In biology, a strain is a low-level taxonomic rank used at the intraspecific level (within a species).
Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) or succinate-coenzyme Q reductase (SQR) or respiratory Complex II is an enzyme complex, found in many bacterial cells and in the inner mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotes.
was founded in 1921 as Sekisen Ken-onki Corporation by a group of medical scientists led by Dr.
The term "Third World" arose during the Cold War to define countries that remained non-aligned with either NATO or the Communist Bloc.
Tryptophan (symbol Trp or W) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
A vacuole is a membrane-bound organelle which is present in all plant and fungal cells and some protist, animal and bacterial cells.
A vitamin is an organic molecule (or related set of molecules) which is an essential micronutrient - that is, a substance which an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism - but cannot synthesize it (either at all, or in sufficient quantities), and therefore it must be obtained through the diet.
Vitamin A is a group of unsaturated nutritional organic compounds that includes retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, and several provitamin A carotenoids (most notably beta-carotene).
The vulva (wrapper, covering, plural vulvae or vulvas) consists of the external female sex organs.
The WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (EML), published by the World Health Organization (WHO), contains the medications considered to be most effective and safe to meet the most important needs in a health system.
5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate (N5,N10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate; 5,10-CH2-THF) is the substrate used by the enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) to generate 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF, or levomefolic acid).
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