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The ribosome is a large and complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation). [1]

100 relations: Active site, Ada Yonath, Adenosine, Affinity label, Alanine, Albert Claude, Amino acid, Aminoacyl-tRNA, Aminoglycoside, Angstrom, Antibiotics, Archaea, Bacteria, Biomolecular complex, C-terminus, Catalysis, Cell nucleus, Centrifugation, Chemistry, Chloroplast, Christian de Duve, Conformational proofreading, Crystallography, Cytosol, Disulfide, DNA, EIF1, EIF6, Electron microscope, Endoplasmic reticulum, Escherichia coli, Eukaryote, Eukaryotic large ribosomal subunit (60S), Eukaryotic small ribosomal subunit (40S), Eukaryotic translation, Exocytosis, Genetic code, George Emil Palade, Glutathione, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Hydroxyl, Kozak consensus sequence, Life, Medicinal chemistry, Messenger RNA, Methionine, Mitochondrion, Molecular machine, Nanometre, Nobel Prize, ..., Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Nucleic acid tertiary structure, Nucleolus, Operon, Organelle, Peptide, Peptide bond, Peptidyl transferase, Polysome, Post-translational modification, Prokaryote, Prokaryotic translation, Protein, Protein biosynthesis, Protein dynamics, Protein folding, Redox, Ribonucleoprotein, Ribosomal protein, Ribosomal RNA, Ribozyme, RNA, RNA world, Romania, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Secretory pathway, Sedimentation, Shine-Dalgarno sequence, Signal peptide, Start codon, Svedberg, Symbiogenesis, Tetrahymena, Thermus thermophilus, Thomas A. Steitz, Threonine, Transcription (genetics), Transfer RNA, Translation (biology), Vectorial synthesis, Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Wobble base pair, X-ray crystallography, 16S ribosomal RNA, 18S ribosomal RNA, 28S ribosomal RNA, 30S, 5.8S ribosomal RNA, 50S, 5S ribosomal RNA. Expand index (50 more) »

Active site

In biology, the active site is the region of an enzyme where substrate molecules bind and undergo a chemical reaction.

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Ada Yonath

Ada E. Yonath (עדה יונת.) (born 22 June 1939) is an Israeli crystallographer best known for her pioneering work on the structure of the ribosome.

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Adenosine (USAN, BAN) (brand names Adenocard, Adenocor, Adenic, Adenoco, Adeno-Jec, Adenoscan, Adenosin, Adrekar, Krenosin; former developmental code name SR-96225) is a purine nucleoside composed of a molecule of adenine attached to a ribose sugar molecule (ribofuranose) moiety via a β-N9-glycosidic bond.

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Affinity label

Affinity labels are molecules similar in structure to a particular substrate for a specific enzyme and are considered to be a class of enzyme inhibitors.

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Alanine (abbreviated as Ala or A) is a non-polar α-amino acid, with the formula CH3CH(NH2)COOH.

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Albert Claude

Albert Claude (24 August 1899 – 22 May 1983) was a Belgian medical doctor and cell biologist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1974 with Christian de Duve and George Emil Palade.

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Amino acid

Amino acids are biologically important organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxylic acid (-COOH) functional groups, usually along with a side-chain specific to each amino acid.

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Aminoacyl-tRNA (also aa-tRNA or charged tRNA) is tRNA to which its cognated amino acid is chemically bonded (charged).

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Aminoglycoside is a medicinal and bacteriologic category of traditional Gram-negative antibacterial therapeutic agents that inhibit protein synthesis and contain as a portion of the molecule an amino-modified glycoside (sugar);M-P Mingeot-Leclercq, Y Glupczynski & PM Tulkens, 1999, Aminoglycosides: Activity and Resistance, Antimicrob.

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The ångström or angstrom is a unit of length equal to (one ten-billionth of a metre) or.

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Antibiotics or antibacterials are a type of antimicrobial used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infection.

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The Archaea (or or; singular archaeon) constitute a domain or kingdom of single-celled microorganisms.

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Bacteria (singular: bacterium) constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms.

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Biomolecular complex

Biomolecular complex, also called macromolecular complex or biomacromolecular complex, is any biological complex made of more than one molecule of protein, RNA, DNA, lipids, carbohydrates.

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The C-terminus (also known as the carboxyl-terminus, carboxy-terminus, C-terminal tail, C-terminal end, or COOH-terminus) is the end of an amino acid chain (protein or polypeptide), terminated by a free carboxyl group (-COOH).

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Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalyst.

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Cell nucleus

In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

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Centrifugation is a process which involves the use of the centrifugal force for the sedimentation of heterogeneous mixtures with a centrifuge, used in industry and in laboratory settings.

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Chemistry is a branch of physical science that studies the composition, structure, properties and change of matter.

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Chloroplasts are organelles, specialized subunits, in plant and algal cells.

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Christian de Duve

Christian René Marie Joseph, Viscount de Duve (2 October 1917 – 4 May 2013) was a Nobel Prize-winning Belgian cytologist and biochemist.

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Conformational proofreading

Conformational proofreading (CPR) or Conformational selection is a general mechanism of molecular recognition systems in which introducing a structural mismatch between a molecular recognizer and its target, or an energetic barrier, enhances the recognition specificity and quality.

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Crystallography is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in the crystalline solids (see crystal structure).

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The cytosol or intracellular fluid (ICF) or cytoplasmic matrix is the liquid found inside cells.

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In chemistry and biology a disulfide refers to a functional group with the general structure R–S–S–R.

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a molecule that carries most of the genetic instructions used in the development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EIF1 gene.

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Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 6 (EIF6), also known as Integrin beta 4 binding protein (ITGB4BP), is a human gene.

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Electron microscope

An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.

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Endoplasmic reticulum

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle in the cells of eukaryotic organisms that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tubes known as cisternae.

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Escherichia coli

Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).

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A eukaryote (or or) is any organism whose cells contain a nucleus and other organelles enclosed within membranes.

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Eukaryotic large ribosomal subunit (60S)

Ribosomal particles are denoted according to their sedimentation coefficients in Svedberg units.

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Eukaryotic small ribosomal subunit (40S)

Ribosomal particles are denoted according to their sedimentation coefficients in Svedberg units.

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Eukaryotic translation

Eukaryotic translation is the process by which messenger RNA is translated into proteins in eukaryotes.

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Exocytosis is a form of active transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) out of the cell (exo- + cytosis) by expelling them in an energy-using process.

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Genetic code

The genetic code is the set of rules by which information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) is translated into proteins by living cells.

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George Emil Palade

George Emil Palade (November 19, 1912 – October 8, 2008) was a Romanian-American cell biologist.

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Glutathione (GSH) is an important antioxidant in plants, animals, fungi, and some bacteria and archaea, preventing damage to important cellular components caused by reactive oxygen species such as free radicals, peroxides, lipid peroxides and heavy metals.

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Howard Hughes Medical Institute

The Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) is a United States non-profit medical research organization based in Chevy Chase, Maryland.

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A hydroxyl is a chemical functional group containing an oxygen atom connected by a covalent bond to a hydrogen atom.

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Kozak consensus sequence

The Kozak consensus sequence, Kozak consensus or Kozak sequence, is a sequence which occurs on eukaryotic mRNA and has the consensus (gcc)gccRccAUGG.

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Life is a characteristic distinguishing physical entities having biological processes (such as signaling and self-sustaining processes) from those that do not,The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th edition, published by Houghton Mifflin Company, via.

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Medicinal chemistry

Medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical chemistry are disciplines at the intersection of chemistry, especially synthetic organic chemistry, and pharmacology and various other biological specialties, where they are involved with design, chemical synthesis and development for market of pharmaceutical agents, or bio-active molecules (drugs).

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Messenger RNA

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.

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Methionine (or; abbreviated as Met or M) is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2CH2SCH3.

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The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.

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Molecular machine

A molecular machine, or nanomachine, is any discrete number of molecular components that produce quasi-mechanical movements (output) in response to specific stimuli (input).

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The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth of a metre (m).

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Nobel Prize

The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Norwegian: Nobelprisen) is a set of annual international awards bestowed in a number of categories by Swedish and Norwegian committees in recognition of academic, cultural and/or scientific advances.

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Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin) administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.

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Nucleic acid tertiary structure


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The nucleolus (plural nucleoli) is the largest structure in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, where it primarily serves as the site of ribosome synthesis and assembly.

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In genetics, an operon is a functioning unit of genomic DNA containing a cluster of genes under the control of a single promoter.

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In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function.

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Peptides (from Gr. πεπτός, "digested", derived from πέσσειν, "to digest") are biologically occurring short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.

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Peptide bond

A peptide bond (amide bond) is a covalent chemical bond formed between two amino acid molecules.

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Peptidyl transferase

The Peptidyl transferase is an aminoacyltransferase as well as the primary enzymatic function of the ribosome, which forms peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids using tRNAs during the translation process of protein biosynthesis.

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A polyribosome (or polysome) is a complex of a mRNA molecule and two or more ribosomes that is formed during active translation.

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Post-translational modification

Post-translational modification (PTM) refers to the covalent and generally enzymatic modification of proteins during or after protein biosynthesis.

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A prokaryote is a single-celled organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus (karyon), mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.

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Prokaryotic translation

Prokaryotic translation is the process by which messenger RNA is translated into proteins in prokaryotes.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Protein biosynthesis

Protein biosynthesis is the process whereby biological cells generate new proteins; it is balanced by the loss of cellular proteins via degradation or export.

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Protein dynamics

Proteins are generally thought to adopt unique structures determined by their amino acid sequences, as outlined by Anfinsen's dogma.

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Protein folding

Protein folding is the process by which a protein structure assumes its functional shape or conformation.

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Redox reactions include all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation state changed; in general, redox reactions involve the transfer of electrons between species.

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Ribonucleoprotein (RNP) is a nucleoprotein that contains RNA, i.e. it is an association that combines ribonucleic acid and protein together (referred also as protein-RNA complexes).

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Ribosomal protein

A ribosomal protein is any of the proteins that, in conjunction with rRNA, make up the ribosomal subunits involved in the cellular process of translation.

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Ribosomal RNA

In molecular biology, ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) is the RNA component of the ribosome, and is essential for protein synthesis in all living organisms.

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Ribozymes (ribonucleic acid enzymes), also termed catalytic RNA or RNAzyme, are RNA molecules that are capable of catalyzing specific biochemical reactions, similar to the action of protein enzymes.

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Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule implicated in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.

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RNA world

The RNA world refers to the self-replicating ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules that were precursors to all current life on Earth.

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RomaniaIn English, Romania was formerly often spelled Rumania or sometimes Roumania.

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Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of yeast.

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Secretory pathway

The secretory pathway is a series of steps a cell uses to move proteins out of the cell; a process known as secretion.

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Sedimentation is the tendency for particles in suspension to settle out of the fluid in which they are entrained, and come to rest against a barrier.

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Shine-Dalgarno sequence

The Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence is a ribosomal binding site in prokaryotic messenger RNA, generally located around 8 bases upstream of the start codon AUG.

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Signal peptide

A signal peptide (sometimes referred to as signal sequence, targeting signal, localization signal, localization sequence, transit peptide, leader sequence or leader peptide) is a short (5-30 amino acids long) peptide present at the N-terminus of the majority of newly synthesized proteins that are destined towards the secretory pathway.

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Start codon

The start codon is the first codon of a messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript translated by a ribosome.

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A svedberg unit (symbol S, sometimes Sv) is a non-SI unit for sedimentation rate.

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Symbiogenesis, or endosymbiotic theory, is an evolutionary theory that explains the origin of eukaryotic cells from prokaryotes.

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Tetrahymena are free-living ciliate protozoa that can also switch from commensalistic to pathogenic modes of survival.

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Thermus thermophilus

Thermus thermophilus is a Gram negative eubacterium used in a range of biotechnological applications, including as a model organism for genetic manipulation, structural genomics, and systems biology.

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Thomas A. Steitz

Thomas Arthur Steitz (born August 23, 1940) is a biochemist, a Sterling Professor of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry at Yale University, and investigator at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, best known for his pioneering work on the ribosomes.

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Threonine (abbreviated as Thr or T) is an essential, polar α-amino acid, with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH(OH)CH3.

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Transcription (genetics)

Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.

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Transfer RNA

A transfer RNA (abbreviated tRNA and archaically referred to as sRNA, for soluble RNA) is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length, that serves as the physical link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins.

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Translation (biology)

In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which cellular ribosomes create proteins.

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Vectorial synthesis

Vectorial synthesis is synthesis of exported proteins by ribosomes in which the ribosome-nascent chain complex is bound directly to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the nascent peptide chain moves through the ER membrane as it emerges from the ribosome.

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Venkatraman Ramakrishnan

Venkatraman ("Venki") Ramakrishnan, (born 1952) is an Indian-born American and British structural biologist.

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Wobble base pair

A wobble base pair is a pairing between two nucleotides in RNA molecules that does not follow Watson-Crick base pair rules.

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X-ray crystallography

X-ray crystallography is a tool used for identifying the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.

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16S ribosomal RNA

16S ribosomal RNA (or 16S rRNA) is a component of the 30S small subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes.

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18S ribosomal RNA

18S ribosomal RNA (abbreviated 18S rRNA) is a part of the ribosomal RNA.

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28S ribosomal RNA

28S ribosomal RNA is the eukaryotic nuclear homologue of the prokaryotic 23S ribosomal RNA.

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30S is the smaller subunit of the 70S ribosome of prokaryotes.

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5.8S ribosomal RNA

In molecular biology the 5.8S ribosomal RNA (5.8S rRNA) is a non-coding RNA component of the large subunit of the eukaryotic ribosome and so plays an important role in protein translation.

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50S is the larger subunit of the 70S ribosome of prokaryotes.

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5S ribosomal RNA

The 5S ribosomal RNA (5S rRNA) is an approximately 120 nucleotide-long ribosomal RNA molecule with a mass of 40 kDa.

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Redirects here:

70S, 70S Ribosome, 70S ribosome, 70S ribosomes, A (aminoacyl) site, A site, Aminoacyl site, Bacterial ribosomes, E (exit) site, E site, Exit site, Free ribosome, P (peptidyl) site, P site, Peptidyl site, Ribosom, Ribosomal, Ribosomes.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ribosome

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