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Index Ribosome

The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation). [1]

114 relations: A-site, Active site, Ada Yonath, Adenosine, Affinity label, Alanine, Albert Claude, Amino acid, Aminoacyl-tRNA, Aminoglycoside, Annual Review of Biochemistry, Annual Review of Genetics, Antibiotic, Archaea, Ångström, Bacteria, Biomolecular complex, C-terminus, Catalysis, Cell (biology), Cell nucleus, Cell Reports, Centrifugation, Chemistry, Chloroplast, Christian de Duve, Conformational proofreading, Crystallography, Cytosol, Disulfide, DNA, E-site, EIF1, EIF6, Electron microscope, Endoplasmic reticulum, Escherichia coli, Eukaryote, Eukaryotic large ribosomal subunit (60S), Eukaryotic small ribosomal subunit (40S), Eukaryotic translation, European Molecular Biology Organization, Exocytosis, Genetic code, George Emil Palade, Gerald Edelman, Glutathione, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Hydroxy group, Kozak consensus sequence, ..., Max Planck Society, Medicinal chemistry, Messenger RNA, Methionine, Mitochondrial DNA, Mitochondrial ribosome, Mitochondrion, Molecular machine, Nanometre, Nobel Prize, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Nucleic acid tertiary structure, Nucleolus, Nucleoprotein, Nucleotide, Operon, Organelle, P-site, Peptide, Peptide bond, Peptidyl transferase, Polysome, Post-translational modification, Prokaryote, Prokaryotic large ribosomal subunit, Prokaryotic small ribosomal subunit, Prokaryotic translation, Protein, Protein biosynthesis, Protein dynamics, Protein folding, Redox, Ribosomal protein, Ribosomal RNA, Ribozyme, RNA, RNA world, Romanian Americans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Secretion, Sedimentation, Shine-Dalgarno sequence, Signal peptide, Start codon, Svedberg, Symbiogenesis, Tetrahymena, Thermus thermophilus, Thomas A. Steitz, Three-domain system, Threonine, Transcription (biology), Transfer RNA, Translation (biology), University of Würzburg, Vectorial synthesis, Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Wobble base pair, X-ray crystallography, 16S ribosomal RNA, 18S ribosomal RNA, 28S ribosomal RNA, 5.8S ribosomal RNA, 5S ribosomal RNA. Expand index (64 more) »


The A-site (A for aminoacyl) of a ribosome is a binding site for charged t-RNA molecules during protein synthesis.

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Active site

In biology, the active site is the region of an enzyme where substrate molecules bind and undergo a chemical reaction.

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Ada Yonath

Ada E. Yonath (עדה יונת.) (born 22 June 1939) is an Israeli crystallographer best known for her pioneering work on the structure of the ribosome.

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Adenosine is both a chemical found in many living systems and a medication.

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Affinity label

Affinity labels are molecules similar in structure to a particular substrate for a specific enzyme and are considered to be a class of enzyme inhibitors.

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Alanine (symbol Ala or A) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

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Albert Claude

Albert Claude (24 August 1899 – 22 May 1983) was a Belgian medical doctor and cell biologist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1974 with Christian de Duve and George Emil Palade.

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Amino acid

Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.

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Aminoacyl-tRNA (also aa-tRNA or charged tRNA) is tRNA to which its cognated amino acid is chemically bonded (charged).

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Aminoglycoside is a medicinal and bacteriologic category of traditional Gram-negative antibacterial therapeutic agents that inhibit protein synthesis and contain as a portion of the molecule an amino-modified glycoside (sugar); the term can also refer more generally to any organic molecule that contains aminosugar substructures.

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Annual Review of Biochemistry

Annual Review of Biochemistry is an annual peer reviewed scientific journal published by Annual Reviews, a nonprofit scientific publisher.

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Annual Review of Genetics

The Annual Review of Genetics is an annual peer-reviewed scientific review journal published by Annual Reviews.

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An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.

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Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.

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The ångström or angstrom is a unit of length equal to (one ten-billionth of a metre) or 0.1 nanometre.

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Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Biomolecular complex

Biomolecular complex, also called macromolecular complex or biomacromolecular complex, is any biological complex made of more than one molecule of protein, RNA, DNA, lipids, carbohydrates.

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The C-terminus (also known as the carboxyl-terminus, carboxy-terminus, C-terminal tail, C-terminal end, or COOH-terminus) is the end of an amino acid chain (protein or polypeptide), terminated by a free carboxyl group (-COOH).

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Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.

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Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Cell nucleus

In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

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Cell Reports

Cell Reports is a peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing research papers across a broad range of disciplines within the life sciences.

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Centrifugation is a technique which involves the application of centrifugal force to separate particles from a solution according to their size, shape, density, viscosity of the medium and rotor speed.

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Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.

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Chloroplasts are organelles, specialized compartments, in plant and algal cells.

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Christian de Duve

Christian René Marie Joseph, Viscount de Duve (2 October 1917 – 4 May 2013) was a Nobel Prize-winning Belgian cytologist and biochemist.

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Conformational proofreading

Conformational proofreading (CPR) or conformational selection is a general mechanism of molecular recognition systems in which introducing a structural mismatch between a molecular recognizer and its target, or an energetic barrier, enhances the recognition specificity and quality.

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Crystallography is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in crystalline solids (see crystal structure).

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The cytosol, also known as intracellular fluid (ICF) or cytoplasmic matrix, is the liquid found inside cells.

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In chemistry, a disulfide refers to a functional group with the structure R−S−S−R′.

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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The E-site is the third and final binding site for t-RNA in the ribosome during protein synthesis.

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Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 1 (eIF1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EIF1 gene.

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Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 6 (EIF6), also known as Integrin beta 4 binding protein (ITGB4BP), is a human gene.

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Electron microscope

An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.

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Endoplasmic reticulum

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.

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Escherichia coli

Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).

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Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).

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Eukaryotic large ribosomal subunit (60S)

Ribosomal particles are denoted according to their sedimentation coefficients in Svedberg units.

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Eukaryotic small ribosomal subunit (40S)

The eukaryotic small ribosomal subunit (40S) is the smaller subunit of the eukaryotic 80S ribosomes, with the other major component being the large ribosomal subunit (60S).

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Eukaryotic translation

Eukaryotic translation is the biological process by which messenger RNA is translated into proteins in eukaryotes.

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European Molecular Biology Organization

The European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO) is a professional organization of life scientists in Europe.

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Exocytosis is a form of active transport in which a cell transports molecules (e.g., neurotransmitters and proteins) out of the cell (exo- + cytosis) by expelling them through an energy-dependent process.

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Genetic code

The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) into proteins.

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George Emil Palade

George Emil Palade ForMemRS HonFRMS (November 19, 1912 – October 8, 2008) was a Romanian-American cell biologist.

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Gerald Edelman

Gerald Maurice Edelman (July 1, 1929 – May 17, 2014) was an American biologist who shared the 1972 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for work with Rodney Robert Porter on the immune system.

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Glutathione (GSH) is an important antioxidant in plants, animals, fungi, and some bacteria and archaea.

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Howard Hughes Medical Institute

The Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) is an American non-profit medical research organization based in Chevy Chase, Maryland.

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Hydroxy group

A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.

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Kozak consensus sequence

The Kozak consensus sequence, Kozak consensus or Kozak sequence is a sequence which occurs on eukaryotic mRNA and has the consensus (gcc)gccRccAUGG.

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Max Planck Society

The Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science (Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e. V.; abbreviated MPG) is a formally independent non-governmental and non-profit association of German research institutes founded in 1911 as the Kaiser Wilhelm Society and renamed the Max Planck Society in 1948 in honor of its former president, theoretical physicist Max Planck.

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Medicinal chemistry

Medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical chemistry are disciplines at the intersection of chemistry, especially synthetic organic chemistry, and pharmacology and various other biological specialties, where they are involved with design, chemical synthesis and development for market of pharmaceutical agents, or bio-active molecules (drugs).

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Messenger RNA

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.

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Methionine (symbol Met or M) is an essential amino acid in humans.

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Mitochondrial DNA

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

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Mitochondrial ribosome

Mitochondrial ribosome or mitoribosome is a protein complex that is active in mitochondria and functions as a riboprotein for translating mitochondrial mRNAs encoded in mtDNA.

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The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.

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Molecular machine

A molecular machine, nanite, or nanomachine, refers to any discrete number of molecular components that produce quasi-mechanical movements (output) in response to specific stimuli (input).

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The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).

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Nobel Prize

The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.

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Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.

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Nucleic acid tertiary structure

Nucleic acid tertiary structure is the three-dimensional shape of a nucleic acid polymer.

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The nucleolus (plural nucleoli) is the largest structure in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells.

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Nucleoproteins are any proteins that are structurally associated with nucleic acids, either DNA or RNA.

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Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.

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In genetics, an operon is a functioning unit of DNA containing a cluster of genes under the control of a single promoter.

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In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, in which their function is vital for the cell to live.

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The P-site (for peptidyl) is the second binding site for tRNA in the ribosome.

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Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.

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Peptide bond

A peptide bond is a covalent chemical bond linking two consecutive amino acid monomers along a peptide or protein chain.

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Peptidyl transferase

The peptidyl transferase is an aminoacyltransferase as well as the primary enzymatic function of the ribosome, which forms peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids using tRNAs during the translation process of protein biosynthesis.

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A polyribosome (or polysome) is a complex of an mRNA molecule and two or more ribosomes that act to translate mRNA instructions into polypeptides.

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Post-translational modification

Post-translational modification (PTM) refers to the covalent and generally enzymatic modification of proteins following protein biosynthesis.

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A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.

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Prokaryotic large ribosomal subunit

50S is the larger subunit of the 70S ribosome of prokaryotes.

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Prokaryotic small ribosomal subunit

The prokaryotic small ribosomal subunit, or 30S subunit, is the smaller subunit of the 70S ribosome found in prokaryotes.

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Prokaryotic translation

Prokaryotic translation is the process by which messenger RNA is translated into proteins in prokaryotes.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Protein biosynthesis

Protein synthesis is the process whereby biological cells generate new proteins; it is balanced by the loss of cellular proteins via degradation or export.

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Protein dynamics

Proteins are generally thought to adopt unique structures determined by their amino acid sequences, as outlined by Anfinsen's dogma.

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Protein folding

Protein folding is the physical process by which a protein chain acquires its native 3-dimensional structure, a conformation that is usually biologically functional, in an expeditious and reproducible manner.

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Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.

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Ribosomal protein

A ribosomal protein (r-protein or rProtein) is any of the proteins that, in conjunction with rRNA, make up the ribosomal subunits involved in the cellular process of translation.

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Ribosomal RNA

Ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) is the RNA component of the ribosome, and is essential for protein synthesis in all living organisms.

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Ribozymes (ribonucleic acid enzymes) are RNA molecules that are capable of catalyzing specific biochemical reactions, similar to the action of protein enzymes.

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Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.

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RNA world

The RNA world is a hypothetical stage in the evolutionary history of life on Earth, in which self-replicating RNA molecules proliferated before the evolution of DNA and proteins.

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Romanian Americans

Romanian Americans (Romanian: Români americani) are Americans who have Romanian ancestry.

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Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of yeast.

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Secretion is the movement of material from one point to another, e.g. secreted chemical substance from a cell or gland.

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Sedimentation is the tendency for particles in suspension to settle out of the fluid in which they are entrained and come to rest against a barrier.

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Shine-Dalgarno sequence

The Shine-Dalgarno (SD) Sequence is a ribosomal binding site in bacterial and archaeal messenger RNA, generally located around 8 bases upstream of the start codon AUG.

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Signal peptide

A signal peptide (sometimes referred to as signal sequence, targeting signal, localization signal, localization sequence, transit peptide, leader sequence or leader peptide) is a short peptide (usually 16-30 amino acids long) present at the N-terminus of the majority of newly synthesized proteins that are destined towards the secretory pathway.

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Start codon

The start codon is the first codon of a messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript translated by a ribosome.

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A svedberg unit (symbol S, sometimes Sv) is a non-metric unit for sedimentation rate.

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Symbiogenesis, or endosymbiotic theory, is an evolutionary theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells from prokaryotic organisms, first articulated in 1905 and 1910 by the Russian botanist Konstantin Mereschkowski, and advanced and substantiated with microbiological evidence by Lynn Margulis in 1967.

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Tetrahymena is a genus of free-living ciliates that can also switch from commensalistic to pathogenic modes of survival.

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Thermus thermophilus

Thermus thermophilus is a Gram negative eubacterium used in a range of biotechnological applications, including as a model organism for genetic manipulation, structural genomics, and systems biology.

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Thomas A. Steitz

Thomas Arthur Steitz (born August 23, 1940) is a biochemist, a Sterling Professor of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry at Yale University, and investigator at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, best known for his pioneering work on the ribosome.

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Three-domain system

The three-domain system is a biological classification introduced by Carl Woese et al. in 1977 that divides cellular life forms into archaea, bacteria, and eukaryote domains.

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Threonine (symbol Thr or T) is an amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

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Transcription (biology)

Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.

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Transfer RNA

A transfer RNA (abbreviated tRNA and formerly referred to as sRNA, for soluble RNA) is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length, that serves as the physical link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins.

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Translation (biology)

In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.

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University of Würzburg

The Julius Maximilian University of Würzburg (also referred to as the University of Würzburg, in German Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg) is a public research university in Würzburg, Germany.

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Vectorial synthesis

Vectorial synthesis is synthesis of exported proteins by ribosomes in which the ribosome-nascent chain complex is bound directly to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the nascent peptide chain moves through the ER membrane as it emerges from the ribosome.

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Venkatraman Ramakrishnan

Venkatraman "Venki" Ramakrishnan (born 1952) is an American and British structural biologist of Indian origin.

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Wobble base pair

A wobble base pair is a pairing between two nucleotides in RNA molecules that does not follow Watson-Crick base pair rules.

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X-ray crystallography

X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.

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16S ribosomal RNA

16S ribosomal RNA (or 16S rRNA) is the component of the 30S small subunit of a prokaryotic ribosome that binds to the Shine-Dalgarno sequence.

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18S ribosomal RNA

18S ribosomal RNA (abbreviated 18S rRNA) is a part of the ribosomal RNA.

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28S ribosomal RNA

28S ribosomal RNA is the structural ribosomal RNA (rRNA) for the large component, or large subunit (LSU) of eukaryotic cytoplasmic ribosomes, and thus one of the basic components of all eukaryotic cells.

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5.8S ribosomal RNA

In molecular biology the 5.8S ribosomal RNA (5.8S rRNA) is a non-coding RNA component of the large subunit of the eukaryotic ribosome and so plays an important role in protein translation.

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5S ribosomal RNA

The 5S ribosomal RNA (5S rRNA) is an approximately 120 nucleotide-long ribosomal RNA molecule with a mass of 40 kDa.

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Redirects here:

70S, 70S Ribosome, 70S ribosome, 70S ribosomes, A (aminoacyl) site, A site, Aminoacyl site, Bacterial ribosomes, E (exit) site, E site, Exit site, Free ribosome, P (peptidyl) site, P site, Peptidyl site, Ribosom, Ribosomal, Ribosomes.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ribosome

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