88 relations: Abiogenesis, Amino acid, Autocatalysis, Biology, Biomolecular structure, Biosensor, Biotin, Carl Woese, Catalysis, Cell (biology), Cell (journal), Chaperone (protein), Chemistry, Cofactor (biochemistry), Complementary DNA, Concatemer, Conformational isomerism, Covalent bond, Deoxyribozyme, Divalent, DNA, Enzyme, Francis Crick, Functional genomics, GIR1 branching ribozyme, GlmS glucosamine-6-phosphate activated ribozyme, Group I catalytic intron, Group II intron, Hairpin ribozyme, Hammerhead ribozyme, Hatchet ribozyme, Hepatitis delta virus ribozyme, HIV, In vitro, Intron, Ion, Laboratory, Leadzyme, Leslie Orgel, Ligand, Ligase, Ligase ribozyme, Magnesium, Molecular machine, Mutagenesis, Nobel Prize, Northwestern University, Nucleic acid analogue, Nucleic acid tertiary structure, Nucleotide, ..., OLE RNA, PAH world hypothesis, Peptide nucleic acid, Phenylalanine, Phosphodiester bond, Pistol ribozyme, Polymerase, Post-transcriptional modification, Prion, Protein, Protein folding, Reverse transcriptase, Ribonuclease P, Ribosomal RNA, Ribosome, Ribosome-binding site, Riboswitch, RNA, RNA polymerase, RNA splicing, RNA world, Sidney Altman, Spiegelman's Monster, Spliceosome, Streptavidin, Systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment, Theophylline, Thomas Cech, Transfer RNA, Translation (biology), Twister ribozyme, Twister sister ribozyme, University of Colorado Boulder, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Viral replication, VS ribozyme, Walter Gilbert, Yale University. Expand index (38 more) » « Shrink index
Abiogenesis, or informally the origin of life,Compare: Also occasionally called biopoiesis.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
A single chemical reaction is said to be autocatalytic if one of the reaction products is also a catalyst for the same or a coupled reaction.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
Biomolecular structure is the intricate folded, three-dimensional shape that is formed by a molecule of protein, DNA, or RNA, and that is important to its function.
A biosensor is an analytical device, used for the detection of an analyte, that combines a biological component with a physicochemical detector.
Biotin is a water-soluble B vitamin, also called vitamin B7 and formerly known as vitamin H or coenzyme R. Biotin is composed of a ureido ring fused with a tetrahydrothiophene ring.
Carl Richard Woese (July 15, 1928 – December 30, 2012) was an American microbiologist and biophysicist.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Cell is a peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing research papers across a broad range of disciplines within the life sciences.
In molecular biology, molecular chaperones are proteins that assist the covalent folding or unfolding and the assembly or disassembly of other macromolecular structures.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity.
In genetics, complementary DNA (cDNA) is DNA synthesized from a single stranded RNA (e.g., messenger RNA (mRNA) or microRNA) template in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme reverse transcriptase.
A concatemer is a long continuous DNA molecule that contains multiple copies of the same DNA sequence linked in series.
In chemistry, conformational isomerism is a form of stereoisomerism in which the isomers can be interconverted just by rotations about formally single bonds (refer to figure on single bond rotation).
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
Deoxyribozymes, also called DNA enzymes, DNAzymes, or catalytic DNA, are DNA oligonucleotides that are capable of performing a specific chemical reaction, often but not always catalytic.
In chemistry, a divalent (sometimes bivalent) element, ion, functional group, or molecule has a valence of two.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Francis Harry Compton Crick (8 June 1916 – 28 July 2004) was a British molecular biologist, biophysicist, and neuroscientist, most noted for being a co-discoverer of the structure of the DNA molecule in 1953 with James Watson, work which was based partly on fundamental studies done by Rosalind Franklin, Raymond Gosling and Maurice Wilkins.
Functional genomics is a field of molecular biology that attempts to make use of the vast wealth of data given by genomic and transcriptomic projects (such as genome sequencing projects and RNA sequencing) to describe gene (and protein) functions and interactions.
The Lariat capping ribozyme (formerly called GIR1 branching ribozyme) is a 179 nt ribozyme with an apparent resemblance to a group I ribozyme.
The glucosamine-6-phosphate riboswitch ribozyme (glmS ribozyme) is an RNA structure that resides in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of the mRNA transcript of the glmS gene.
Group I introns are large self-splicing ribozymes.
Group II introns are a large class of self-catalytic ribozymes and mobile genetic elements found within the genes of all three domains of life.
The hairpin ribozyme is a small section of RNA that can act as a ribozyme.
The hammerhead ribozyme is an RNA motif that catalyzes reversible cleavage and ligation reactions at a specific site within an RNA molecule.
The hatchet ribozyme is an RNA structure that catalyzes its own cleavage at a specific site.
The hepatitis delta virus (HDV) ribozyme is a non-coding RNA found in the hepatitis delta virus that is necessary for viral replication and is the only known human virus that utilizes ribozyme activity to infect its host.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.
An intron is any nucleotide sequence within a gene that is removed by RNA splicing during maturation of the final RNA product.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
A laboratory (informally, lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed.
Leadzyme is a small ribozyme (catalytic RNA), which catalyzes the cleavage of a specific phosphodiester bond.
Leslie Eleazer Orgel FRS (12 January 1927 – 27 October 2007) was a British chemist.
In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.
In biochemistry, a ligase is an enzyme that can catalyze the joining of two large molecules by forming a new chemical bond, usually with accompanying hydrolysis of a small pendant chemical group on one of the larger molecules or the enzyme catalyzing the linking together of two compounds, e.g., enzymes that catalyze joining of C-O, C-S, C-N, etc.
The RNA Ligase ribozyme was the first of several types of synthetic ribozymes produced by in vitro evolution and selection techniques.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
A molecular machine, nanite, or nanomachine, refers to any discrete number of molecular components that produce quasi-mechanical movements (output) in response to specific stimuli (input).
Mutagenesis is a process by which the genetic information of an organism is changed, resulting in a mutation.
The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
Northwestern University (NU) is a private research university based in Evanston, Illinois, United States, with other campuses located in Chicago and Doha, Qatar, and academic programs and facilities in Miami, Florida, Washington, D.C., and San Francisco, California.
Nucleic acid analogues are compounds which are analogous (structurally similar) to naturally occurring RNA and DNA, used in medicine and in molecular biology research.
Nucleic acid tertiary structure is the three-dimensional shape of a nucleic acid polymer.
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
OLE RNA (Ornate Large Extremophilic RNA) is a conserved RNA structure present in certain bacteria.
The PAH world hypothesis is a speculative hypothesis that proposes that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), known to be abundant in the universe, including in comets, and, as well, assumed to be abundant in the primordial soup of the early Earth, played a major role in the origin of life by mediating the synthesis of RNA molecules, leading into the RNA world.
Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) is an artificially synthesized polymer similar to DNA or RNA.
Phenylalanine (symbol Phe or F) is an α-amino acid with the formula.
A phosphodiester bond occurs when exactly two of the hydroxyl groups in phosphoric acid react with hydroxyl groups on other molecules to form two ester bonds.
The pistol ribozyme is an RNA structure that catalyzes its own cleavage at a specific site.
A polymerase is an enzyme (EC 126.96.36.199/7/19/48/49) that synthesizes long chains of polymers or nucleic acids.
Post-transcriptional modification or Co-transcriptional modification is the process in eukaryotic cells where primary transcript RNA is converted into mature RNA.
Prions are misfolded proteins that are associated with several fatal neurodegenerative diseases in animals and humans.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Protein folding is the physical process by which a protein chain acquires its native 3-dimensional structure, a conformation that is usually biologically functional, in an expeditious and reproducible manner.
A reverse transcriptase (RT) is an enzyme used to generate complementary DNA (cDNA) from an RNA template, a process termed reverse transcription.
Ribonuclease P (RNase P) is a type of ribonuclease which cleaves RNA.
Ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) is the RNA component of the ribosome, and is essential for protein synthesis in all living organisms.
The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation).
A ribosome binding site, or ribosomal binding site (RBS), is a sequence of nucleotides upstream of the start codon of an mRNA transcript that is responsible for the recruitment of a ribosome during the initiation of protein translation.
In molecular biology, a riboswitch is a regulatory segment of a messenger RNA molecule that binds a small molecule, resulting in a change in production of the proteins encoded by the mRNA.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
RNA polymerase (ribonucleic acid polymerase), both abbreviated RNAP or RNApol, official name DNA-directed RNA polymerase, is a member of a family of enzymes that are essential to life: they are found in all organisms (-species) and many viruses.
In molecular biology, splicing is the editing of the nascent precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) transcript into a mature messenger RNA (mRNA).
The RNA world is a hypothetical stage in the evolutionary history of life on Earth, in which self-replicating RNA molecules proliferated before the evolution of DNA and proteins.
Sidney Altman (born May 7, 1939) is a Canadian and American molecular biologist, who is the Sterling Professor of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology and Chemistry at Yale University.
Spiegelman's Monster is the name given to an RNA chain of only 218 nucleotides that is able to be reproduced by the RNA replication enzyme RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, also called RNA replicase.
A spliceosome is a large and complex molecular machine found primarily within the splicing speckles of the cell nucleus of eukaryotic cells.
Streptavidin is a 52.8 kDa protein purified from the bacterium Streptomyces avidinii.
Systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), also referred to as in vitro selection or in vitro evolution, is a combinatorial chemistry technique in molecular biology for producing oligonucleotides of either single-stranded DNA or RNA that specifically bind to a target ligand or ligands.
Theophylline, also known as 1,3-dimethylxanthine, is a methylxanthine drug used in therapy for respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma under a variety of brand names.
Thomas Robert Cech (born December 8, 1947) is an American chemist who shared the 1989 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Sidney Altman, for their discovery of the catalytic properties of RNA.
A transfer RNA (abbreviated tRNA and formerly referred to as sRNA, for soluble RNA) is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length, that serves as the physical link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins.
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.
The twister ribozyme is a catalytic RNA structure capable of self-cleavage.
The twister sister ribozyme is an RNA structure that catalyzes its own cleavage at a specific site.
The University of Colorado Boulder (commonly referred to as CU or Colorado) is a public research university located in Boulder, Colorado, United States.
The University of Illinois Urbana–Champaign (also known as U of I, Illinois, or colloquially as the University of Illinois or UIUC) is a public research university in the U.S. state of Illinois and the flagship institution of the University of Illinois System.
Viral replication is the formation of biological viruses during the infection process in the target host cells.
The Varkud satellite (VS) ribozyme is an RNA enzyme that carries out the cleavage of a phosphodiester bond.
Walter Gilbert (born March 21, 1932) is an American biochemist, physicist, molecular biology pioneer, and Nobel laureate.
Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.