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Index Rice

Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice). [1]

392 relations: Aboriginal Australians, Afghanistan, Agriculture in Sri Lanka, Al-Andalus, Al-Hasa, Alkylresorcinol, Amazake, Amazon wild rice, Ambemohar, American Civil War, American Society for Nutrition, Amylopectin, Amylose, Andhra Pradesh, Anemia, Anemophily, Annual plant, Antibiotic, Antifungal protein, Antiviral protein, Arab cuisine, Areca nut, Arkansas, Arkansas Delta, Aromatic rice, Arròs negre, Artificial rice, Ascomycota, Asian people, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Australia, Azolla, B vitamins, Bacillus cereus, Backcrossing, Balinese people, Banaue, Bangkok Post, Bangladesh, Barley, Base pair, Basket, Basmati, Batter (cooking), BBC News, Before Present, Beta-Carotene, Bhadriraju Krishnamurti, Biryani, Black rice, ..., Boiling, Bran, Breast milk, Brown planthopper, Brown rice, Butte County, California, Cajuns, California Gold Rush, Calorie, Calrose rice, Cambodia, Carbohydrate, Carbon dioxide, Cartel, Caryopsis, Caspian Sea, Cecidomyiidae, Cereal, Cereal germ, Chaff, Charleston, South Carolina, Chilo suppressalis, China, Chonburi Province, Chromolaena odorata, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, Cochliobolus miyabeanus, Colonial history of the United States, Companion planting, Complete protein, Congee, Consumer Reports, Cooking oil, Crayfish, Crop protection, Cultivar, Deepwater rice, Dewi Sri, Diarrhea, Disease, DNA repair, Dolma, Drought, Echinochloa, Ecosystem, Edible protein per unit area of land, Eighth Wonder of the World, Embryo, Endosperm, Enterotoxin, Essential amino acid, Eudicots, European colonization of the Americas, Evaporation, Export, Fall armyworm, Fat, Ferdinand Kittel, Fertilizer, Flood, Food and Agriculture Organization, Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate Statistical Database, Food and Drug Administration, Food Corporation of India, Food energy, Food security, Forbes, France, Fried rice, Fruitarianism, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, Gene expression, Genetic engineering, Genetically modified organism, Genome, Georgetown, South Carolina, Georgia (U.S. state), Germinated brown rice, Germination, Gibberellin, Gilan Province, Gluten, Gluten-free diet, Glutinous rice, Greek language, Green Revolution, Han Chinese, Henry Woodward (colonist), Hirschmanniella oryzae, History of China, Home-stored product entomology, Homologous recombination, Horchata, Human serum albumin, Hybrid (biology), Iberian Peninsula, Ideal gas law, Ifugao, Igorot people, Imidacloprid, India, Indonesia, Indonesian Bureau of Logistics, Inflorescence, Insecticide, Instant rice, International Rice Research Institute, International Year of Rice, Iran, Iron, Irrigation, Irrigation in Australia, Japanese rice, Japonica rice, Jasmine rice, Javanese people, John Thurber, Jordan Valley (Middle East), Karnataka, Kaveri, Krasnodar Krai, Lactoferrin, Lake Khanka, Laos, Latin, Leeton, New South Wales, List of dried foods, List of IARC Group 1 carcinogens, List of rice dishes, List of rice varieties, Louisiana, Ludovico Sforza, Lysozyme, Magnaporthe grisea, Maharashtra, Maize, Mallorca, Manganese, Mansfield Plantation, Maratelli, Marsh, Mazandaran Province, Mesopotamia, Methane, Methanogen, Micronutrient, Microorganism, Millwright, Mississippi, Mississippi Delta, Mississippi embayment, Missouri, Mochi, Model organism, Monocotyledon, Monsoon of South Asia, Mouthfeel, Muhlenbergia filipes, Murray River, Murray–Darling basin, Murrumbidgee River, Myanmar, National Food Authority (Philippines), Nature (journal), Nematode, Nepal, New Rice for Africa, New World, New York University, Niger River, Nile Delta, Noodle, Nukazuke, Nusaybin, Nutrient, Old French, Oral rehydration therapy, OREC, Organism, Oryza, Oryza glaberrima, Oryza rufipogon, Oryza sativa, Ovule, OxfordDictionaries.com, P. T. Srinivasa Iyengar, Paddy, Paddy field, Padi, Pakistan, Palestine (region), Parboiled rice, Parboiling, Pathogen, Patna rice, Pearl River (China), Penny (United States coin), Perennial plant, Perennial rice, Persian Gulf, Pest (organism), Pest control, Pesticide, Philippines, Phosop, Physiology, Phytolith, Pilaf, Pisa, Plantations in the American South, Poaceae, Pomacea canaliculata, Ponni rice, Popcorn, Porteresia, Portuguese Empire, Post-harvest losses (grains), Pound (mass), Pounded rice ritual, Pressure, Primorsky Krai, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Protein, Proto-Dravidian language, Proto-Indo-Iranian language, Puffed rice, Purdue University, Rat, Ratooning, Raw foodism, Reconquista, Red rice, Reference Daily Intake, Rhizoctonia solani, Rice and beans, Rice Belt, Rice bran oil, Rice bread, Rice cereal, Rice cooker, Rice huller, Rice milk, Rice polisher, Rice pudding, Rice ragged stunt virus, Rice weevil, Rice wine, Richard MacNeish, Richvale, California, Rijsttafel, Risotto, River delta, Riverina, Roman Empire, Royal Ploughing Ceremony, Russian Far East, Sabbath, Sacramento, California, Saffron rice, Sake, Sanskrit, Savannah, Georgia, Scirpophaga, Seed, Senegambia Confederation, Settler, Shennong, Sicily, Slavery in Africa, Slavery in the Spanish New World colonies, Smallholding, Snowy River, Soil, Soil salinity, Soil salinity control, Sona Masuri, South Carolina, Southeast Asia, Spanish Empire, Spodoptera mauritia, Sprouting, Sri Lanka, Stamen, Stanford University, Staple food, Starch, State of Brazil, Steaming, Stemborer, Steneotarsonemus spinki, Straw, Striga hermonthica, Sugarcane, Sundanese people, Susa, Sushi, Sustainable agriculture, System of Rice Intensification, Tabaristan, Takuan, Talc, Tamil language, Tapuy, Terai, Terrace (agriculture), Texas, Thailand, The Earth Institute, Thiamine, Thiamine deficiency, Threshing, Thrips, Tonne, UG, United Nations, United Nations General Assembly, United States Department of Agriculture, United States Environmental Protection Agency, University of the Philippines, Upland and lowland, Upland rice, Valencian Community, Variety (botany), Vector (epidemiology), Ventria Bioscience, Veracruz, Vermin, Vitamin A, Vitamin A deficiency, Volga River, Volume, Vomiting, Washington University in St. Louis, Wedding, Weed control, White rice, Wild rice, Winnowing barn, World Resources Institute, Yangtze, Yemen, Zongzi. Expand index (342 more) »

Aboriginal Australians

Aboriginal Australians are legally defined as people who are members "of the Aboriginal race of Australia" (indigenous to mainland Australia or to the island of Tasmania).

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Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.

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Agriculture in Sri Lanka

The primary form of agriculture in Sri Lanka is rice production.

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Al-Andalus (الأنْدَلُس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.

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Al-Ahsa, Al-Hasa, or Hadjar (الأحساء al-Aḥsāʾ, locally al-Ahasā) is a traditional oasis historical region in eastern Saudi Arabia whose name is used by the Al-Ahsa Governorate, which makes up much of that country's Eastern Province.

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Alkylresorcinols, also known as resorcinolic lipids, are phenolic lipids composed of long aliphatic chains and resorcinol-type phenolic rings.

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is a traditional sweet, low- or non-alcohol (depending on recipes) Japanese drink made from fermented rice.

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Amazon wild rice

Amazon wild rice refers to either of the two native (endemic) species of rice (Oryza) found in the Amazon region of South America and adjacent tropical areas, Oryza glumaepatula and Oryza latifolia.

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Ambemohar is a fragrant rice variant grown in the foothills of the Western ghats region of the state of Maharashtra in India.

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American Civil War

The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.

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American Society for Nutrition

The American Society for Nutrition (ASN) is an American society for professional researchers and practitioners in the field of nutrition.

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Amylopectin is a water-soluble polysaccharide and highly branched polymer of α-glucose units found in plants.

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Amylose is a polysaccharide made of α-D-glucose units, bonded to each other through α(1→4) glycosidic bonds.

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Andhra Pradesh

Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India.

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Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.

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Anemophily or wind pollination is a form of pollination whereby pollen is distributed by wind.

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Annual plant

An annual plant is a plant that completes its life cycle, from germination to the production of seeds, within one year, and then dies.

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An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.

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Antifungal protein

In molecular biology, proteins in the antifungal protein family consist of five antiparallel beta strands which are highly twisted creating a beta barrel stabilised by four internal disulphide bridges.

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Antiviral protein

Antiviral proteins are proteins that are induced by human or animal cells to interfere with viral replication.

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Arab cuisine

Arab cuisine (مطبخ عربي) is the cuisine of the Arabs, defined as the various regional cuisines spanning the Arab world, from the Maghreb to the Fertile Crescent and the Arabian Peninsula.

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Areca nut

The areca nut is the fruit of the areca palm (Areca catechu), which grows in much of the tropical Pacific (Melanesia and Micronesia), Southeast and South Asia, and parts of east Africa.

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Arkansas is a state in the southeastern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2017.

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Arkansas Delta

The Arkansas Delta is one of the six natural regions of the state of Arkansas.

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Aromatic rice

Aromatic rice is one of the major types of rice.

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Arròs negre

Arròs negre (arroz negro) is a Valencian and Catalan dish made with cuttlefish (or squid) and rice, somewhat similar to seafood paella.

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Artificial rice

Artificial rice is a grain product made to resemble rice.

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Ascomycota is a division or phylum of the kingdom Fungi that, together with the Basidiomycota, form the subkingdom Dikarya.

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Asian people

Asian people or Asiatic peopleUnited States National Library of Medicine.

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Asiatic Society of Bangladesh

The Asiatic Society of Bangladesh was established as the Asiatic Society of Pakistan in Dhaka in 1952, and renamed in 1972.

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Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Azolla (mosquito fern, duckweed fern, fairy moss, water fern) is a genus of seven species of aquatic ferns in the family Salviniaceae.

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B vitamins

B vitamins are a class of water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism.

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Bacillus cereus

Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, aerobic, facultatively anaerobic, motile, beta hemolytic bacterium commonly found in soil and food.

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Backcrossing is a crossing of a hybrid with one of its parents or an individual genetically similar to its parent, in order to achieve offspring with a genetic identity which is closer to that of the parent.

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Balinese people

The Balinese (Indonesian: Suku Bali) are an Austronesian ethnic group native to the Indonesian island of Bali.

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(or alternatively spelled as Banawe), officially the is a settlement_text in the province of,. According to the, it has a population of people.

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Bangkok Post

The Bangkok Post is a broadsheet English-language daily newspaper published in Bangkok, Thailand.

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Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.

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Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally.

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Base pair

A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.

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A basket is a container which is traditionally constructed from stiff fibers, which can be made from a range of materials, including wood splints, runners, and cane.

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Basmati (pronounced in South Asia) is a variety of long, slender-grained aromatic rice which is traditionally from the Indian subcontinent.

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Batter (cooking)

Batter is thin dough that can be easily poured into a pan.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Before Present

Before Present (BP) years is a time scale used mainly in geology and other scientific disciplines to specify when events occurred in the past.

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β-Carotene is an organic, strongly colored red-orange pigment abundant in plants and fruits.

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Bhadriraju Krishnamurti

Bhadriraju Krishnamurti (19 June 1928 – 11 August 2012) was an Indian Dravidianist and linguist.

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Biryani, also known as biriyani, biriani, birani or briyani, ¨spicy rice¨ is a South Asian mixed rice dish with its origins among the Muslims of the Indian subcontinent.

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Black rice

Black rice (also known as purple rice) is a range of rice types of the species Oryza sativa L., some of which are glutinous rice.

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Boiling is the rapid vaporization of a liquid, which occurs when a liquid is heated to its boiling point, the temperature at which the vapour pressure of the liquid is equal to the pressure exerted on the liquid by the surrounding atmosphere.

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Bran, also known as miller's bran, is the hard outer layers of cereal grain.

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Breast milk

Breast milk is the milk produced by the breasts (or mammary glands) of a human female to feed a child.

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Brown planthopper

The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) is a planthopper species that feeds on rice plants (Oryza sativa L.). BPH are among the most important pests of rice, and rice is the major staple crop for about half the world's population.

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Brown rice

Brown rice is whole grain rice, with the inedible outer hull removed; white rice is the same grain with the hull, bran layer and cereal germ removed.

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Butte County, California

Butte County is a county in the U.S. state of California.

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The Cajuns (Louisiana les Cadiens), also known as Acadians (Louisiana les Acadiens) are an ethnic group mainly living in the U.S. state of Louisiana, and in The Maritimes as well as Québec consisting in part of the descendants of the original Acadian exiles—French-speakers from Acadia (L'Acadie) in what are now the Maritimes of Eastern Canada.

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California Gold Rush

The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) began on January 24, 1848, when gold was found by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, California.

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A calorie is a unit of energy.

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Calrose rice

Calrose is a medium grain rice variety, notable for being the founding variety of the Californian rice industry.

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Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.

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A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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A cartel is a group of apparently independent producers whose goal is to increase their collective profits by means of price fixing, limiting supply, or other restrictive practices.

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In botany, a caryopsis (plural caryopses) is a type of simple dry fruit—one that is monocarpellate (formed from a single carpel) and indehiscent (not opening at maturity) and resembles an achene, except that in a caryopsis the pericarp is fused with the thin seed coat.

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Caspian Sea

The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.

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Cecidomyiidae (sometimes misspelled "Cecidomyidae") is a family of flies known as gall midges or gall gnats.

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A cereal is any edible components of the grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis) of cultivated grass, composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran.

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Cereal germ

The germ of a cereal is the reproductive part that germinates to grow into a plant; it is the embryo of the seed.

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Chaff is the dry, scaly protective casings of the seeds of cereal grain, or similar fine, dry, scaly plant material such as scaly parts of flowers, or finely chopped straw.

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Charleston, South Carolina

Charleston is the oldest and largest city in the U.S. state of South Carolina, the county seat of Charleston County, and the principal city in the Charleston–North Charleston–Summerville Metropolitan Statistical Area.

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Chilo suppressalis

Chilo suppressalis, the Asiatic rice borer or striped rice stemborer, is a moth of the family Crambidae.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Chonburi Province

Chonburi is an eastern province (changwat) of Thailand.

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Chromolaena odorata

Chromolaena odorata is a tropical and subtropical species of flowering shrub in the sunflower family.

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Cnaphalocrocis medinalis

Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, the rice leafroller, is a species of moth of the Crambidae family.

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Cochliobolus miyabeanus

Cochliobolus miyabeanus (formerly known as Helminthosporium oryzae) is a fungus that causes brown spot disease in rice.

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Colonial history of the United States

The colonial history of the United States covers the history of European colonization of the Americas from the start of colonization in the early 16th century until their incorporation into the United States of America.

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Companion planting

Companion planting in gardening and agriculture is the planting of different crops in proximity for any of a number of different reasons, including pest control, pollination, providing habitat for beneficial creatures, maximizing use of space, and to otherwise increase crop productivity.

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Complete protein

A complete protein (or whole protein) is a source of protein that contains an adequate proportion of all nine of the essential amino acids necessary for the dietary needs of an organism.

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Congee or conjee is a type of rice porridge or gruel popular in many Asian countries, especially East Asia.

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Consumer Reports

Consumer Reports is an American magazine published since 1930 by Consumers Union, a nonprofit organization dedicated to unbiased product testing, consumer-oriented research, public education, and advocacy.

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Cooking oil

Cooking oil is plant, animal, or synthetic fat used in frying, baking, and other types of cooking.

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Crayfish, also known as crawfish, crawdads, crawldads, freshwater lobsters, mountain lobsters, mudbugs or yabbies, are freshwater crustaceans resembling small lobsters, to which they are related; taxonomically, they are members of the superfamilies Astacoidea and Parastacoidea.

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Crop protection

Crop protection is the science and practice of managing plant diseases, weeds and other pests (both vertebrate and invertebrate)that damage agricultural crops and forestry.

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The term cultivarCultivar has two denominations as explained in Formal definition.

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Deepwater rice

Deepwater rice are varieties of rice (Oryza sativa) grown in flooded conditions with water more than deep for at least a month.

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Dewi Sri

Dewi Sri, or Shridevi (Dewi literally means goddess) (Javanese: ꦢꦺꦮꦶꦱꦿꦶ), Nyai Pohaci Sanghyang Asri (Sundanese) is the Javanese, Sundanese, and Balinese pre-Hindu and pre-Islam era goddess of rice and fertility, still widely worshipped on the islands of Bali and Java.

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Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.

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A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.

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DNA repair

DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome.

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Dolma is a family of stuffed vegetable dishes common in the Mediterranean cuisine and surrounding regions including the Balkans, the Caucasus, Russia, Central Asia and Middle East.

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A drought is a period of below-average precipitation in a given region, resulting in prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric, surface water or ground water.

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Echinochloa is a very widespread genus of plants in the grass family.

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An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.

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Edible protein per unit area of land

Edible protein per unit area of land is a measure of agricultural productivity.

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Eighth Wonder of the World

Eighth Wonder of the World is an unofficial title sometimes given to new buildings, structures, projects, or even designs that are deemed to be comparable to the seven Wonders of the World.

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An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.

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The endosperm is the tissue produced inside the seeds of most of the flowering plants following fertilization.

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An enterotoxin is a protein exotoxin released by a microorganism that targets the intestines.

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Essential amino acid

An essential amino acid, or indispensable amino acid, is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized ''de novo'' (from scratch) by the organism, and thus must be supplied in its diet.

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The eudicots, Eudicotidae or eudicotyledons are a clade of flowering plants that had been called tricolpates or non-magnoliid dicots by previous authors.

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European colonization of the Americas

The European colonization of the Americas describes the history of the settlement and establishment of control of the continents of the Americas by most of the naval powers of Europe.

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Evaporation is a type of vaporization that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gaseous phase before reaching its boiling point.

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The term export means sending of goods or services produced in one country to another country.

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Fall armyworm

The fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) is a species in the order of Lepidoptera and is the larval life stage of a fall armyworm moth.

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Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.

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Ferdinand Kittel

Reverend Ferdinand Kittel (ಫರ್ಡಿನ್ಯಾಂಡ್ ಕಿಟ್ಟೆಲ್) (7 April 1832 in Resterhafe, East Frisia – 18 December 1903 in Tübingen) was a priest and indologist with the Basel Mission in south India and worked in Mangalore, Madikeri and Dharwad in Karnataka.

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A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.

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A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land that is usually dry.

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Food and Agriculture Organization

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.

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Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate Statistical Database

The Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate Statistical Database (FAOSTAT) website disseminates statistical data collected and maintained by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).

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Food and Drug Administration

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.

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Food Corporation of India

The Food Corporation of India is an organization created and run by the Government of India.

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Food energy

Food energy is chemical energy that animals (including humans) derive from food through the process of cellular respiration.

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Food security

Food security is a condition related to the availability of food supply, group of people such as (ethnicities, racial, cultural and religious groups) as well as individuals' access to it.

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Forbes is an American business magazine.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Fried rice

Fried rice is a dish of cooked rice that has been stir-fried in a wok or a frying pan and is usually mixed with other ingredients such as eggs, vegetables, seafood, or meat.

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Fruitarianism is a diet that consists entirely or primarily of fruits in the botanical sense, and possibly nuts and seeds, without animal products.

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Gamma-Aminobutyric acid

gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.

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Gene expression

Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.

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Genetic engineering

Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.

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Genetically modified organism

A genetically modified organism (GMO) is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques (i.e., a genetically engineered organism).

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In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.

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Georgetown, South Carolina

Georgetown is the third oldest city in the U.S. state of South Carolina and the county seat of Georgetown County, in the Lowcountry.

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Georgia (U.S. state)

Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States.

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Germinated brown rice

Germinated brown rice (GBR; Korean: 발아현미 (hangul), 發芽玄米 (hanja), Bala hyeonmi, Japanese) is unpolished brown rice that has been allowed to germinate to improve the flavor and texture, and to increase levels of nutrients such as γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA).

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Germination is the process by which an organism grows from a seed or similar structure.

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Gibberellins (GAs) are plant hormones that regulate various developmental processes, including stem elongation, germination, dormancy, flowering, flower development and leaf and fruit senescence.

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Gilan Province

Gilan Province (اُستان گیلان, Ostān-e Gīlān, also Latinized as Guilan) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.

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Gluten (from Latin gluten, "glue") is a composite of storage proteins termed prolamins and glutelins and stored together with starch in the endosperm (which nourishes the embryonic plant during germination) of various cereal (grass) grains.

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Gluten-free diet

A gluten-free diet (GFD) is a diet that strictly excludes gluten, a mixture of proteins found in wheat and related grains, including barley, rye, oat, and all their species and hybrids (such as spelt, kamut, and triticale).

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Glutinous rice

Glutinous rice (Oryza sativa var. glutinosa; also called sticky rice, sweet rice or waxy rice) is a type of rice grown mainly in Southeast and East Asia and the eastern parts of South Asia, which has opaque grains, very low amylose content, and is especially sticky when cooked.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Green Revolution

The Green Revolution, or Third Agricultural Revolution, refers to a set of research and the development of technology transfer initiatives occurring between the 1930s and the late 1960s (with prequels in the work of the agrarian geneticist Nazareno Strampelli in the 1920s and 1930s), that increased agricultural production worldwide, particularly in the developing world, beginning most markedly in the late 1960s.

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Han Chinese

The Han Chinese,.

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Henry Woodward (colonist)

Henry Woodward (c. 1646 – c. 1690), often referred to as Dr.

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Hirschmanniella oryzae

Hirschmanniella oryzae, i.e. rice root nematode (RRN), is among the major pests of rice and is the most common plant-parasitic nematode found on irrigated rice.

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History of China

The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.

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Home-stored product entomology

Home stored product entomology is the study of insects which infest foodstuffs stored in the home.

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Homologous recombination

Homologous recombination is a type of genetic recombination in which nucleotide sequences are exchanged between two similar or identical molecules of DNA.

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Horchata, or orxata, is the name of several kinds of beverages, made of ground rice.

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Human serum albumin

Human serum albumin is the serum albumin found in human blood.

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Hybrid (biology)

In biology, a hybrid, or crossbreed, is the result of combining the qualities of two organisms of different breeds, varieties, species or genera through sexual reproduction.

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Iberian Peninsula

The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.

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Ideal gas law

The ideal gas law, also called the general gas equation, is the equation of state of a hypothetical ideal gas.

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Ifugao (Probinsia ti Ifugao; Lalawigan ng Ifugao) is a landlocked province of the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon.

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Igorot people

Igorot, or Cordillerans, is the collective name of several Austronesian ethnic groups in the Philippines, who inhabit the mountains of Luzon.

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Imidacloprid is a systemic insecticide that acts as an insect neurotoxin and belongs to a class of chemicals called the neonicotinoids which act on the central nervous system of insects.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.

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Indonesian Bureau of Logistics

The Indonesia Logistics Bureau (Indonesian: Badan Urusan Logistik/BULOG) is a government-owned company in Indonesia which deals with food distribution and price control.

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An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers arranged on a stem that is composed of a main branch or a complicated arrangement of branches.

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Insecticides are substances used to kill insects.

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Instant rice

Instant rice is rice that has been precooked.

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International Rice Research Institute

The International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) is an international agricultural research and training organization with headquarters in Los Baños, Laguna in the Philippines and offices in seventeen countries with ~1,300 staff.

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International Year of Rice

The year 2004 was declared the International Year of Rice by the United Nations, noting that rice is a staple food for more than half the world's population, and affirming the need to heighten awareness of the role of rice in alleviating poverty and malnutrition.

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Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

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Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals.

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Irrigation in Australia

Irrigation is a widespread practice required in many areas of Australia, the driest inhabited continent, to supplement low rainfall with water from other sources to assist in growing crops and pasture.

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Japanese rice

Japanese rice refers to a number of short-grain cultivars of Japonica rice including ordinary rice (uruchimai) and glutinous rice (mochigome).

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Japonica rice

Japonica rice (O. sativa subsp. japonica), sometimes called sinica rice, is one of the two major domestic varieties of Asian rice.

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Jasmine rice

Jasmine rice (ข้าวหอมมะลิ) is a long-grain variety of fragrant rice (also known as aromatic rice).

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Javanese people

The Javanese (Ngoko Javanese:, Madya Javanese:,See: Javanese language: Politeness Krama Javanese:, Ngoko Gêdrìk: wòng Jåwå, Madya Gêdrìk: tiyang Jawi, Krama Gêdrìk: priyantun Jawi, Indonesian: suku Jawa) are an ethnic group native to the Indonesian island of Java.

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John Thurber

John Thurber (1649-1717, last name also Churcher) was a pirate trader and slaver active off Madagascar.

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Jordan Valley (Middle East)

The Jordan Valley (עֵמֶק הַיַרְדֵּן, Emek HaYarden; الغور, Al-Ghor or Al-Ghawr) forms part of the larger Jordan Rift Valley.

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Karnataka also known Kannada Nadu is a state in the south western region of India.

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Kaveri (anglicized as Cauvery), also referred as Ponni, is an Indian river flowing through the states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.

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Krasnodar Krai

Krasnodar Krai (p) is a federal subject of Russia (a krai), located in the North Caucasus region in Southern Russia and administratively a part of the Southern Federal District.

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Lactoferrin (LF), also known as lactotransferrin (LTF), is a multifunctional protein of the transferrin family.

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Lake Khanka

Lake Khanka (о́зеро Ха́нка) or Lake Xingkai, is a freshwater lake on the border between Primorsky Krai, Russia and Heilongjiang province, Northeast China (at).

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Laos (ລາວ,, Lāo; Laos), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao: ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ, Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao; République démocratique populaire lao), commonly referred to by its colloquial name of Muang Lao (Lao: ເມືອງລາວ, Muang Lao), is a landlocked country in the heart of the Indochinese peninsula of Mainland Southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southwest and Thailand to the west and southwest.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Leeton, New South Wales

Leeton is a town located in the Riverina region of southern New South Wales, Australia.

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List of dried foods

This is a list of notable dried foods.

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List of IARC Group 1 carcinogens

Substances, mixtures and exposure circumstances in this list have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as Group 1: The agent (mixture) is carcinogenic to humans.

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List of rice dishes

This is a list of rice dishes from all over the world, arranged alphabetically.

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List of rice varieties

This is a list of rice varieties, also known as rice cultivars.

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Louisiana is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.

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Ludovico Sforza

Ludovico Maria Sforza (also known as Ludovico il Moro; 27 July 1452 – 27 May 1508), was Duke of Milan from 1494, following the death of his nephew Gian Galeazzo Sforza, until 1499.

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Lysozyme, also known as muramidase or N-acetylmuramide glycanhydrolase is an antimicrobial enzyme produced by animals that forms part of the innate immune system.

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Magnaporthe grisea

Magnaporthe grisea, also known as rice blast fungus, rice rotten neck, rice seedling blight, blast of rice, oval leaf spot of graminea, pitting disease, ryegrass blast, and Johnson spot, is a plant-pathogenic fungus that causes a serious disease affecting rice.

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Maharashtra (abbr. MH) is a state in the western region of India and is India's second-most populous state and third-largest state by area.

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Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.

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Mallorca, or Majorca, is the largest island in the Balearic Islands, which are part of Spain and located in the Mediterranean.

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Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.

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Mansfield Plantation

Mansfield Plantation is a well-preserved antebellum rice plantation, established in 1718 on the banks of the Black River in historic Georgetown County, South Carolina.

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Maratelli is a semifino rice native to the Asigliano Vercellese province of Vercelli in northern Italy.

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A marsh is a wetland that is dominated by herbaceous rather than woody plant species.

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Mazandaran Province

Mazandaran Province, (استان مازندران Ostān-e Māzandarān/Ostân-e Mâzandarân), is an Iranian province located along the southern coast of the Caspian Sea and in the adjacent Central Alborz mountain range, in central-northern Iran.

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Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.

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Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).

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Methanogens are microorganisms that produce methane as a metabolic byproduct in anoxic conditions.

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Micronutrients are essential elements required by organisms in small quantities throughout life to orchestrate a range of physiological functions to maintain health.

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A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.

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A millwright is a high precision craftsman or tradesman who installs, dismantles, repairs, reassembles, and moves machinery in factories, power plants, and construction sites.

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Mississippi is a state in the Southern United States, with part of its southern border formed by the Gulf of Mexico.

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Mississippi Delta

The Mississippi Delta, also known as the Yazoo-Mississippi Delta, is the distinctive northwest section of the U.S. state of Mississippi (and small portions of Arkansas and Louisiana) which lies between the Mississippi and Yazoo Rivers.

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Mississippi embayment

The Mississippi Embayment is a physiographic feature in the south-central United States, part of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain.

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Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States.

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is Japanese rice cake made of mochigome, a short-grain japonica glutinous rice.

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Model organism

A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.

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Monocotyledons, commonly referred to as monocots, (Lilianae sensu Chase & Reveal) are flowering plants (angiosperms) whose seeds typically contain only one embryonic leaf, or cotyledon.

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Monsoon of South Asia

The monsoon of South Asia is among several geographically distributed global monsoons.

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Mouthfeel refers to the physical sensations in the mouth caused by food or drink, as distinct from taste.

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Muhlenbergia filipes

Muhlenbergia filipes, gulf hairawn muhly or sweet grass, and syn.

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Murray River

The Murray River (or River MurrayIn South Australia, the rendition "River Murray" is the most common, as is "River Darling" and "River Torrens".) (Ngarrindjeri: Millewa, Yorta Yorta: Tongala) is Australia's longest river, at in length.

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Murray–Darling basin

The Murray–Darling basin is a large geographical area in the interior of southeastern Australia.

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Murrumbidgee River

Murrumbidgee River, a major tributary of the Murray River within the Murray–Darling basin and the second longest river in Australia.

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Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.

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National Food Authority (Philippines)

The Philippines' National Food Authority (Pambansang Pangasiwaan ng Pagkain, abbreviated as NFA), is an agency of the Philippine government under the Department of Agriculture) responsible for ensuring the food security of the Philippines and the stability of supply and price of rice, the Philippines' staple grain.

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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The nematodes or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda (also called Nemathelminthes).

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Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.

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New Rice for Africa

New Rice for Africa ("NERICA") is a cultivar group of interspecific hybrid rice developed by the Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice) to improve the yield of African rice cultivars.

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New World

The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).

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New York University

New York University (NYU) is a private nonprofit research university based in New York City.

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Niger River

The Niger River is the principal river of West Africa, extending about.

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Nile Delta

The Nile Delta (دلتا النيل or simply الدلتا) is the delta formed in Northern Egypt (Lower Egypt) where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea.

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Noodles are a staple food in many cultures.

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are a type of Japanese pickle, made by fermenting vegetables in rice bran (nuka).

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Nusaybin (Akkadian: Naṣibina; Classical Greek: Νίσιβις, Nisibis; نصيبين., Kurdish: Nisêbîn; ܢܨܝܒܝܢ, Nṣībīn; Armenian: Մծբին, Mtsbin) is a city and multiple titular see in Mardin Province, Turkey.

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A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.

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Old French

Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.

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Oral rehydration therapy

Oral rehydration therapy (ORT) is a type of fluid replacement used to prevent and treat dehydration, especially that due to diarrhea.

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The Organisation of Rice Exporting Countries (OREC) describes a project of a small group of South-East Asian countries to create a homonymous organisation.

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In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.

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Oryza is a genus of plants in the grass family.

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Oryza glaberrima

Oryza glaberrima, commonly known as African rice, is one of the two domesticated rice species.

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Oryza rufipogon

Oryza rufipogon, known as brownbeard rice, wild rice, and red rice, is a member of the genus Oryza.

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Oryza sativa

Oryza sativa, commonly known as Asian rice, is the plant species most commonly referred to in English as rice.

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In seed plants, the ovule is the structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells.

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OxfordDictionaries.com, originally titled Oxford Dictionaries Online (ODO) and rebranded Oxford Living Dictionaries in 2017, is an online dictionary produced by the Oxford University Press (OUP) publishing house, a department of the University of Oxford, which also publishes a number of print dictionaries, among other works.

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P. T. Srinivasa Iyengar

Pillaipundagudi Thiruvengadattaiyangar Srinivasa Iyengar (1863–1931) was an Indian historian, linguist and educationist who wrote books on the history of South India.

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Paddy may refer to.

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Paddy field

A paddy field is a flooded parcel of arable land used for growing semiaquatic rice.

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Padi or PADI may refer to.

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Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.

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Palestine (region)

Palestine (فلسطين,,; Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Palaestina; פלשתינה. Palestina) is a geographic region in Western Asia.

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Parboiled rice

Parboiled rice (also called converted rice) is rice that has been partially boiled in the husk.

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Parboiling (or leaching) is the partial boiling of food as the first step in cooking.

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In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.

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Patna rice

Patna rice, a variety of the species Oryza sativa, and one of the varieties of long-grain white rice, is extensively cultivated in the Indo-Gangetic plains, in and around Patna, capital of Bihar state, India.

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Pearl River (China)

The Pearl River, also known by its Chinese name Zhujiang and formerly often known as the, is an extensive river system in southern China.

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Penny (United States coin)

The United States one-cent coin, often called a penny, is a unit of currency equaling one-hundredth of a United States dollar.

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Perennial plant

A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant that lives more than two years.

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Perennial rice

Perennial rice are varieties of long-lived rice that are capable of regrowing season after season without reseeding; they are being developed by plant geneticists at several institutions.

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Persian Gulf

The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.

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Pest (organism)

A pest is a plant or animal detrimental to humans or human concerns including crops, livestock, and forestry.

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Pest control

Pest control is the regulation or management of a species defined as a pest, a member of the animal kingdom that impacts adversely on human activities.

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Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.

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The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.

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Phosop (โพสพ) or Phaisop (ไพสพ) is the rice goddess of the Thai people.

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Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.

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Phytoliths (from Greek, "plant stone") are rigid, microscopic structures made of silica, found in some plant tissues and persisting after the decay of the plant.

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Pilaf or pilau is a dish in which rice is cooked in a seasoned broth.

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Pisa is a city in the Tuscany region of Central Italy straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea.

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Plantations in the American South

Plantations were an important aspect of the history of the American South, particularly the antebellum (pre-American Civil War) era.

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Poaceae or Gramineae is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses, commonly referred to collectively as grass.

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Pomacea canaliculata

Pomacea canaliculata, commonly known as the golden apple snail or the channeled apple snail, is a species of large freshwater snail with gills and an operculum, an aquatic gastropod mollusk in the family Ampullariidae, the apple snails.

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Ponni rice

Ponni rice is a variety of rice developed by Tamil Nadu Agricultural University in 1986.

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Popcorn, popcorns, or pop-corn, is a variety of corn kernel, which expands and puffs up when heated.

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Porteresia coarctata is a species of grass in the Poaceae family, native to India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and Myanmar.

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Portuguese Empire

The Portuguese Empire (Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire of the Renaissance.

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Post-harvest losses (grains)

Grains may be lost in the pre-harvest, harvest, and post-harvest stages.

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Pound (mass)

The pound or pound-mass is a unit of mass used in the imperial, United States customary and other systems of measurement.

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Pounded rice ritual

The pounded rice ritual normally occurs with an arranged marriage occurring in Southeast Asia.

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Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.

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Primorsky Krai

Primorsky Krai (p; 프리모르스키 지방) is a federal subject (a krai) of Russia, located in the Far East region of the country and is a part of the Far Eastern Federal District.

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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Proto-Dravidian language

Proto-Dravidian is the linguistic reconstruction of the common ancestor of the Dravidian languages.

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Proto-Indo-Iranian language

Proto-Indo-Iranian or Proto-Indo-Iranic is the reconstructed proto-language of the Indo-Iranian/Indo-Iranic branch of Indo-European.

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Puffed rice

Puffed rice is a type of puffed grain from the Indian subcontinent, made from rice, commonly used in breakfast cereal or snack foods, and served as a popular street food in India, Bangladesh and Nepal.

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Purdue University

Purdue University is a public research university in West Lafayette, Indiana and is the flagship campus of the Purdue University system.

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Rats are various medium-sized, long-tailed rodents in the superfamily Muroidea.

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Ratooning is the agricultural practice of harvesting a monocot crop by cutting most of the above ground portion but leaving the roots and growing shoot apices intact so as to allow the plants to recover and produce a fresh crop in the next season.

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Raw foodism

Raw foodism, also known as following a raw food diet, is the dietary practice of eating only (or mostly) food that is uncooked and unprocessed.

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The Reconquista (Spanish and Portuguese for the "reconquest") is a name used to describe the period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula of about 780 years between the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711 and the fall of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada to the expanding Christian kingdoms in 1492.

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Red rice

Red rice is a variety of rice that is colored red by its anthocyanin content.

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Reference Daily Intake

The Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily intake level of a nutrient that is considered to be sufficient to meet the requirements of 97–98% of healthy individuals in every demographic in the United States.

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Rhizoctonia solani

Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph: Thanatephorus cucumeris) is a plant pathogenic fungus with a wide host range and worldwide distribution.

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Rice and beans

Rice and beans or beans and rice is type of dish made from a combination of staple foods in many cultures around the world.

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Rice Belt

The Rice Belt of the United States includes Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi and Texas, four southern U.S. states that grow a significant portion of the nation's rice crop.

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Rice bran oil

Rice bran oil is the oil extracted from the hard outer brown layer of rice called chaff (rice husk).

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Rice bread

Rice bread is a type of bread that is made from rice flour rather than wheat flour.

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Rice cereal

Rice cereal is the name commonly given to industrially manufactured baby food based on rice.

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Rice cooker

A rice cooker or rice steamer is an automated kitchen appliance designed to boil or steam rice.

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Rice huller

A rice huller or rice husker is an agricultural machine used to automate the process of removing the chaff (the outer husks) of grains of rice.

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Rice milk

Rice milk is a grain milk made from rice.

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Rice polisher

A rice polisher is a machine for buffing (or "polishing") kernels of rice to change their appearance, taste, and texture.

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Rice pudding

Rice pudding is a dish made from rice mixed with water or milk and other ingredients such as cinnamon and raisins.

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Rice ragged stunt virus

Rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Reoviridae.

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Rice weevil

The rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae) is a stored product pest which attacks several crops, including wheat, rice, and maize.

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Rice wine

Rice wine is an alcoholic beverage fermented and distilled from rice, traditionally consumed in East Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia.

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Richard MacNeish

Richard Stockton MacNeish (April 29, 1918 – January 16, 2001), known to many as "Scotty", was an American archaeologist.

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Richvale, California

Richvale (also, Richland, Silbys Switch, Silsby) is a small census-designated place (population 244) in Butte County, California, USA, south of Chico and west of Oroville.

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The Indonesian rijsttafel, a Dutch word that literally translates to "rice table", is an elaborate meal adapted by the Dutch following the hidang presentation of nasi Padang from the Padang region of West Sumatra.

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Risotto is a northern Italian rice dish cooked in a broth to a creamy consistency.

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River delta

A river delta is a landform that forms from deposition of sediment carried by a river as the flow leaves its mouth and enters slower-moving or stagnant water.

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The Riverina is an agricultural region of South-Western New South Wales (NSW), Australia.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Royal Ploughing Ceremony

The Royal Ploughing Ceremony (พระราชพิธีจรดพระนังคัลแรกนาขวัญ Phra Ratcha Phithi Charot Phra Nangkhan Raek Na Khwan; ព្រះរាជពិធីបុណ្យច្រត់ព្រះនង្គ័ល Preah Reach Pithi Chrot Preah Neangkol; වප් මඟුල් Vap Magula) also known as The Ploughing Festival is an ancient royal rite held in many Asian countries to mark the traditional beginning of the rice growing season. The royal ploughing ceremony, called Lehtun Mingala or Mingala Ledaw, was also practiced in pre-colonial Burma until 1885 when the monarchy was abolished.

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Russian Far East

The Russian Far East (p) comprises the Russian part of the Far East - the extreme eastern territory of Russia, between Lake Baikal in Eastern Siberia and the Pacific Ocean.

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Sabbath is a day set aside for rest and worship.

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Sacramento, California

Sacramento is the capital city of the U.S. state of California and the seat of Sacramento County.

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Saffron rice

Saffron rice is a dish made from saffron, white rice and also usually vegetable bouillon.

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, also spelled saké, also referred to as a Japanese rice wine, is an alcoholic beverage made by fermenting rice that has been polished to remove the bran.

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Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.

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Savannah, Georgia

Savannah is the oldest city in the U.S. state of Georgia and is the county seat of Chatham County.

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Scirpophaga is a genus of moths of the Crambidae family described by Georg Friedrich Treitschke in 1832.

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A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering.

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Senegambia Confederation

Senegambia, officially the Senegambia Confederation, was a loose confederation in the late 20th century between the West African countries of Senegal and its neighbour The Gambia, which is almost completely surrounded by Senegal.

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A settler is a person who has migrated to an area and established a permanent residence there, often to colonize the area.

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Shennong (which can be variously translated as "God Farmer" or "God Peasant", "Agriculture God"), also known as the Wugushen (五穀神 "Five Grains' or Five Cereals' God") or also Wuguxiandi (五穀先帝 "First Deity of the Five Grains"), is a deity in Chinese religion, a mythical sage ruler of prehistoric China.

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Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.

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Slavery in Africa

Slavery has historically been widespread in Africa, and still continues today in some countries.

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Slavery in the Spanish New World colonies

Slavery in the Spanish American colonies was an economic and social institution central to the operations of the Spanish Empire - it bound Africans and indigenous people to a relationship of colonial exploitation.

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A smallholding is a small farm.

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Snowy River

The Snowy River is a major river in south-eastern Australia.

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Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.

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Soil salinity

Soil salinity is the salt content in the soil; the process of increasing the salt content is known as salinization.

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Soil salinity control

Soil salinity control relates to controlling the problem of soil salinity and reclaiming salinized agricultural land.

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Sona Masuri

Sona Masuri (also, Sona Masoori, Samba Masuri, BPT 5204, HMT, or Jeela karra masuri) is a medium-grain rice grown largely in the Indian states of Telangana, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.

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South Carolina

South Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.

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Southeast Asia

Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.

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Spanish Empire

The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.

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Spodoptera mauritia

Spodoptera mauritia, the lawn armyworm, also known as paddy swarming caterpillar, is a moth of the family Noctuidae.

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Sprouting is the practice of germinating seeds to be eaten raw or cooked.

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Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්‍රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.

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The stamen (plural stamina or stamens) is the pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower.

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Stanford University

Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.

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Staple food

A staple food, or simply a staple, is a food that is eaten routinely and in such quantities that it constitutes a dominant portion of a standard diet for a given people, supplying a large fraction of energy needs and generally forming a significant proportion of the intake of other nutrients as well.

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Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.

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State of Brazil

The State of Brazil (Estado do Brasil) was one of the states of the Portuguese Empire, in the Americas during the period of Colonial Brazil.

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Steaming is a method of cooking using steam.

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A stemborer (stem borer) is any insect larva, or arthropod, that bores into plant stems.

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Steneotarsonemus spinki

Steneotarsonemus spinki, the panicle rice mite, spinki mite, or rice tarsonemid mite, is a species of mite in the family Tarsonemidae, the white mites.

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Straw is an agricultural by-product, the dry stalks of cereal plants, after the grain and chaff have been removed.

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Striga hermonthica

Striga hermonthica, commonly known as purple witchweed or giant witchweed, is a hemiparasitic plant that belongs to the family Orobanchaceae.

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Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South and Southeast Asia, Polynesia and Melanesia, and used for sugar production.

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Sundanese people

The Sundanese (Sundanese:, Urang Sunda) are an Austronesian ethnic group native to the western part of the Indonesian island of Java.

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Susa (fa Šuš;; שׁוּשָׁן Šušān; Greek: Σοῦσα; ܫܘܫ Šuš; Old Persian Çūšā) was an ancient city of the Proto-Elamite, Elamite, First Persian Empire, Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanian empires of Iran, and one of the most important cities of the Ancient Near East.

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is a Japanese dish of specially prepared, usually with some sugar and salt, combined with a variety of, such as seafood, vegetables, and occasionally tropical fruits.

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Sustainable agriculture

Sustainable agriculture is farming in sustainable ways based on an understanding of ecosystem services, the study of relationships between organisms and their environment.

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System of Rice Intensification

The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is a methodology aimed at increasing the yield of rice produced in farming.

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Tabaristan (from Middle Persian:, Tapurstān), also known as Tapuria (land of Tapurs), was the name applied to Mazandaran, a province in northern Iran.

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Takuan (also spelled takuwan) or takuan-zuke, known as danmuji in Korean cuisine context, is pickled daikon radish.

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Talc or talcum is a clay mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4 or Mg3Si4O10(OH)2.

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Tamil language

Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.

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Tapuy, is an alcoholic rice drink produced in the Philippines.

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The Terai (तराई तराइ) is a lowland region in southern Nepal and northern India that lies south of the outer foothills of the Himalayas, the Siwalik Hills, and north of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.

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Terrace (agriculture)

In agriculture, a terrace is a piece of sloped plane that has been cut into a series of successively receding flat surfaces or platforms, which resemble steps, for the purposes of more effective farming.

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Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.

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Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.

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The Earth Institute

The Earth Institute was established at Columbia University in 1995.

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Thiamine, also known as thiamin or vitamin B1, is a vitamin found in food, and manufactured as a dietary supplement and medication.

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Thiamine deficiency

Thiamine deficiency is a medical condition of low levels of thiamine (vitamin B1).

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Threshing is the process of loosening the edible part of grain (or other crop) from the husks and straw to which it is attached.

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Thrips (order Thysanoptera) are minute (most are 1 mm long or less), slender insects with fringed wings and unique asymmetrical mouthparts.

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The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.

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UG, U.G., or Ug may refer to.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United Nations General Assembly

The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.

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United States Department of Agriculture

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food.

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United States Environmental Protection Agency

The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.

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University of the Philippines

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Upland and lowland

Upland and lowland are conditional descriptions of a plain based on elevation above sea level.

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Upland rice

Upland rice is rice grown on dry soil rather than flooded rice paddies.

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Valencian Community

The Valencian Community, or the Valencian Country, is an autonomous community of Spain.

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Variety (botany)

In botanical nomenclature, variety (abbreviated var.; in varietas) is a taxonomic rank below that of species and subspecies but above that of form.

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Vector (epidemiology)

In epidemiology, a disease vector is any agent that carries and transmits an infectious pathogen into another living organism; most agents regarded as vectors are organisms, such as intermediate parasites or microbes, but it could be an inanimate medium of infection such as dust particles.

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Ventria Bioscience

Ventria Bioscience is a biotech company with a focus on human nutrition and human therapeutics.

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Veracruz, formally Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave,In isolation, Veracruz, de and Llave are pronounced, respectively,, and.

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Vermin (colloquially varmint or varmit) are pests or nuisance animals, that spread diseases or destroy crops or livestock.

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Vitamin A

Vitamin A is a group of unsaturated nutritional organic compounds that includes retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, and several provitamin A carotenoids (most notably beta-carotene).

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Vitamin A deficiency

Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) or hypovitaminosis A is a lack of vitamin A in blood and tissues.

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Volga River

The Volga (p) is the longest river in Europe.

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Volume is the quantity of three-dimensional space enclosed by a closed surface, for example, the space that a substance (solid, liquid, gas, or plasma) or shape occupies or contains.

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Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.

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Washington University in St. Louis

Washington University in St.

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A wedding is a ceremony where two people are united in marriage.

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Weed control

Weed control is the botanical component of pest control, which attempts to stop weeds, especially noxious or injurious weeds, from competing with desired flora and fauna, this includes domesticated plants and livestock, and in natural settings, it includes stopping non local species competing with native, local, species, especially so in reserves and heritage areas.

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White rice

White rice is milled rice that has had its husk, bran, and germ removed.

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Wild rice

Wild rice (Ojibwe: Manoomin, Sanskrit: 'नीवार', IAST:; also called Canada rice, Indian rice, and water oats) are four species of grasses forming the genus Zizania, and the grain that can be harvested from them.

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Winnowing barn

Winnowing barns (or winnowing houses) were commonly found in South Carolina on antebellum rice plantations.

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World Resources Institute

The World Resources Institute (WRI) is a global research non-profit organization that was established in 1982 with funding from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation under the leadership of James Gustave Speth.

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The Yangtze, which is 6,380 km (3,964 miles) long, is the longest river in Asia and the third-longest in the world.

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Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Zongzi is a traditional Chinese food made of glutinous rice stuffed with different fillings and wrapped in bamboo leaves, generally of the species Indocalamus tessellatus, sometimes, with reed leaves, or other large flat leaves.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rice

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