335 relations: Aénor de Châtellerault, Acre, Israel, Adela of Champagne, Aimar V of Limoges, Aimery I, Viscount of Châtellerault, Alfred the Great, Alison Weir, Alix of France, Alys of France, Countess of Vexin, Ambroise, André Grétry, Andrei Konchalovsky, Andrew Howard, Angevin Empire, Angevin kings of England, Anglo-Saxons, Angoulême, Angus Donald, Anthony Harvey, Anthony Hopkins, Aquileia, Archbishop of Canterbury, Arthur I, Duke of Brittany, Ashkelon, Assassins, Auchinleck manuscript, Aumale, Île-de-France, Baha ad-Din ibn Shaddad, Baldwin I, Latin Emperor, Baldwin of Forde, Ballans, Battle of Arsuf, Battle of Gisors, Battle of Hattin, Battle of Jaffa (1192), Battle of Lepanto, Beaumont Palace, Berengaria of Navarre, Bertrade de Montfort, Bertran de Born, Bishop in the Catholic Church, Bishop of Durham, Bishop of Ely, Blazon, Blondel de Nesle, Brittany, Byzantine Empire, Cambridge Digital Library, Capetian dynasty, ..., Carucage, Castillon-sur-Agen, Catholic Church, Cecelia Holland, Cecil B. DeMille, Charente, Charles Oman, Châlus, Château de Châlus-Chabrol, Château de Gisors, Château de Taillebourg, Château Gaillard, Chinon, Chivalry, Coins of the pound sterling, Conan IV, Duke of Brittany, Confession (religion), Conrad of Montferrat, Constance, Duchess of Brittany, Constance, Queen of Sicily, Corfu, Count of Poitiers, Counts and dukes of Anjou, Counts and dukes of Maine, County of Nantes, Crest (heraldry), Crossbow, Cruelty, Crusades, Cultural depictions of Richard I of England, Culture of the United Kingdom, Cyprus, Dangereuse de l'Isle Bouchard, Danny Huston, Dürnstein, Dermot Walsh, Devil, Devil's Brood, Dieppe, Diocese of Canterbury, Diocese of Rochester, Dol-de-Bretagne, Dowry, Duchy of Aquitaine, Duchy of Gascony, Duchy of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Normandy, Edmund Allenby, 1st Viscount Allenby, Egypt, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Eleanor of England, Queen of Castile, Elias I, Count of Maine, Embalming, Empress Matilda, England national football team, Epithet, Ermengarde, Countess of Maine, Flaying, Fontevraud Abbey, Forced conversion, Frankincense, Fréteval, French Revolution, Fulk IV, Count of Anjou, Fulk, King of Jerusalem, Gangrene, Gascony, Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany, Geoffrey of Vinsauf, Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, George Frideric Handel, George Sanders, Gerald of Wales, Gisors, Gore Vidal, Gourdon, Lot, Graham Shelby, Great Seal of the Realm, Greed, Guy of Lusignan, Hanging, Heaven, Henry I of England, Henry II of England, Henry II, Count of Champagne, Henry Sandford, Henry the Lion, Henry the Young King, Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor, Henry Wilcoxon, Hildegarde of Burgundy, History of Limousin, Hodierna of St Albans, Holy Roman Emperor, Homosexuality, House of Plantagenet, House of Welf, Hugh Bigod, 1st Earl of Norfolk, Hugh de Puiset, Hugh III, Duke of Burgundy, Hugh Nonant, Hugh of Cyfeiliog, 5th Earl of Chester, Humphrey IV of Toron, Iain Glen, Ian Hunter (actor), Interdict, Isaac II Angelos, Isaac Komnenos of Cyprus, Isabella I of Jerusalem, Itinerarium Regis Ricardi, Ivanhoe, Ivanhoe (1952 film), Ivanhoe (1982 film), Jacob of Orléans, Jaffa, James Goldman, Jerusalem, Joan of England, Queen of Sicily, John Gillingham, John, King of England, Jordan Fantosme, Julian Glover, King Richard and the Crusaders, Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Heaven (film), Kingdom of Navarre, Kiss of peace, Knight, Knights Hospitaller, Knights Templar, La Rochelle, Lent, Leopold V, Duke of Austria, Limassol, Limoges, Limousin, Limousin dialect, List of Archbishops of Canterbury, List of English monarchs, Louis VII of France, Lust, Malcolm III of Scotland, Manorialism, Margaret of France, Queen of England and Hungary, Marie of France, Countess of Champagne, Mark (currency), Martha Rofheart, Massacre at Ayyadieh, Matilda of England, Duchess of Saxony, Matilda of Flanders, Matilda of Scotland, Melusine, Mercadier, Mercenary, Merchant, Messina, Michaelmas, Middle English, Ministerialis, Mistress (lover), Monarchy of the United 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Abbey, Wet nurse, William de Longchamp, William de Mandeville, 3rd Earl of Essex, William FitzRalph, William II of Sicily, William IV, Count of Toulouse, William IX, Count of Poitiers, William IX, Duke of Aquitaine, William of Newburgh, William Stubbs, William the Conqueror, William the Lion, William VIII, Duke of Aquitaine, William X, Duke of Aquitaine, World War I, Writ. 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Aénor of Châtellerault (also known as Aénor de Rochefoucauld) Duchess of Aquitaine (born c. 1103 in Châtellerault, died March 1130 in Talmont) was the mother of Eleanor of Aquitaine, who arguably became the most powerful woman in Europe of her generation.
Acre (or, עַכּוֹ, ʻAko, most commonly spelled as Akko; عكّا, ʻAkkā) is a city in the coastal plain region of Israel's Northern District at the extremity of Haifa Bay.
Adela of Champagne (Adèle; c. 1140 – 4 June 1206), also known as Adelaide and Alix, was Queen of France as the third wife of Louis VII.
Aimar V Boso (c. 1135, – c. 1199) was a Viscount of Limoges, a petty nobleman in the Loire valley in the Duchy of Aquitaine.
Aimery I de Rouchefoucould (– 7 November 1151), was the Viscount of Châtellerault and father of Aenor de Châtellerault.
Alfred the Great (Ælfrēd, Ælfrǣd, "elf counsel" or "wise elf"; 849 – 26 October 899) was King of Wessex from 871 to 899.
Alison Weir (born 8 July 1951) is a British writer of history books, and latterly historical novels, mostly in the form of biographies about British royalty.
Alix of France (July–August 1150 – 1197/1198) was countess consort of Blois by marriage to Theobald V, Count of Blois.
Alys of France, Countess of Vexin (4 October 1160 – c. 1220) was the daughter of King Louis VII of France and his second wife, Constance of Castile.
Ambroise, sometimes Ambroise of Normandy, (flourished) was a Norman poet and chronicler of the Third Crusade, author of a work called L'Estoire de la guerre sainte, which describes in rhyming Old French verse the adventures of Richard Cœur de Lion as a crusader.
André Ernest Modeste Grétry (baptised 11 February 1741; died 24 September 1813) was a composer from the Prince-Bishopric of Liège (present-day Belgium), who worked from 1767 onwards in France and took French nationality.
Andrei Sergeyevich Mikhalkov-Konchalovsky (Андре́й Серге́евич Михалко́в-Кончало́вский; born August 20, 1937) is a Russian film director, film producer and screenwriter.
Andrew Howard (born 12 June 1969) is a Welsh theatre, television and film actor.
The Angevin Empire (L'Empire Plantagenêt) is a collective exonym referring to the possessions of the Angevin kings of England, who also held lands in France, during the 12th and 13th centuries.
The Angevins ("from Anjou") were a royal house that ruled England in the 12th and early 13th centuries; its monarchs were Henry II, Richard I and John.
The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.
Angoulême (Poitevin-Saintongeais: Engoulaeme; Engoleime) is a commune, the capital of the Charente department, in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of southwestern France.
Angus Donald (born 1965 in China) is a British writer of historical fiction.
Anthony Harvey (3 June 1930 – 23 November 2017) was a British filmmaker who began his career as a teenage actor, was a film editor in the 1950s and moved into directing in the mid-1960s.
Sir Philip Anthony Hopkins (born 31 December 1937), better known as Anthony Hopkins, is a Welsh actor, widely considered to be one of the world's greatest living actors.
Aquileia (Acuilee/Aquilee/Aquilea;bilingual name of Aquileja - Oglej in: Venetian: Aquiłeja/Aquiłegia; Aglar/Agley/Aquileja; Oglej) is an ancient Roman city in Italy, at the head of the Adriatic at the edge of the lagoons, about from the sea, on the river Natiso (modern Natisone), the course of which has changed somewhat since Roman times.
The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury.
Arthur I (Arzhur Iañ; Arthur Ier de Bretagne) (29 March 1187 – probably 1203) was 4th Earl of Richmond and Duke of Brittany between 1196 and 1203.
Ashkelon (also spelled Ashqelon and Ascalon; help; عَسْقَلَان) is a coastal city in the Southern District of Israel on the Mediterranean coast, south of Tel Aviv, and north of the border with the Gaza Strip.
Order of Assassins or simply Assassins (أساسين asāsīn, حشاشین Hashâshīn) is the common name used to refer to an Islamic sect formally known as the Nizari Ismailis.
The Auchinleck Manuscript, NLS Adv.
Aumale, formerly known as Albemarle," is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region in north-western France.
Île-de-France ("Island of France"), also known as the région parisienne ("Parisian Region"), is one of the 18 regions of France and includes the city of Paris.
Bahā' ad-Dīn Yusuf ibn Rafi ibn Shaddād (بهاء الدين ابن شداد; the honorific title "Bahā' ad-Dīn" means "splendor of the faith"; sometimes known as Bohadin or Boha-Eddyn) (5 March 1145 – 8 November 1234) was a 12th-century Muslim jurist and scholar, a Kurdish historian of great note, notable for writing a biography of Saladin whom he knew well.
Baldwin I (Boudewijn; Baudouin; July 1172 –) was the first emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople.
Baldwin of Forde or FordSharpe Handlist of Latin Writers pp.
Ballans is a French commune in the Charente-Maritime department in the Poitou-Charente region of south-western France.
The Battle of Arsuf was a battle of the Third Crusade in which Richard I of England defeated the forces of Ayyubid leader Saladin.
The Battle of Gisors (September 27, 1198) was a skirmish fought in Courcelles-lès-Gisors, Oise, Picardy, part of the ongoing fighting between Richard I of England and Philip Augustus of France that lasted from 1194 to Richard's death in April 1199.
The Battle of Hattin took place on 4 July 1187, between the Crusader states of the Levant and the forces of the Ayyubid sultan Salah ad-Din, known in the West as Saladin.
The Battle of Jaffa took place during the Crusades, as one of a series of campaigns between the army of Sultan Saladin (Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb) and the Crusader forces led by King Richard I of England (known as Richard the Lionheart).
The Battle of Lepanto was a naval engagement that took place on 7 October 1571 when a fleet of the Holy League, of which the Venetian Empire and the Spanish Empire were the main powers, inflicted a major defeat on the fleet of the Ottoman Empire in the Gulf of Patras, where Ottoman forces sailing westward from their naval station in Lepanto (the Venetian name of ancient Naupactus Ναύπακτος, Ottoman İnebahtı) met the fleet of the Holy League sailing east from Messina, Sicily.
Beaumont Palace, built outside the north gate of Oxford, was intended by Henry I about 1130 to serve as a royal palace conveniently close to the royal hunting-lodge at Woodstock (now part of the park of Blenheim Palace).
Berengaria of Navarre (Berengela, Berenguela, Bérengère; 1165–1170 – 23 December 1230) was Queen of England as the wife of Richard I of England.
Bertrade de Montfort (c. 1070 – 14 February 1117) was a queen consort of France by marriage to Philip I of France.
Bertran de Born (1140s – by 1215) was a baron from the Limousin in France, and one of the major Occitan troubadours of the twelfth century.
In the Catholic Church, a bishop is an ordained minister who holds the fullness of the sacrament of holy orders and is responsible for teaching doctrine, governing Catholics in his jurisdiction, sanctifying the world and representing the Church.
The Bishop of Durham is the Anglican bishop responsible for the Diocese of Durham in the Province of York.
The Bishop of Ely is the ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Ely in the Province of Canterbury.
In heraldry and heraldic vexillology, a blazon is a formal description of a coat of arms, flag or similar emblem, from which the reader can reconstruct the appropriate image.
Blondel de Nesle – either Jean I of Nesle (c. 1155 – 1202) or his son Jean II of Nesle (died 1241) – was a French trouvère.
Brittany (Bretagne; Breizh, pronounced or; Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced) is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
The Cambridge Digital Library is a project operated by the Cambridge University Library designed to make items from the unique and distinctive collections of Cambridge University Library available online.
The Capetian dynasty, also known as the House of France, is a dynasty of Frankish origin, founded by Hugh Capet.
Carucage was a medieval English land tax introduced by King Richard I in 1194, based on the size—variously calculated—of the estate owned by the taxpayer.
Castillion-sur-Agen was a medieval castle in the commune of Bon-Encontre, near Agen in Aquitaine, France.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Cecelia Holland is an American historical fiction novelist.
Cecil Blount DeMille (August 12, 1881 – January 21, 1959) was an American filmmaker.
Charente (Saintongeais: Chérente, Occitan: Charanta) is a department in southwestern France, in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region, named after the Charente River, the most important river in the department, and also the river beside which the department's two largest towns, Angoulême and Cognac, are sited.
Sir Charles William Chadwick Oman, KBE, FBA (12 January 1860 – 23 June 1946) was a British military historian.
Châlus is a commune in the Haute-Vienne department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in western France.
The Château de Chalus-Chabrol (Occitan Limousin: Chasteu de Chasluç-Chabròl) is a castle in the commune of Châlus in the département of Haute-Vienne, France.
The Château de Gisors is a castle in the town of Gisors in the départment of Eure, France.
The Château de Taillebourg is a ruined castle from the medieval era.
Château Gaillard ("Strong Castle") is a ruined medieval castle, located above the commune of Les Andelys overlooking the River Seine, in the Eure département of Normandy, France.
Chinon is a commune located in the Indre-et-Loire department in the Region Centre, France.
Chivalry, or the chivalric code, is an informal, varying code of conduct developed between 1170 and 1220, never decided on or summarized in a single document, associated with the medieval institution of knighthood; knights' and gentlewomen's behaviours were governed by chivalrous social codes.
The standard circulating coinage of the United Kingdom is denominated in pounds sterling (symbol "£"), and, since the introduction of the two-pound coin in 1994 (to celebrate the 300th anniversary of the Bank of England 1694–1994), ranges in value from one penny to two pounds.
Conan IV of Penthièvre (1138 – February 20, 1171), (Breton: Konan IV Penteur, and Konan Breizh) called "the Young", was duke of Brittany, from 1156 to 1166.
Confession, in many religions, is the acknowledgment of one's sins (sinfulness) or wrongs.
Conrad of Montferrat (Italian: Corrado del Monferrato; Piedmontese: Conrà ëd Monfrà) (died 28 April 1192) was a north Italian nobleman, one of the major participants in the Third Crusade.
Constance (Breton: Konstanza; 1161 – c. 5 September 1201) was Duchess of Brittany from 1166 to her death in 1201Judith Everard, Michael Jones, The Charters of Duchess Constance of Brittany and her Family (1171-1221), The Boydell Press, 1999, p. 38 and Countess of Richmond from 1171 to 1201.
Constance (2 November 1154 – 27 November 1198) was Queen regnant of Sicily in 1194–98, jointly with her spouse from 1194 to 1197, and with her infant son Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, in 1198, as the heiress of the Norman kings of Sicily.
Corfu or Kerkyra (translit,; translit,; Corcyra; Corfù) is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea.
Among the people who have borne the title of Count of Poitiers (or Poitou, in what is now France but in the Middle Ages became part of Aquitaine) are.
The Count of Anjou was the ruler of the county of Anjou, first granted by Charles the Bald in the 9th century to Robert the Strong.
This is a list of counts and dukes of Maine, with their capital at Le Mans.
The Counts of Nantes were originally the Frankish rulers of the Nantais under the Carolingians and eventually a capital city of the Duchy of Brittany.
A crest is a component of a heraldic display, consisting of the device borne on top of the helm.
A crossbow is a type of ranged weapon based on the bow and consisting of a horizontal bow-like assembly mounted on a frame which is handheld in a similar fashion to the stock of a gun.
Cruelty is indifference to suffering or pleasure in inflicting suffering.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
Richard I of England has been depicted many times in romantic fiction and popular culture.
The culture of the United Kingdom is influenced by the UK's history as a developed state, a liberal democracy and a great power; its predominantly Christian religious life; and its composition of four countries—England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland—each of which has distinct customs, cultures and symbolism.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
Dangereuse de l'Isle Bouchard (Poitevin: Dangerosa; 1079-1151) was the daughter of Bartholomew of l'Île-Bouchard.
Daniel Sallis Huston (born May 14, 1962) is an American actor, writer, and director.
Dürnstein is a small town on the Danube river in the Krems-Land district, in the Austrian state of Lower Austria.
Dermot Walsh (10 September 1924 – 26 June 2002) was an Irish stage, film and television actor, known for portraying King Richard the Lionheart in the 1962 television series ''Richard the Lionheart''.
A devil (from Greek: διάβολος diábolos "slanderer, accuser") is the personification and archetype of evil in various cultures.
Devil's Brood is a historical novel written by Sharon Kay Penman, published in 2008, and is the third volume in her Plantagenet series, preceded by When Christ and His Saints Slept and Time and Chance, and followed by Lionheart (2011).
Dieppe is a coastal community in the Arrondissement of Dieppe in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region of northern France.
The Diocese of Canterbury is a Church of England diocese covering eastern Kent which was founded by St. Augustine of Canterbury in 597.
The Diocese of Rochester is a Church of England diocese in the English county of Kent and the Province of Canterbury.
Dol-de-Bretagne (Gallo: Dóu), cited in most historical records under its Breton name of Dol, is a commune in the Ille-et-Vilaine département in Brittany in northwestern France.
A dowry is a transfer of parental property, gifts or money at the marriage of a daughter.
The Duchy of Aquitaine (Ducat d'Aquitània,, Duché d'Aquitaine) was a historical fiefdom in western, central and southern areas of present-day France to the south of the Loire River, although its extent, as well as its name, fluctuated greatly over the centuries, at times comprising much of what is now southwestern France (Gascony) and central France.
The Duchy of Gascony or Duchy of Vasconia (Baskoniako dukerria; ducat de Gasconha; duché de Gascogne, duché de Vasconie) was a duchy in present southwestern France and northeastern Spain, part corresponding to the modern region of Gascony after 824.
The Duchy of Normandy grew out of the 911 Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between King Charles III of West Francia and Rollo, leader of the Vikings.
The Duke of Aquitaine (Duc d'Aquitània, Duc d'Aquitaine) was the ruler of the ancient region of Aquitaine (not to be confused with modern-day Aquitaine) under the supremacy of Frankish, English, and later French kings.
In the Middle Ages, the Duke of Normandy was the ruler of the Duchy of Normandy in north-western France.
Field Marshal Edmund Henry Hynman Allenby, 1st Viscount Allenby, (23 April 1861 – 14 May 1936) was an English soldier and British Imperial Governor.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Eleanor of Aquitaine (Aliénor d'Aquitaine, Éléonore,; 1124 – 1 April 1204) was queen consort of France (1137–1152) and England (1154–1189) and duchess of Aquitaine in her own right (1137–1204).
Eleanor of England (Leonor; 13 October 1162 – 31 October 1214), or Eleanor Plantaganet, was Queen of Castile and Toledo as wife of Alfonso VIII of Castile.
Elias I (also Hélie or Élie) (died 11 July 1110),Nécrologe-obituaire de la cathédrale du Mans, G. Busson and A. Ledru eds., Archives historiques de Maine VII (Le Mans 1906),163-164.
Embalming is the art and science of preserving human remains by treating them (in its modern form with chemicals) to forestall decomposition.
Empress Matilda (c. 7 February 110210 September 1167), also known as the Empress Maude, was the claimant to the English throne during the civil war known as the Anarchy.
The England national football team represents England in international football and is controlled by The Football Association, the governing body for football in England.
An epithet (from ἐπίθετον epitheton, neuter of ἐπίθετος epithetos, "attributed, added") is a byname, or a descriptive term (word or phrase), accompanying or occurring in place of a name and having entered common usage.
Ermengarde or Erembourg of Maine, also known as Erembourg de la Flèche (died 1126), was Countess of Maine and the Lady of Château-du-Loir from 1110 to 1126.
Flaying, also known colloquially as skinning, is a method of slow and painful execution in which skin is removed from the body.
The Royal Abbey of Our Lady of Fontevraud or Fontevrault (in French: abbaye de Fontevraud) was a monastery in the village of Fontevraud-l'Abbaye, near Chinon, in Anjou, France.
Forced conversion is adoption of a different religion or irreligion under duress.
Frankincense (also known as olibanum, לבונה, Arabic) is an aromatic resin used in incense and perfumes, obtained from trees of the genus Boswellia in the family Burseraceae, particularly Boswellia sacra (syn: B. bhaw-dajiana), B. carterii33, B. frereana, B. serrata (B. thurifera, Indian frankincense), and B. papyrifera.
Fréteval is a commune in the Loir-et-Cher department of central France.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Fulk IV (in French Foulques IV) (1043–14 April 1109), called le Réchin, was the Count of Anjou from 1068 until his death.
Fulk (Fulco, Foulque or Foulques; c. 1089/92 – 13 November 1143), also known as Fulk the Younger, was the Count of Anjou (as Fulk V) from 1109 to 1129 and the King of Jerusalem from 1131 to his death.
Gangrene is a type of tissue death caused by a lack of blood supply.
Gascony (Gascogne; Gascon: Gasconha; Gaskoinia) is an area of southwest France that was part of the "Province of Guyenne and Gascony" prior to the French Revolution.
Geoffrey II (Jafrez;, Anglo-Norman: Geoffroy; 23 September 1158 – 19 August 1186) was Duke of Brittany and 3rd Earl of Richmond between 1181 and 1186, through his marriage with the heiress Constance.
Geoffrey of Vinsauf (fl. 1200) is a representative of the early medieval grammarian movement, termed preceptive grammar by James J. Murphy for its interest in teaching ars poetria (1971, vii ff.). Ars poetria is a subdivision of the grammatical art (ars grammatica) which synthesizes "rhetorical" and "grammatical" elements.
Geoffrey V (24 August 1113 – 7 September 1151) — called the Handsome or the Fair (le Bel) and Plantagenet — was the Count of Anjou, Touraine, and Maine by inheritance from 1129 and then Duke of Normandy by conquest from 1144.
George Frideric (or Frederick) Handel (born italic; 23 February 1685 (O.S.) – 14 April 1759) was a German, later British, Baroque composer who spent the bulk of his career in London, becoming well-known for his operas, oratorios, anthems, and organ concertos.
George Henry Sanders (3 July 1906 – 25 April 1972) was an English film and television actor, singer-songwriter, music composer, and author.
Gerald of Wales (Giraldus Cambrensis; Gerallt Gymro; Gerald de Barri) was a Cambro-Norman archdeacon of Brecon and historian.
Gisors is a commune of Normandy, France.
Eugene Luther Gore Vidal (born Eugene Louis Vidal; October 3, 1925 – July 31, 2012) was an American writer and public intellectual known for his patrician manner, epigrammatic wit, and polished style of writing.
Gourdon (Gordon) is a commune in the Lot department in south-western France.
Graham Shelby (18 September 1939 – 20 December 2016) was a British historical novelist.
The Great Seal of the Realm or Great Seal of the United Kingdom (known prior to the Treaty of Union of 1707 as the Great Seal of England; and from then until the Union of 1801 as the Great Seal of Great Britain and Ireland) is a seal that is used to symbolise the Sovereign's approval of important state documents.
Greed, or avarice, is an inordinate or insatiable longing for unneeded excess, especially for excess wealth, status, power, or food.
Guy of Lusignan (c. 1150 – 18 July 1194) was a French Poitevin knight, son of Hugh VIII of the Lusignan dynasty.
Hanging is the suspension of a person by a noose or ligature around the neck.
Heaven, or the heavens, is a common religious, cosmological, or transcendent place where beings such as gods, angels, spirits, saints, or venerated ancestors are said to originate, be enthroned, or live.
Henry I (c. 1068 – 1 December 1135), also known as Henry Beauclerc, was King of England from 1100 to his death.
Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Curtmantle (Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, ruled as Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Nantes, King of England and Lord of Ireland; at various times, he also partially controlled Wales, Scotland and Brittany.
Henry II of Champagne (or Henry I of Jerusalem) (29 July 1166 – 10 September 1197) was count of Champagne from 1181 to 1197, and ruler of Jerusalem from 1192 to 1197, although he never used the title of king.
Henry Sandford was a medieval Bishop of Rochester.
Henry the Lion (Heinrich der Löwe; 1129/1131 – 6 August 1195) was a member of the Welf dynasty and Duke of Saxony, as Henry III, from 1142, and Duke of Bavaria, as Henry XII, from 1156, the duchies of which he held until 1180.
Henry the Young King (28 February 1155 – 11 June 1183), was the eldest surviving son of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine.
Henry VI (Heinrich VI) (November 1165 – 28 September 1197), a member of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was King of Germany (King of the Romans) from 1190 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1191 until his death.
Harry Frederick Wilcoxon (8 September 1905 – 6 March 1984), known as Henry Wilcoxon, was an actor born in Roseau, Dominica, British West Indies, and best known as a leading man in many of Cecil B. DeMille's films, also serving as DeMille's associate producer on his later films.
Hildegarde of Burgundy (–1104) was a French noble, Duchess consort of Gascony and Aquitaine by marriage to William VIII, Duke of Aquitaine.
The history of Limousin (Lemosin), one of the traditional provinces of France, reaches back to Celtic and Roman times.
Hodierna of St Albans (fl. 1150–1210) was the mother of Alexander Neckam and wet nurse of Richard I of England.
The Holy Roman Emperor (historically Romanorum Imperator, "Emperor of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (800-1806 AD, from Charlemagne to Francis II).
Homosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between members of the same sex or gender.
The House of Plantagenet was a royal house which originated from the lands of Anjou in France.
The House of Welf (also Guelf or Guelph) is a European dynasty that has included many German and British monarchs from the 11th to 20th century and Emperor Ivan VI of Russia in the 18th century.
Hugh Bigod, 1st Earl of Norfolk (1095–1177) was the second son of Roger Bigod (also known as Roger Bigot) (d. 1107), sheriff of Norfolk and royal advisor, and Adeliza, daughter of Robert de Tosny.
Hugh de Puiset (c. 1125 – 3 March 1195) was a medieval Bishop of Durham and Chief Justiciar of England under King Richard I. He was the nephew of King Stephen of England and Henry of Blois, who both assisted Hugh's ecclesiastical career.
Hugh III (1142 – August 25, 1192) was duke of Burgundy between 1162 and 1192.
Hugh Nonant (sometimes Hugh de Nonant; died 27 March 1198) was a medieval Bishop of Coventry in England.
Hugh of Cyfeiliog, 5th Earl of Chester (1147 – 1181), also written Hugh de Kevilioc, was an Anglo-Norman magnate who was active in in England, Wales, Ireland and France during the reign of King Henry II of England.
Humphrey IV of Toron (1166 – 1198) was a leading baron in the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
Iain Glen (born 24 June 1961) is a Scottish film, television, and stage actor.
Ian Hunter (13 June 1900 – 22 September 1975) was an English character actor.
In Catholic canon law, an interdict is an ecclesiastical censure, or ban that prohibits persons, certain active Church individuals or groups from participating in certain rites, or that the rites and services of the church are banished from having validity in certain territories for a limited or extended time.
Isaac II Angelos or Angelus (Ἰσαάκιος Β’ Ἄγγελος, Isaakios II Angelos; September 1156 – January 1204) was Byzantine Emperor from 1185 to 1195, and again from 1203 to 1204.
Isaac Komnenos or Comnenus (Ἰσαάκιος Κομνηνός, Isaakios Komnēnos; c. 1155 – 1195/1196), ruled Cyprus from 1184 to 1191, before Richard the Lionheart, King of England conquered the island during the Third Crusade.
Isabella I (1172 – 5 April 1205) was Queen regnant of Jerusalem from 1190 to her death.
The Itinerarium Regis Ricardi (in full, Itinerarium Peregrinorum et Gesta Regis Ricardi) is a Latin prose narrative of the Third Crusade, 1189-1192.
Ivanhoe is an historical novel by Sir Walter Scott, first published in 1820 in three volumes and subtitled A Romance.
Ivanhoe is a 1952 British-American film in Technicolor, directed by Richard Thorpe and produced by Pandro S. Berman for MGM.
Ivanhoe is a British 1982 television film adaptation of Sir Walter Scott's novel of the same name.
Jacob of Orléans (died September 3, 1189) was a noted Jewish scholar.
Jaffa, in Hebrew Yafo, or in Arabic Yaffa (יפו,; يَافَا, also called Japho or Joppa), the southern and oldest part of Tel Aviv-Yafo, is an ancient port city in Israel.
James Goldman (June 30, 1927 – October 28, 1998) was an American screenwriter and playwright, and the brother of screenwriter and novelist William Goldman.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
Joan of England (October 1165 – 4 September 1199) was a queen consort of Sicily and countess consort of Toulouse.
John Bennett Gillingham (born 3 August 1940) is Emeritus Professor of Medieval History at the London School of Economics and Political Science.
John (24 December 1166 – 19 October 1216), also known as John Lackland (Norman French: Johan sanz Terre), was King of England from 1199 until his death in 1216.
Jordan Fantosme (died c. 1185) was an Anglo-Norman historian, chronicler, and trouvère.
Julian Wyatt Glover (born 27 March 1935) is a Laurence Olivier Award-winning English classical actor, with many stage, television and film roles since commencing his career in the 1950s.
King Richard and the Crusaders is a 1954 historical drama film made by Warner Bros. The film stars Rex Harrison, Virginia Mayo, George Sanders and Laurence Harvey, with Robert Douglas, Michael Pate and Paula Raymond.
The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
Kingdom of Heaven is a 2005 epic historical drama film directed and produced by Ridley Scott and written by William Monahan.
The Kingdom of Navarre (Nafarroako Erresuma, Reino de Navarra, Royaume de Navarre, Regnum Navarrae), originally the Kingdom of Pamplona (Iruñeko Erresuma), was a Basque-based kingdom that occupied lands on either side of the western Pyrenees, alongside the Atlantic Ocean between present-day Spain and France.
The kiss of peace is an ancient traditional Christian greeting, sometimes also called the "holy kiss", "brother kiss" (among men), or "sister kiss" (among women).
A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch, bishop or other political leader for service to the monarch or a Christian Church, especially in a military capacity.
The Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem (Ordo Fratrum Hospitalis Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani), also known as the Order of Saint John, Order of Hospitallers, Knights Hospitaller, Knights Hospitalier or Hospitallers, was a medieval Catholic military order.
The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Salomonici), also known as the Order of Solomon's Temple, the Knights Templar or simply as Templars, were a Catholic military order recognised in 1139 by papal bull Omne Datum Optimum of the Holy See.
La Rochelle is a city in western France and a seaport on the Bay of Biscay, a part of the Atlantic Ocean.
Lent (Latin: Quadragesima: Fortieth) is a solemn religious observance in the Christian liturgical calendar that begins on Ash Wednesday and ends approximately six weeks later, before Easter Sunday.
Leopold V (1157 – 31 December 1194), known as the Virtuous (der Tugendhafte), a member of the House of Babenberg, was Duke of Austria from 1177 and Duke of Styria from 1192 until his death.
Limassol (Λεμεσός; Limasol or Leymosun) is a city on the southern coast of Cyprus and capital of the eponymous district.
Limoges (Occitan: Lemòtges or Limòtges) is a city and commune, the capital of the Haute-Vienne department and was the administrative capital of the former Limousin region in west-central France.
Limousin (Lemosin) is a former administrative region of France.
Limousin (Lemosin) is a dialect of the Occitan language, spoken in the three departments of Limousin, parts of Charente and the Dordogne in the southwest of France.
The Archbishop of Canterbury is the "Primate of All England" (the "first bishop" of England),, the Archbishop of Canterbury's official website effectively serving as the head of the established Church of England and, symbolically, of the worldwide Anglican Communion.
This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England begins with Alfred the Great, King of Wessex, one of the petty kingdoms to rule a portion of modern England.
Louis VII (called the Younger or the Young; Louis le Jeune; 1120 – 18 September 1180) was King of the Franks from 1137 until his death.
Lust is a craving, it can take any form such as the lust for sexuality, lust for money or the lust for power.
Malcolm III (Gaelic: Máel Coluim mac Donnchada; c. 26 March 1031 – 13 November 1093) was King of Scots from 1058 to 1093.
Manorialism was an essential element of feudal society.
Margaret of France (Marguerite, Margit; 1157 – 18 September 1197) was queen of England by marriage to Henry the Young King, and queen of Hungary and Croatia by marriage to Béla III of Hungary.
Marie of France (1145 – March 11, 1198) was a French princess and Countess consort of Champagne.
The mark was a currency or unit of account in many nations.
Martha Rofheart (1917–1990) was an American writer of historical novels, an actress and early in her career, a model.
The Massacre of Ayyadieh occurred during the Third Crusade after the fall of Acre when Richard I of England had more than two thousand Muslim soldiers and civilians from the captured city killed in front of the Saracen armies of Saladin on August 20, 1191.
Matilda of England (Mathilde von England, also called Maud; 6 January 1156 – 28 June 1189) was the eldest daughter of King Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine.
Matilda of Flanders (Mathilde; Machteld) (1031 – 2 November 1083) was Queen of England and Duchess of Normandy by marriage to William the Conqueror, and sometime Regent of these realms during his absence.
Matilda of Scotland (c. 1080 – 1 May 1118), originally christened Edith, was Queen of England as the first wife of King Henry I. She acted as regent of England in the absence of her spouse on several occasions.
Melusine or Melusina is a figure of European folklore and mythology (mostly Celtic), a female spirit of fresh water in a sacred spring or river.
Mercadier (died 1200) was a famous Occitan warrior of the 12th century, and the leader of a group of mercenaries in the service of Richard I, King of England.
A mercenary is an individual who is hired to take part in an armed conflict but is not part of a regular army or other governmental military force.
A merchant is a person who trades in commodities produced by other people.
Messina (Sicilian: Missina; Messana, Μεσσήνη) is the capital of the Italian Metropolitan City of Messina.
Michaelmas (also known as the Feast of Saints Michael, Gabriel, and Sosa, the Feast of the Archangels, or the Feast of Saint Michael and All Angels) is a minor Christian festival observed in some Western liturgical calendars on 29 September.
Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.
Ministerialis (plural ministeriales; a post-classical Latin word, used in English, meaning originally "servitor" or "agent", in a broad range of senses) were people raised up from serfdom to be placed in positions of power and responsibility.
A mistress is a relatively long-term female lover and companion who is not married to her partner, especially when her partner is married to someone else.
The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories.
The National Library of Scotland (Leabharlann Nàiseanta na h-Alba, Naitional Leebrar o Scotland) is the legal deposit library of Scotland and is one of the country's National Collections.
The national symbols of England are things which are emblematic, representative or otherwise characteristic of England or English culture.
Navarre (Navarra, Nafarroa; Navarra), officially the Chartered Community of Navarre (Spanish: Comunidad Foral de Navarra; Basque: Nafarroako Foru Komunitatea), is an autonomous community and province in northern Spain, bordering the Basque Autonomous Community, La Rioja, and Aragon in Spain and Nouvelle-Aquitaine in France.
Neuf-Marché is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region in north-western France.
In Abrahamic religions, Noah was the tenth and last of the pre-Flood Patriarchs.
Norah Lofts, née Norah Ethel Robinson, (27 August 190410 September 1983) was a 20th-century best-selling British author.
The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; Normands; Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.
Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc (langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language.
In Germanic mythology, Odin (from Óðinn /ˈoːðinː/) is a widely revered god.
Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.
Old Occitan (Modern Occitan: occitan ancian, occità antic), also called Old Provençal, was the earliest form of the Occitano-Romance languages, as attested in writings dating from the eighth through the fourteenth centuries.
Otto IV (1175 – 19 May 1218) was one of two rival kings of Germany from 1198 on, sole king from 1208 on, and Holy Roman Emperor from 1209 until he was forced to abdicate in 1215.
Oxford is a city in the South East region of England and the county town of Oxfordshire.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.
Sir Patrick Stewart, (born 13 July 1940) is an English actor whose career has included roles on stage, television, and film in a career spanning almost six decades.
The Périgord (Occitan: Peiregòrd / Perigòrd) is a natural region and former province of France, which corresponds roughly to the current Dordogne département, now forming the northern part of the Aquitaine région.
Penance is repentance of sins as well as an alternate name for the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox sacrament of Reconciliation or Confession.
Philip of Alsace (1143 – 1 August 1191) was count of Flanders from 1168 to 1191.
Philip II, known as Philip Augustus (Philippe Auguste; 21 August 1165 – 14 July 1223), was King of France from 1180 to 1223, a member of the House of Capet.
Philip of Cognac (early 1180s – after 1201) was an illegitimate son of Richard the Lionheart, King of England, by an unidentified mother.
Philippa (c. 1073 – 28 November 1118) was the sovereign Countess of Toulouse, as well as the duchess consort of Aquitaine by marriage to Duke William IX of Aquitaine.
A pilgrim (from the Latin peregrinus) is a traveler (literally one who has come from afar) who is on a journey to a holy place.
Poitou, in Poitevin: Poetou, was a province of west-central France whose capital city was Poitiers.
Pope Alexander III (c. 1100/1105 – 30 August 1181), born Roland of Siena, was Pope from 7 September 1159 to his death in 1181.
Pope Celestine III (Caelestinus III; c. 1106 – 8 January 1198), born Giacinto Bobone, reigned from 30 March or 10 April 1191 to his death in 1198.
Pride is an inwardly directed emotion that carries two antithetical meanings.
Propitiation, also called expiation, is the act of appeasing or making well-disposed a deity, thus incurring divine favor or avoiding divine retribution.
In Roman Catholic theology, purgatory (via Anglo-Norman and Old French) is an intermediate state after physical death in which some of those ultimately destined for heaven must first "undergo purification, so as to achieve the holiness necessary to enter the joy of heaven," holding that "certain offenses can be forgiven in this age, but certain others in the age to come." And that entrance into Heaven requires the "remission before God of the temporal punishment due to sins whose guilt has already been forgiven," for which indulgences may be given which remove "either part or all of the temporal punishment due to sin," such as an "unhealthy attachment" to sin.
Ralph de Diceto (d. c. 1202) was archdeacon of Middlesex, dean of St Paul's Cathedral (from c. 1180), and author of two chronicles, the Abbreviationes chronicorum and the Ymagines historiarum.
Ralph of Coggeshall (died after 1227), English chronicler, was at first a monk and afterwards sixth abbot (1207–1218) of Coggeshall, an Essex foundation of the Cistercian order.
Ramon Berenguer IV (c. 1114 – 6 August 1162, Anglicized Raymond Berengar IV), sometimes called the Saint, was the Count of Barcelona who brought about the union of his County of Barcelona with the Kingdom of Aragon to form the Crown of Aragon.
Regnal numbers are ordinal numbers used to distinguish among persons with the same name who held the same office.
Riccardo primo, re d'Inghilterra ("Richard the First, King of England", HWV 23) is an opera seria in three acts written by George Frideric Handel for the Royal Academy of Music (1719).
Richard Coer de Lyon is a Middle English romance which gives a fictionalised account of the life of Richard I, King of England, concentrating on his crusading exploits.
Richard Coeur de Lion is a Grade II listed equestrian statue of the 12th-century English monarch Richard I, also known as Richard the Lionheart, who reigned from 1189–99.
Richard de Camville (died 1191) was an English crusader knight, and one of Richard the Lionheart's senior commanders during the Third Crusade.
Richard The Lionheart is a 2013 film, starring Chandler Maness as Richard the Lionheart, Malcolm McDowell as King Henry II and Andrea Zirio as Henry the Young.
Richard the Lionheart was a British ITV television series which ran during 1962 and 1963, and was aimed at a younger audience.
Richard the Lionheart: Rebellion is a 2015 film, and a sequel of 2013 film, Richard the Lionheart, starring Chandler Maness as Richard The Lionheart, Andrea Zirio as Henry the Young and Debbie Rochon as Eleanor of Aquitaine.
Richard Thorpe (born Rollo Smolt Thorpe; February 24, 1896 – May 1, 1991) was an American film director best known for his long career at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.
Sir Ridley Scott (born 30 November 1937) is an English film director and producer.
Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester (died 1190) was an English nobleman, one of the principal followers of Henry the Young King in the Revolt of 1173–1174 against his father Henry II.
Robert IV de Sablé (1150 − 23 September 1193) was Lord of Sablé, the eleventh Grand Master of the Knights Templar from 1191 to 1192 and Lord of Cyprus from 1191 to 1192.
Robert of Thornham (or Robert de Turnham) (died 1211) was an English soldier and administrator.
Robin and Marian is a 1976 British-American romantic adventure period film from Columbia Pictures, shot in Panavision and Technicolor, that was directed by Richard Lester and written by James Goldman, based on the legend of Robin Hood.
Robin Hood is a legendary heroic outlaw originally depicted in English folklore and subsequently featured in literature and film.
Robin Hood is a 2010 British-American epic war drama film based on the Robin Hood legend, directed by Ridley Scott and starring Russell Crowe, Cate Blanchett, William Hurt, Mark Strong, Mark Addy, Oscar Isaac, Danny Huston, Eileen Atkins, and Max von Sydow.
Robin Hood: Men in Tights is a 1993 American musical adventure comedy film and a parody of the Robin Hood story.
Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves is a 1991 American romantic action adventure film, based on the English folk tale of Robin Hood which originated in the 15th century.
Roger of Hoveden or Howden (fl. 1174–1201) was a 12th-century English chronicler.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Rouen (Latin: Archidioecesis Rothomagensis; French: Archidiocèse de Rouen) is an archdiocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in France.
Rouen (Frankish: Rodomo; Rotomagus, Rothomagus) is a city on the River Seine in the north of France.
Rouen Cathedral (primatiale Notre-Dame de l'Assomption de Rouen) is a Roman Catholic church in Rouen, Normandy, France.
The Royal Arms of England are the arms first adopted in a fixed form at the start of the age of heraldry (circa 1200) as personal arms by the Plantagenet kings who ruled England from 1154.
Saint Margaret of Scotland (Scots: Saunt Magret, c. 1045 – 16 November 1093), also known as Margaret of Wessex, was an English princess and a Scottish queen.
Saintes is a commune and historic town in southwestern France, in the Charente-Maritime department of which it is a sub-prefecture, in Nouvelle-Aquitaine.
An-Nasir Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub (صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب / ALA-LC: Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb; سەلاحەدینی ئەییووبی / ALA-LC: Selahedînê Eyûbî), known as Salah ad-Din or Saladin (11374 March 1193), was the first sultan of Egypt and Syria and the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty.
The Saladin tithe, or the Aid of 1188, was a tax, or more specifically a tallage, levied in England and to some extent in France in 1188, in response to the capture of Jerusalem by Saladin in 1187.
Sancho Garcés VI (Antso VI.a; 21 April 1132 - 27 June 1194), called the Wise (Jakituna, el Sabio) was King of Navarre from 1150 until his death in 1194.
A sapper, also called pioneer or combat engineer, is a combatant or soldier who performs a variety of military engineering duties such as breaching fortifications, demolitions, bridge-building, laying or clearing minefields, preparing field defenses as well as building, and working on road and airfield construction and repair.
Scurvy is a disease resulting from a lack of vitamin C (ascorbic acid).
Scutage is a medieval English tax levied on holders of a knight's fee under the feudal land tenure of knight-service.
Sir Thomas Sean Connery (born 25 August 1930) is a retired Scottish actor and producer who has won an Academy Award, two BAFTA Awards (one of them being a BAFTA Academy Fellowship Award) and three Golden Globes (including the Cecil B. DeMille Award and a Henrietta Award).
The Seine (La Seine) is a river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France.
A seneschal was a senior court appointment within a royal, ducal, or noble household during the Middle Ages and early Modern period, historically a steward or majordomo of a medieval great house, such as a royal household.
A seneschal (siniscallus, Vulgar or old Frankish Latin, also dapifer) was an officer of an aristocratic household assigned to manage the domestic affairs of the lord.
Sharon Kay Penman (born August 13, 1945) is an American historical novelist, published in the UK as Sharon Penman.
The shilling is a unit of currency formerly used in Austria, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, United States, and other British Commonwealth countries.
Sibylla (French: "Sibylle", c. 1160–1190) was the Countess of Jaffa and Ascalon from 1176 and Queen of Jerusalem from 1186 to 1190.
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
A siege is a military blockade of a city, or fortress, with the intent of conquering by attrition, or a well-prepared assault.
The Siege of Acre was the first significant counter attack by King Guy of Jerusalem to the losses the kingdom experienced to Saladin, leader of the Muslims in Syria and Egypt and formed part of what later became known as the Third Crusade.
Sodomy is generally anal or oral sex between people or sexual activity between a person and a non-human animal (bestiality), but it may also mean any non-procreative sexual activity.
Speyer (older spelling Speier, known as Spire in French and formerly as Spires in English) is a town in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, with approximately 50,000 inhabitants.
Stephen Langton (c. 1150 – 9 July 1228) was an English Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church and Archbishop of Canterbury between 1207 and his death in 1228.
Stephen of Tours (Stephen de Tours; century) or Marcay (Stephen de Marçay) was seneschal of Anjou from before 1160 to 1189, when he was imprisoned by of England for fiscal mismanagement.
Sir James Cochran Stevenson Runciman, CH, FBA (7 July 1903 – 1 November 2000), known as Steven Runciman, was an English historian best known for his three-volume A History of the Crusades (1951–54).
The precise style of British sovereigns has varied over the years.
Tancred (1138 – 20 February 1194) was King of Sicily from 1189 to 1194.
The Adventures of Robin Hood is a 1938 American Technicolor swashbuckler film from Warner Bros., produced by Hal B. Wallis and Henry Blanke, directed by Michael Curtiz and William Keighley, that stars Errol Flynn, Olivia de Havilland, Basil Rathbone, and Claude Rains.
The Crusade is the half-missing sixth serial of the second season in the British science fiction television series Doctor Who, which was first broadcast in four weekly parts from 27 March to 17 April 1965.
The Crusade and Death of Richard I is a mid-13th century Anglo-Norman prose chronicle by an anonymous author.
The Crusades is a 1935 American historical adventure film produced and directed by Cecil B. DeMille, and originally released by Paramount Pictures.
The Lion in Winter is a 1966 play by James Goldman, depicting the personal and political conflicts of Henry II of England, his wife Eleanor of Aquitaine, their children and their guests during Christmas 1183.
The Lion in Winter is a 1968 historical period drama film based on the Broadway play by James Goldman.
The Lion in Winter is a 2003 made-for-television remake of the stage play of the same name and of the original 1968 screen version of the play which had featured Peter O'Toole and Katharine Hepburn.
The Talisman is a novel by Sir Walter Scott.
The Third Crusade (1189–1192), was an attempt by European Christian leaders to reconquer the Holy Land following the capture of Jerusalem by the Ayyubid sultan, Saladin, in 1187.
"Three Lions" is a song released in 1996 as a single by English band The Lightning Seeds to mark the England football team's participation in that year's European Championships, held in England.
Topographia Hibernica (Latin for Topography of Ireland), also known as Topographia Hiberniae, is an account of the landscape and people of Ireland written by Gerald of Wales around 1188, soon after the Norman invasion of Ireland.
Tours is a city located in the centre-west of France.
The Tower of London, officially Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle located on the north bank of the River Thames in central London.
Treasure trove is an amount of money or coin, gold, silver, plate, or bullion found hidden underground or in places such as cellars or attics, where the treasure seems old enough for it to be presumed that the true owner is dead and the heirs undiscoverable.
The Treaty of Louviers was a peace agreement signed between King Richard I of England and King Philip II of France in the early part of January 1196 concerning, among other things, the manors of Andeli and Louviers that at the time were parcels of land of significance in Normandy.
Trifels Castle (Reichsburg Trifels) is a reconstructed medieval castle at an elevation of near the small town of Annweiler, in the Palatinate region of southwestern Germany.
A troubadour (trobador, archaically: -->) was a composer and performer of Old Occitan lyric poetry during the High Middle Ages (1100–1350).
Trouvère, sometimes spelled trouveur, is the Northern French (langue d'oïl) form of the langue d'oc (Occitan) word trobador.
St Valerie of Limoges (also Valeria of Limoges) is a legendary Christian martyr and cephalophore, associated with the Roman period, whose cult was very important in Limousin, France, in the medieval period.
A vassal is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch, in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe.
Verneuil-sur-Avre is a former commune in the Eure department in Normandy in northern France.
Vexin is a historical county of northwestern France.
In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
Walter de Coutances (died 16 November 1207) was a medieval Anglo-Norman bishop of Lincoln and archbishop of Rouen.
Sir Walter Scott, 1st Baronet (15 August 1771 – 21 September 1832) was a Scottish historical novelist, playwright, poet and historian.
Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, London, England, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster.
A wet nurse is a woman who breast feeds and cares for another's child.
William de Longchamp (died 1197) was a medieval Lord Chancellor, Chief Justiciar, and Bishop of Ely in England.
William de Mandeville, 3rd Earl of Essex (1st Creation) (died 14 November 1189) was a loyal councillor of Henry II and Richard I of England.
William FitzRalph was the High Sheriff of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire and the Royal Forests from 1169 to 1177.
William II (December 1153 – 11 November 1189), called the Good, was king of Sicily from 1166 to 1189.
William IV of Toulouse (1040 – 1094) was Count of Toulouse, Margrave of Provence, and Duke of Narbonne from 1061 to 1094.
William (17 August 1153 – April 1156) was the first son of Henry II, King of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine.
William IX (Guilhèm de Peitieus; Guilhem de Poitou Guillaume de Poitiers) (22 October 1071 – 10 February 1127), called the Troubador, was the Duke of Aquitaine and Gascony and Count of Poitou (as William VII) between 1086 and his death.
William of Newburgh or Newbury (Guilelmus Neubrigensis, Wilhelmus Neubrigensis, or Willelmus de Novoburgo. 1136?–1198?), also known as William Parvus, was a 12th-century English historian and Augustinian canon of Anglo-Saxon descent from Bridlington, Yorkshire.
William Stubbs (21 June 1825 – 22 April 1901) was an English historian and Anglican bishop.
William I (c. 1028Bates William the Conqueror p. 33 – 9 September 1087), usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard, was the first Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087.
William the Lion (Mediaeval Gaelic: Uilliam mac Eanric (i.e. William, son of Henry); Modern Gaelic: Uilleam mac Eanraig), sometimes styled William I, also known by the nickname Garbh, "the Rough",Uilleam Garbh; e.g. Annals of Ulster, s.a. 1214.6; Annals of Loch Cé, s.a. 1213.10.
William VIII (– 25 September 1086), born Guy-Geoffrey (Gui-Geoffroi), was duke of Gascony (1052–1086), and then duke of Aquitaine and count of Poitiers (as William VI) between 1058 and 1086, succeeding his brother William VII (Pierre-Guillaume).
William X (Guillém X in Occitan) (1099 – 9 April 1137), called the Saint, was Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, and Count of Poitou (as William VIII) from 1126 to 1137.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
In common law, a writ (Anglo-Saxon gewrit, Latin breve) is a formal written order issued by a body with administrative or judicial jurisdiction; in modern usage, this body is generally a court.
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