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Richard N. Frye

Index Richard N. Frye

Richard Nelson Frye (January 10, 1920 – March 27, 2014) was an American scholar of Iranian and Central Asian Studies, and Aga Khan Professor Emeritus of Iranian Studies at Harvard University. [1]

99 relations: Abdolhossein Zarrinkoob, Afghanistan, Aga Khan, Ahmad ibn Fadlan, Ahmad Tafazzoli, Ali-Akbar Dehkhoda, Alireza Shapour Shahbazi, Annemarie Schimmel, Arabic, Arabs, Architecture of Tehran, Arthur Upham Pope, Asia, Associated Press, Assyria, Assyrian continuity, Assyrian people, Assyrians in Iran, Avestan, Bactrian language, Birmingham, Alabama, Boston, Byzantine Empire, Caucasus, Central Asia, Columbia University, David Stronach, East Turkestan, Eden Naby, Ehsan Yarshater, Encyclopædia Iranica, Erich Schmidt (archaeologist), Farabi International Award, Franklin Huddle, French language, German language, Goethe University Frankfurt, Harvard Oriental Series, Harvard University, Henry Kissinger, Hollywood, Iran, Iranian peoples, Iranian studies, Isfahan, Islamic art, Jalal Al-e-Ahmad, James R. Russell, John Limbert, Kabul, ..., Khwarizmi International Award, List of Persia-related topics, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, Mary Boyce, Mehdi Haeri Yazdi, Mehrdad Bahar, Michael Crichton, Michael Roaf, Middle East, Middle Persian, Mohammad Mosaddegh, Muslim, Office of Strategic Services, Old Persian, Oleg Grabar, Ottoman Empire, Pahlavi scripts, Parthian language, Pashto, Persian art, Persian language, Philology, Roman Ghirshman, Russian language, Sadeq Chubak, Saka language, Sar Mashhad, Shiraz, Shiraz University, Sogdian language, South Asia, Sufism, Sweden, Tajik National University, Tajikistan, The 13th Warrior, The New York Times, Turkish language, United States, University of California, Los Angeles, University of Hamburg, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, University of Illinois system, Urmia, Uzbek language, Volga River, Walter Bruno Henning, World War II, Zayanderud. Expand index (49 more) »

Abdolhossein Zarrinkoob

Abdolhossein Zarrinkoub (Luri/Persian: عبدالحسین زرین‌کوب, also Romanized as Zarrinkoob, Zarrinkub) (March 17, 1923 – September 15, 1999) was a scholar of Iranian literature, history of literature, Persian culture and history.

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Afghanistan

Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.

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Aga Khan

Aga Khan (آقاخان; also transliterated as Aqa Khan and Agha Khan) is a title used also as a name by the Imam of the Nizari Ismailis, whose current holder is the 49th Imam (1957–present), Prince Shah Karim Al Husseini Aga Khan IV (b. 1936).

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Ahmad ibn Fadlan

Ibn Fadlan (أحمد بن فضلان بن العباس بن راشد بن حماد Aḥmad ibn Faḍlān ibn al-ʿAbbās ibn Rāšid ibn Ḥammād, 921–22) was a 10th-century Arab Muslim traveler, famous for his account of his travels as a member of an embassy of the Abbasid Caliph of Baghdad to the king of the Volga Bulgars, known as his Risala ("account" or "journal") His account is most notable for providing a detailed description of the Volga Vikings, including an eyewitness account of a ship burial.

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Ahmad Tafazzoli

Ahmad Tafazzoli (16 December 1937, Isfahan – January 15, 1997, Tehran) (احمد تفضلی) was a prominent Iranian Iranist and master of ancient Iranian literature and culture.

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Ali-Akbar Dehkhoda

Allameh Ali Akbar Dehkhodā (علی‌اکبر دهخدا; 1879–March 9, 1956) was a prominent Iranian linguist, and author of Dehkhoda dictionary, the most extensive dictionary of the Persian language ever published.

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Alireza Shapour Shahbazi

Alireza Shapour Shahbazi (4 September 1942 Shiraz - 15 July 2006 Walla Walla, Washington) (علیرضا شاپور شهبازی) was a prominent Persian archeologist, Iranologist and a world expert on Achaemenid archeology.

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Annemarie Schimmel

Annemarie Schimmel (7 April 1922 – 26 January 2003) was an influential German Orientalist and scholar who wrote extensively on Islam and Sufism.

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Arabic

Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Arabs

Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.

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Architecture of Tehran

Tehran has grown dramatically since Mohammad Khan Qajar chose it as the capital of the Qajar dynasty in 1796.

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Arthur Upham Pope

Arthur Upham Pope (February 7, 1881 – September 3, 1969) was an American expert on Iranian art and the editor of the Survey of Persian Art. He was also a university professor of philosophy and aesthetics, archaeologist, photographer, political activist, museum director and planner, pianist, interior designer, and founder of an international scholarly organization.

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Asia

Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.

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Associated Press

The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.

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Assyria

Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.

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Assyrian continuity

Assyrian continuity is the claim by modern Assyrians and supporting academics that they are at root the direct descendants of the Semitic inhabitants who spoke originally Akkadian and later Imperial Aramaic of ancient Assyria and its immediate surrounds.

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Assyrian people

Assyrian people (ܐܫܘܪܝܐ), or Syriacs (see terms for Syriac Christians), are an ethnic group indigenous to the Middle East.

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Assyrians in Iran

Assyrians in Iran (آشوریان ایران), are an ethnoreligious and linguistic minority in present-day Iran.

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Avestan

Avestan, also known historically as Zend, is a language known only from its use as the language of Zoroastrian scripture (the Avesta), from which it derives its name.

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Bactrian language

Bactrian (Αριαο, Aryao, arjaːu̯ɔ) is an Iranian language which was spoken in the Central Asian region of Bactria (present-day Afghanistan and Tajikistan) and used as the official language of the Kushan and the Hephthalite empires.

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Birmingham, Alabama

Birmingham is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Alabama and the seat of Jefferson County.

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Boston

Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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Caucasus

The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.

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Central Asia

Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.

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Columbia University

Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.

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David Stronach

David Stronach (born 1931) is a Scottish archeologist of ancient Iran and Iraq.

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East Turkestan

East Turkestan (Uyghur: شەرقىي تۈركىستان, Шәрқий Түркистан, Shərqiy Türkistan) also known as Eastern Turkistan, Uyghurstan, Uyghuristan is a political term with multiple meanings depending on context and usage.

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Eden Naby

Eden Naby (born 1942) is an Iranian-Assyrian cultural historian of Central Asia and the Middle East.

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Ehsan Yarshater

Ehsan Yarshater (احسان يارشاطر, born April 3, 1920) is the founder and director of The Center for Iranian Studies, and Hagop Kevorkian Professor Emeritus of Iranian Studies at Columbia University.

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Encyclopædia Iranica

Encyclopædia Iranica is a project whose goal is to create a comprehensive and authoritative English language encyclopedia about the history, culture, and civilization of Iranian peoples from prehistory to modern times.

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Erich Schmidt (archaeologist)

Erich Friedrich Schmidt (September 13, 1897 – October 3, 1964) was a German and American-naturalized archaeologist, born in Baden-Baden.

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Farabi International Award

The Farabi International Award is given annually by the Iranian Ministry of Science, Research and Technology to individuals who have made outstanding contributions to humanities.

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Franklin Huddle

Franklin Pierce "Frank" Huddle, Jr. (born May 9, 1943) is an American diplomat.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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Goethe University Frankfurt

Goethe University Frankfurt (Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main) is a university located in Frankfurt, Germany.

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Harvard Oriental Series

The Harvard Oriental Series is a book series founded in 1891 by Charles Rockwell Lanman and Henry Clarke Warren.

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Harvard University

Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

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Henry Kissinger

Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger, May 27, 1923) is an American statesman, political scientist, diplomat and geopolitical consultant who served as the United States Secretary of State and National Security Advisor under the presidential administrations of Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford.

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Hollywood

Hollywood is a neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, California.

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Iran

Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Iranian peoples

The Iranian peoples, or Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages.

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Iranian studies

Iranian studies (ايران‌شناسی), also referred to as Iranology and Iranistics, is an interdisciplinary field dealing with the study of the history, literature, art and culture of Iranian peoples.

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Isfahan

Isfahan (Esfahān), historically also rendered in English as Ispahan, Sepahan, Esfahan or Hispahan, is the capital of Isfahan Province in Iran, located about south of Tehran.

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Islamic art

Islamic art encompasses the visual arts produced from the 7th century onward by people who lived within the territory that was inhabited by or ruled by culturally Islamic populations.

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Jalal Al-e-Ahmad

Jalal Al-e-Ahmad (جلال آل‌احمد; December 2, 1923 – September 9, 1969) was a prominent Iranian novelist, short-story writer, translator, philosopher, socio-political critic, sociologist as well as an anthropologist who was "one of the earliest and most prominent of contemporary Iranian ethnographers".

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James R. Russell

James Robert Russell (born in October, 1953, New York City) is a scholar and professor in Ancient Near Eastern, Iranian and Armenian Studies.

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John Limbert

Ambassador John W. Limbert is the former Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Iran in the State Department's Bureau of Near Eastern Affairs.

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Kabul

Kabul (کابل) is the capital of Afghanistan and its largest city, located in the eastern section of the country.

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Khwarizmi International Award

The Khwarizmi International Award is given annually by the Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology (IROST) to individuals who have made outstanding achievements in research, innovation and invention, in fields related to science and technology.

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List of Persia-related topics

No description.

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Mahmoud Ahmadinejad

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (Mahmūd Ahmadinezhād, born Mahmoud Sabbaghian (Sabbāghyān) on 28 October 1956) is an Iranian politician who was the sixth President of Iran from 2005 to 2013.

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Mary Boyce

Nora Elisabeth Mary Boyce (2 August 1920 – 4 April 2006) was a British scholar of Iranian languages, and an authority on Zoroastrianism.

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Mehdi Haeri Yazdi

Mehdi Haeri Yazdi (1923 in Qom, Iran – 1999 in Tehran, Iran) (مهدی حائری یزدی; المهدي الحائري اليزدي) was a prominent Shia Islamic cleric in Iran and the first son of Sheikh Abdul Karim Haeri Yazdi, the founder of Qom Seminary and teacher of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, who became the leader of the Iranian Revolution and founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

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Mehrdad Bahar

Mehrdād Bahār (مهرداد بهار) (b. 1930, in Tehran; d. 13 November 1994, in Tehran) was a prominent Iranist, linguist, mythologist and Persian historian.

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Michael Crichton

John Michael Crichton (October 23, 1942 – November 4, 2008) was an American author, screenwriter, film director and producer best known for his work in the science fiction, thriller, and medical fiction genres.

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Michael Roaf

Michael Roaf is a British archaeologist specialising in ancient Iranian studies and Assyriology.

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Middle East

The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).

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Middle Persian

Middle Persian is the Middle Iranian language or ethnolect of southwestern Iran that during the Sasanian Empire (224–654) became a prestige dialect and so came to be spoken in other regions of the empire as well.

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Mohammad Mosaddegh

Mohammad Mosaddegh (محمد مصدق;; 16 June 1882 – 5 March 1967) was an Iranian politician.

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Muslim

A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.

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Office of Strategic Services

The Office of Strategic Services (OSS) was a wartime intelligence agency of the United States during World War II, and a predecessor of the modern Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).

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Old Persian

Old Persian is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages (the other being Avestan).

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Oleg Grabar

Oleg Grabar (November 3, 1929 – January 8, 2011) was a French-born art historian and archeologist, who spent most of his career in the United States, as a leading figure in the field of Islamic art and architecture.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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Pahlavi scripts

Pahlavi or Pahlevi is a particular, exclusively written form of various Middle Iranian languages.

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Parthian language

The Parthian language, also known as Arsacid Pahlavi and Pahlawānīg, is a now-extinct ancient Northwestern Iranian language spoken in Parthia, a region of northeastern ancient Iran.

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Pashto

Pashto (پښتو Pax̌tō), sometimes spelled Pukhto, is the language of the Pashtuns.

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Persian art

Persian art or Iranian art has one of the richest art heritages in world history and has been strong in many media including architecture, painting, weaving, pottery, calligraphy, metalworking and sculpture.

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Persian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Philology

Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.

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Roman Ghirshman

Roman Ghirshman (Roman Mikhailovich Girshman; October 3, 1895 – 5 September 1979) was a Russian-born French archeologist who specialized in ancient Persia.

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Russian language

Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.

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Sadeq Chubak

Sādeq Chubak (صادق چوبک, sometimes Sādegh Choubak; August 5, 1916 July 3, 1998), was an Iranian author of short fiction, drama, and novels.

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Saka language

(Eastern) Saka or Sakan is a variety of Eastern Iranian languages, attested from the ancient Buddhist kingdoms of Khotan, Kashgar and Tumshuq in the Tarim Basin, in what is now southern Xinjiang, China.

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Sar Mashhad

Sar Mashhad (سرمشهد; also known as Sar Meshad) is a village in Dadin Rural District, Jereh and Baladeh District, Kazerun County, Fars Province, Iran.

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Shiraz

Shiraz (fa, Šīrāz) is the fifth-most-populous city of Iran and the capital of Fars Province (Old Persian as Pars).

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Shiraz University

Shiraz University (دانشگاه شیراز Dāneshgāh-e-Shirāz), formerly known as Pahlavi University (دانشگاه پهلوی Dāneshgāh-e Pahlavi), is a public university located in Shiraz, Iran.

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Sogdian language

The Sogdian language was an Eastern Iranian language spoken in the Central Asian region of Sogdia, located in modern-day Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan (capital: Samarkand; other chief cities: Panjakent, Fergana, Khujand, and Bukhara), as well as some Sogdian immigrant communities in ancient China.

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South Asia

South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.

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Sufism

Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.

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Sweden

Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

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Tajik National University

Tajik National University (Донишгоҳи Миллии Тоҷикистон, Таджикский Национальный Университет) is the first and largest prestigious university in Tajikistan with a total of 23 thousand students trained per year on 17 to 56 special faculty (15% in absentia).

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Tajikistan

Tajikistan (or; Тоҷикистон), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Jumhuriyi Tojikiston), is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an estimated population of million people as of, and an area of.

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The 13th Warrior

The 13th Warrior is a 1999 American historical fiction action film based on the novel Eaters of the Dead by Michael Crichton and is a loose retelling of the tale of Beowulf.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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Turkish language

Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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University of California, Los Angeles

The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) is a public research university in the Westwood district of Los Angeles, United States.

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University of Hamburg

The University of Hamburg (Universität Hamburg, also referred to as UHH) is a comprehensive university in Hamburg, Germany.

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University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign

The University of Illinois Urbana–Champaign (also known as U of I, Illinois, or colloquially as the University of Illinois or UIUC) is a public research university in the U.S. state of Illinois and the flagship institution of the University of Illinois System.

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University of Illinois system

The University of Illinois System is a system of public universities in Illinois consisting of three universities: Chicago, Springfield, and Urbana–Champaign.

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Urmia

Urmia (Urmiya, اورمیه; ܐܘܪܡܝܐ; ارومیه (Variously transliterated as Oroumieh, Oroumiyeh, Orūmīyeh and Urūmiyeh); Ûrmiye, ورمێ) is the largest city in West Azerbaijan Province of Iran and the capital of Urmia County.

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Uzbek language

Uzbek is a Turkic language that is the sole official language of Uzbekistan.

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Volga River

The Volga (p) is the longest river in Europe.

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Walter Bruno Henning

Walter Bruno Henning (August 26, 1908 – January 8, 1967) was a German scholar of Middle Iranian languages and literature, especially of the corpus discovered by the Turpan expeditions of the early 20th century.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Zayanderud

Zāyandé-Rūd or Zāyanderūd (زاینده رود, from زاینده “life giver” and رود “river”), also spelled as Zayandeh-Rood or Zayanderood, is the largest river of the Iranian Plateau in central Iran.

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Redirects here:

Frye, R. N., Frye, R.N., Frye, Richard N., R. N. Frye, Richard Frye, Richard Nelson Fry, Richard Nelson Frye.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_N._Frye

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