216 relations: A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, ACM Software System Award, Advanced Micro Devices, Alternative terms for free software, Amazon Kindle, Anarchism, Andrew Leonard, APL (programming language), Apple Inc., Arab Spring, Argentina, ARPANET, Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach, Association for Computing Machinery, ATI Technologies, Bill Gosper, Binary file, Biology, BIOS, Blu-ray, Boston Review, Brian Reid (computer scientist), Build automation, Catholic University Los Angeles of Chimbote, Cease and desist, Cesar Vallejo University, Chalmers University of Technology, Civil disobedience, Closed platform, Compiler, Concordia University, Connection-Oriented Network Service, Constraint learning, Constraint satisfaction problem, Copy protection, Copyleft, Copyright, Copyright Act of 1976, Copyright infringement, Cube root, DARPA, Debian, Debugger, Defective by Design, Digital rights management, E-book, E-reader, Editor war, Edward Snowden, EFF Pioneer Award, ..., El País, Electronic Frontier Foundation, Emacs, End-user license agreement, Eric S. Raymond, Executable, Finns, Fork (software development), Fortran, Free as in Freedom, Free software, Free Software Foundation, Free Software Foundation Europe, Free software license, Free software movement, Free Software Street, Gerald Jay Sussman, GNE (encyclopedia), GNewSense, GNU, GNU Compiler Collection, GNU Debugger, GNU Emacs, GNU Free Documentation License, GNU General Public License, GNU Hurd, GNU Manifesto, GNU Project, GNU Solidario, GNU/Linux naming controversy, Grace Murray Hopper Award, Guardian Media Group, Hacker culture, Harold Washington, Harvard University, Hewlett-Packard, History of free and open-source software, Honorary degree, Hugo Chávez, IBM System/360, Incompatible Timesharing System, International Music Score Library Project, Julian Assange, Kerala, Kernel (operating system), Lakehead University, Laser printing, League for Programming Freedom, Lemote, Ley Sinde, Libreboot, Linus Torvalds, Linux, Linux kernel, Lisp machine, Lisp Machine Lisp, Lisp Machines, List of minor planets: 9001–10000, Look and feel, Loongson, Lucid Inc., MacArthur Fellows Program, Macintosh, Mahatma Gandhi, Make (software), Massachusetts, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Math 55, Microkernel, Micropayment, Microsoft, Microsoft Windows, MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Mobile phone tracking, Monolithic kernel, National Academy of Engineering, National University of Córdoba, National University of Engineering, National University of Salta, National University of Trujillo, Netbook, New York (state), New York City, NeXT, Non-disclosure agreement, Number of the Beast, Objective-C, One Laptop per Child, Open-source software, Open-source software movement, Operating system, Patch (computing), Patent, PDVSA, Penance, Physics, Pierre and Marie Curie University, PL/I, Political freedom, POSIX, Preprocessor, PRISM (surveillance program), Private copying levy, Product activation, Programmer, Programming language, Proprietary format, Proprietary software, Rafael Correa, Reason maintenance, Recursive acronym, Revolution OS, Richard Greenblatt (programmer), Richard J. Daley, Rockefeller University, Royal Institute of Technology, Russell Noftsker, Salon (website), Ségolène Royal, Scribe (markup language), Search warrant, Sin, Software as a service, Software patent debate, Software protection dongle, Sony, Sony BMG copy protection rootkit scandal, Sony Computer Entertainment America, Inc. v. Hotz, Source code, Steve Jobs, Sweden, Symbolics, Takeda Awards, TECO (text editor), Telesur (TV channel), Texinfo, Text editor, The Cathedral and the Bazaar, The Right to Read, Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Time bomb (software), Tom Knight (scientist), Tor (anonymity network), Trademark, Trisquel, United States, Universal Edition, University of Glasgow, University of Pavia, Unix, Unix-like, Usenet, User operation prohibition, Venezuela, Venture capital, Vi, Voluntary childlessness, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Vrms, Wayback Machine, Whistleblower, Wikipedia, XEmacs, Xerox 9700, Yuri Rubinsky Memorial Award, 501(c)(3) organization. Expand index (166 more) » « Shrink index
Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam (15 October 1931 – 27 July 2015) was an Indian scientist who served as the 11th President of India from 2002 to 2007. He was born and raised in Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu and studied physics and aerospace engineering. He spent the next four decades as a scientist and science administrator, mainly at the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and was intimately involved in India's civilian space programme and military missile development efforts. He thus came to be known as the Missile Man of India for his work on the development of ballistic missile and launch vehicle technology. He also played a pivotal organisational, technical, and political role in India's Pokhran-II nuclear tests in 1998, the first since the original nuclear test by India in 1974. Kalam was elected as the 11th President of India in 2002 with the support of both the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party and the then-opposition Indian National Congress. Widely referred to as the "People's President," he returned to his civilian life of education, writing and public service after a single term. He was a recipient of several prestigious awards, including the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian honour. While delivering a lecture at the Indian Institute of Management Shillong, Kalam collapsed and died from an apparent cardiac arrest on 27 July 2015, aged 83. Thousands including national-level dignitaries attended the funeral ceremony held in his hometown of Rameshwaram, where he was buried with full state honours.
The ACM Software System Award is an annual award that honors people or an organization "for developing a software system that has had a lasting influence, reflected in contributions to concepts, in commercial acceptance, or both".
Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. (AMD) is an American multinational semiconductor company based in Santa Clara, California, that develops computer processors and related technologies for business and consumer markets.
Alternative terms for free software, such as open source, FOSS, and FLOSS, have been a controversial issue among free and open-source software users from the late 1990s onwards.
The Amazon Kindle is a series of e-readers designed and marketed by Amazon. Amazon Kindle devices enable users to browse, buy, download, and read e-books, newspapers, magazines and other digital media via wireless networking to the Kindle Store. The hardware platform, developed by Amazon subsidiary Lab126, began as a single device and now comprises a range of devices, including e-readers with E Ink electronic paper displays and Kindle applications on all major computing platforms. All Kindle devices integrate with Kindle Store content, and as of March 2018, the store has over six million e-books available in the United States.. Retrieved March 30, 2018.
Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions.
Andrew Leonard (born 1962) is an American journalist who writes feature articles for San Francisco and contributes to Medium.
APL (named after the book A Programming Language) is a programming language developed in the 1960s by Kenneth E. Iverson.
Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services.
The Arab Spring (الربيع العربي ar-Rabīʻ al-ʻArabī), also referred to as Arab Revolutions (الثورات العربية aṯ-'awrāt al-ʻarabiyyah), was a revolutionary wave of both violent and non-violent demonstrations, protests, riots, coups, foreign interventions, and civil wars in North Africa and the Middle East that began on 18 December 2010 in Tunisia with the Tunisian Revolution.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) was an early packet switching network and the first network to implement the protocol suite TCP/IP.
Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach (AIMA) is a university textbook on artificial intelligence, written by Stuart J. Russell and Peter Norvig.
The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is an international learned society for computing.
ATI Technologies Inc. (commonly called ATI) was a semiconductor technology corporation based in Markham, Ontario, Canada, that specialized in the development of graphics processing units and chipsets.
Ralph William Gosper Jr. (born April 26, 1943), known as Bill Gosper, is an American mathematician and programmer.
A binary file is a computer file that is not a text file.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
BIOS (an acronym for Basic Input/Output System and also known as the System BIOS, ROM BIOS or PC BIOS) is non-volatile firmware used to perform hardware initialization during the booting process (power-on startup), and to provide runtime services for operating systems and programs.
Blu-ray or Blu-ray Disc (BD) is a digital optical disc data storage format.
Boston Review is a quarterly American political and literary magazine.
Brian Keith Reid (born 1949) is an American computer scientist.
Build automation is the process of automating the creation of a software build and the associated processes including: compiling computer source code into binary code, packaging binary code, and running automated tests.
Catholic University Los Angeles of Chimbote (Universidad Católica Los Ángeles de Chimbote; Uladech Católica or Uladech) is a Catholic university in Chimbote, Peru.
A cease and desist letter is a document sent to an individual or business to stop purportedly illegal activity ("cease") and not to restart it ("desist").
The Cesar Vallejo University (Universidad César Vallejo, UCV) is a private Peruvian university located in Victor Larco district in Trujillo city, on the coast of La Libertad Region.
Chalmers University of Technology (Chalmers tekniska högskola, often shortened to Chalmers) is a Swedish university located in Gothenburg that focuses on research and education in technology, natural science, architecture, maritime and other management areas.
Civil disobedience is the active, professed refusal of a citizen to obey certain laws, demands, orders or commands of a government or occupying international power.
A closed platform, walled garden or closed ecosystem is a software system where the carrier or service provider has control over applications, content, and media, and restricts convenient access to non-approved applications or content.
A compiler is computer software that transforms computer code written in one programming language (the source language) into another programming language (the target language).
Concordia University (commonly referred to as Concordia) is a public comprehensive university located in Montreal, Quebec, Canada on unceded Indigenous lands.
Connection-Oriented Network Service (CONS) is one of the two OSI network layer protocols, the other being CLNS (Connectionless Network Service).
In constraint satisfaction backtracking algorithms, constraint learning is a technique for improving efficiency.
Constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs) are mathematical questions defined as a set of objects whose state must satisfy a number of constraints or limitations.
Copy protection, also known as content protection, copy prevention and copy restriction, is any effort designed to prevent the reproduction of software, films, music, and other media, usually for copyright reasons.
Copyleft (a play on the word copyright) is the practice of offering people the right to freely distribute copies and modified versions of a work with the stipulation that the same rights be preserved in derivative works down the line.
Copyright is a legal right, existing globally in many countries, that basically grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights to determine and decide whether, and under what conditions, this original work may be used by others.
The Copyright Act of 1976 is a United States copyright law and remains the primary basis of copyright law in the United States, as amended by several later enacted copyright provisions.
Copyright infringement is the use of works protected by copyright law without permission, infringing certain exclusive rights granted to the copyright holder, such as the right to reproduce, distribute, display or perform the protected work, or to make derivative works.
In mathematics, a cube root of a number x is a number y such that y3.
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of emerging technologies for use by the military.
Debian is a Unix-like computer operating system that is composed entirely of free software, and packaged by a group of individuals participating in the Debian Project.
A debugger or debugging tool is a computer program that is used to test and debug other programs (the "target" program).
Defective by Design is an anti-DRM initiative by the Free Software Foundation.
Digital rights management (DRM) is a set of access control technologies for restricting the use of proprietary hardware and copyrighted works.
An electronic book (or e-book or eBook) is a book publication made available in digital form, consisting of text, images, or both, readable on the flat-panel display of computers or other electronic devices.
An e-reader, also called an e-book reader or e-book device, is a mobile electronic device that is designed primarily for the purpose of reading digital e-books and periodicals.
Editor war is the common name for the rivalry between users of the Emacs and vi (usually Vim) text editors.
Edward Joseph Snowden (born June 21, 1983) is an American computer professional, former Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) employee, and former contractor for the United States government who copied and leaked classified information from the National Security Agency (NSA) in 2013 without authorization.
The EFF Pioneer Award is an annual prize by the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) for people who have made significant contributions to the empowerment of individuals in using computers.
El País (literally The Country) is the most read newspaper (231,140 printed copies) in Spain and the most circulated daily newspaper (180,765 circulation average), according to data certified by the Office of Justification of Dissemination (OJD) and referring to the period of January 2017 to December 2017.
The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) is an international non-profit digital rights group based in San Francisco, California.
Emacs is a family of text editors that are characterized by their extensibility.
In proprietary software, an end-user license agreement (EULA) or software license agreement is the contract between the licensor and purchaser, establishing the purchaser's right to use the software.
Eric Steven Raymond (born December 4, 1957), often referred to as ESR, is an American software developer, author of the widely cited 1997 essay and 1999 book The Cathedral and the Bazaar and other works, and open-source software advocate.
In computing, executable code or an executable file or executable program, sometimes simply referred to as an executable or binary, causes a computer "to perform indicated tasks according to encoded instructions," as opposed to a data file that must be parsed by a program to be meaningful.
Finns or Finnish people (suomalaiset) are a Finnic ethnic group native to Finland.
In software engineering, a project fork happens when developers take a copy of source code from one software package and start independent development on it, creating a distinct and separate piece of software.
Fortran (formerly FORTRAN, derived from Formula Translation) is a general-purpose, compiled imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing.
Free as in Freedom: Richard Stallman's Crusade for Free Software is a free book licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License about the life of Richard Stallman, written by Sam Williams and published by O'Reilly Media on March 1, 2002.
Free software or libre software is computer software distributed under terms that allow users to run the software for any purpose as well as to study, change, and distribute it and any adapted versions.
The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization founded by Richard Stallman on 4 October 1985 to support the free software movement, which promotes the universal freedom to study, distribute, create, and modify computer software, with the organization's preference for software being distributed under copyleft ("share alike") terms, such as with its own GNU General Public License.
The Free Software Foundation Europe (FSFE) was founded in 2001 to support all aspects of the free software movement in Europe.
A free software license is a notice that grants the recipient of a piece of software extensive rights to modify and redistribute that software.
The free software movement (FSM) or free / open source software movement (FOSSM) or free / libre open source software (FLOSS) is a social movement with the goal of obtaining and guaranteeing certain freedoms for software users, namely the freedom to run the software, to study and change the software, and to redistribute copies with or without changes.
Free Software Street (Catalan: Carrer del Programari Lliure) is a street in the town of Berga in Catalonia, Spain.
Gerald Jay Sussman (born February 8, 1947) is the Panasonic Professor of Electrical Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).
GNE (previously known as GNUPedia) was a project to create a free content encyclopedia (licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License) under the auspices of the Free Software Foundation.
GNU is an operating system and an extensive collection of computer software.
The GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) is a compiler system produced by the GNU Project supporting various programming languages.
The GNU Debugger (GDB) is a portable debugger that runs on many Unix-like systems and works for many programming languages, including Ada, C, C++, Objective-C, Free Pascal, Fortran, Go, Java and partially others.
GNU Emacs is the most popular and most ported Emacs text editor.
The GNU Free Documentation License (GNU FDL or simply GFDL) is a copyleft license for free documentation, designed by the Free Software Foundation (FSF) for the GNU Project.
The GNU General Public License (GNU GPL or GPL) is a widely used free software license, which guarantees end users the freedom to run, study, share and modify the software.
GNU Hurd is the multiserver microkernel written as part of GNU.
The GNU Manifesto was written by Richard Stallman and published in March 1985 in Dr. Dobb's Journal of Software Tools as an explanation and definition of the goals of the GNU Project, and to call for participation and support developing GNU, a free software computer operating system.
The GNU Project is a free-software, mass-collaboration project, first announced on September 27, 1983 by Richard Stallman at MIT.
GNU Solidario is a non-profit organization founded by Luis Falcón on 23 November 2009 to promote the use of Free Software in the areas of Public Health and education.
The GNU/Linux naming controversy is a dispute between members of the free software community and open-source software community over whether to refer to computer operating systems that use a combination of GNU software and the Linux kernel as "GNU/Linux" or "Linux".
The Grace Murray Hopper Awards (named for computer pioneer RADM Grace Hopper) has been awarded by the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) since 1971.
Guardian Media Group plc (GMG) is a British mass media company owning various media operations including The Guardian and The Observer.
The hacker culture is a subculture of individuals who enjoy the intellectual challenge of creatively overcoming limitations of software systems to achieve novel and clever outcomes.
Harold Lee Washington (April 15, 1922 – November 25, 1987) was an American lawyer and politician from the state of Illinois who was elected as the 41st Mayor of Chicago.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
The Hewlett-Packard Company (commonly referred to as HP) or shortened to Hewlett-Packard was an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California.
In the 1950s and 1960s, computer operating software and compilers were delivered as a part of hardware purchases without separate fees.
An honorary degree, in Latin a degree honoris causa ("for the sake of the honor") or ad honorem ("to the honor"), is an academic degree for which a university (or other degree-awarding institution) has waived the usual requirements, such as matriculation, residence, a dissertation and the passing of comprehensive examinations.
Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (28 July 1954 – 5 March 2013) was a Venezuelan politician who was President of Venezuela from 1999 to 2013.
The IBM System/360 (S/360) is a family of mainframe computer systems that was announced by IBM on April 7, 1964, and delivered between 1965 and 1978.
Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) is a time-sharing operating system developed principally by the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, with help from Project MAC.
The International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP), also known as the Petrucci Music Library after publisher Ottaviano Petrucci, is a subscription-based project for the creation of a virtual library of public-domain music scores.
Julian Paul Assange (born Hawkins; 3 July 1971) is an Australian computer programmer and the editor of WikiLeaks.
Kerala is a state in South India on the Malabar Coast.
The kernel is a computer program that is the core of a computer's operating system, with complete control over everything in the system.
Lakehead University is a public research university with campuses in Thunder Bay and Orillia, Ontario, Canada.
Laser printing is an electrostatic digital printing process.
League for Programming Freedom (LPF) was founded in 1989 by Richard Stallman to unite free software developers as well as developers of proprietary software to fight against software patents and the extension of the scope of copyright.
Jiangsu Lemote Tech Co., Ltd or Lemote is a computer company established as a joint venture between the Jiangsu Menglan Group and the Chinese Institute of Computing Technology, involved in computer hardware and software products, services, and projects.
Ley Sinde, or the Sinde Law, is a provision in Spain's Sustainable Economy Act designed to address internet copyright infringements.
Libreboot (formerly known as GNU Libreboot) is a free software project aimed at replacing the proprietary BIOS firmware found in most computers with a libre, lightweight system designed to perform only the minimum number of tasks necessary to load and run a modern 32-bit or 64-bit operating system.
Linus Benedict Torvalds (born December 28, 1969) is a Finnish-American software engineer who is the creator, and historically, the principal developer of the Linux kernel, which became the kernel for operating systems such as the Linux operating systems, Android, and Chrome OS.
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel.
The Linux kernel is an open-source monolithic Unix-like computer operating system kernel.
Lisp machines are general-purpose computers designed to efficiently run Lisp as their main software and programming language, usually via hardware support.
Lisp Machine Lisp is a dialect of the Lisp programming language.
Lisp Machines, Inc. was a company formed in 1979 by Richard Greenblatt of MIT's Artificial Intelligence Laboratory to build Lisp machines.
In software design, look and feel is a term used in respect of a graphical user interface and comprises aspects of its design, including elements such as colors, shapes, layout, and typefaces (the "look"), as well as the behavior of dynamic elements such as buttons, boxes, and menus (the "feel").
Loongson is a family of general-purpose MIPS64 CPUs developed at the Institute of Computing Technology (ICT), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) in China.
Lucid Incorporated was a Menlo Park, California-based computer software development company.
The MacArthur Fellows Program, MacArthur Fellowship, or "Genius Grant", is a prize awarded annually by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation typically to between 20 and 30 individuals, working in any field, who have shown "extraordinary originality and dedication in their creative pursuits and a marked capacity for self-direction" and are citizens or residents of the United States.
The Macintosh (pronounced as; branded as Mac since 1998) is a family of personal computers designed, manufactured, and sold by Apple Inc. since January 1984.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule.
In software development, Make is a build automation tool that automatically builds executable programs and libraries from source code by reading files called Makefiles which specify how to derive the target program.
Massachusetts, officially known as the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
Math 55 is a two-semester long first-year undergraduate mathematics course at Harvard University, founded by Lynn Loomis and Shlomo Sternberg.
In computer science, a microkernel (also known as μ-kernel) is the near-minimum amount of software that can provide the mechanisms needed to implement an operating system (OS).
A micropayment is a financial transaction involving a very small sum of money and usually one that occurs online.
Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.
MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) is a research institute at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology formed by the 2003 merger of the Laboratory for Computer Science and the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory.
Mobile phone tracking is the ascertaining of the position or location of a mobile phone, whether stationary or moving.
A monolithic kernel is an operating system architecture where the entire operating system is working in kernel space and is alone in supervisor mode.
The National Academy of Engineering (NAE) is an American nonprofit, non-governmental organization.
The National University of Córdoba (Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, UNC), founded in 1613, is the oldest university in Argentina, the fourth oldest in South America and the sixth oldest in Latin America.
The National University of Engineering (Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería, UNI) is a public engineering and science university located in the Rímac District of Lima, Peru.
The National University of Salta (Universidad Nacional de Salta, or UNSa) is an Argentine public national university in Salta.
The National University of Trujillo (Universidad Nacional de Trujillo) (UNT) is a major public university located in Trujillo, Peru, capital of the department of La Libertad.
Netbook is a generic name given to a category of small, lightweight, legacy-free, and inexpensive laptop computers that were introduced in 2007.
New York is a state in the northeastern United States.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
NeXT (later NeXT Computer and NeXT Software) was an American computer and software company founded in 1985 by Apple Computer co-founder Steve Jobs.
A non-disclosure agreement (NDA), also known as a confidentiality agreement (CA), confidential disclosure agreement (CDA), proprietary information agreement (PIA) or secrecy agreement (SA), is a legal contract between at least two parties that outlines confidential material, knowledge, or information that the parties wish to share with one another for certain purposes, but wish to restrict access to or by third parties.
The Number of the Beast (Ἀριθμὸς τοῦ θηρίου, Arithmos tou Thēriou) is a term in the Book of Revelation, of the New Testament, that is associated with the Beast of Revelation in chapter 13.
Objective-C is a general-purpose, object-oriented programming language that adds Smalltalk-style messaging to the C programming language.
One Laptop per Child (OLPC) is a non-profit initiative established with the goal of transforming education for children around the world; this goal was to be achieved by creating and distributing educational devices for the developing world, and by creating software and content for those devices.
Open-source software (OSS) is a type of computer software whose source code is released under a license in which the copyright holder grants users the rights to study, change, and distribute the software to anyone and for any purpose.
The open-source software movement is a movement that supports the use of open-source licenses for some or all software, a part of the broader notion of open collaboration.
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
A patch is a set of changes to a computer program or its supporting data designed to update, fix, or improve it.
A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state or intergovernmental organization to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an invention.
Petróleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PDVSA) (Petroleum of Venezuela) is the Venezuelan state-owned oil and natural gas company.
Penance is repentance of sins as well as an alternate name for the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox sacrament of Reconciliation or Confession.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
UPMC, formerly Pierre and Marie Curie University (Université Pierre-et-Marie-Curie) or also known as Paris VI, was a public research university in Paris, France from 1971 to 2017.
PL/I (Programming Language One, pronounced) is a procedural, imperative computer programming language designed for scientific, engineering, business and system programming uses.
Political freedom (also known as political autonomy or political agency) is a central concept in history and political thought and one of the most important features of democratic societies.
The Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX) is a family of standards specified by the IEEE Computer Society for maintaining compatibility between operating systems.
In computer science, a preprocessor is a program that processes its input data to produce output that is used as input to another program.
PRISM is a code name for a program under which the United States National Security Agency (NSA) collects internet communications from various U.S. internet companies.
A private copying levy (also known as blank media tax or levy) is a government-mandated scheme in which a special tax or levy (additional to any general sales tax) is charged on purchases of recordable media.
Product activation is a license validation procedure required by some proprietary computer software programs.
A programmer, developer, dev, coder, or software engineer is a person who creates computer software.
A programming language is a formal language that specifies a set of instructions that can be used to produce various kinds of output.
A proprietary format is a file format of a company, organization, or individual that contains data that is ordered and stored according to a particular encoding-scheme, designed by the company or organization to be secret, such that the decoding and interpretation of this stored data is easily accomplished only with particular software or hardware that the company itself has developed.
Proprietary software is non-free computer software for which the software's publisher or another person retains intellectual property rights—usually copyright of the source code, but sometimes patent rights.
Rafael Vicente Correa Delgado (born 6 April 1963) is an Ecuadorian politician and economist who served as President of Ecuador from 2007 to 2017.
Reason maintenanceDoyle, J., 1983.
A recursive acronym is an acronym that refers to itself.
Revolution OS is a 2001 documentary film that traces the twenty-year history of GNU, Linux, open source, and the free software movement.
Richard D. Greenblatt (born December 25, 1944) is an American computer programmer.
Richard Joseph Daley (May 15, 1902 – December 20, 1976) was an American politician who served as the 38th Mayor of Chicago for a total of 21 years beginning on April 20, 1955, until his death on December 20, 1976.
The Rockefeller University is a center for scientific research, primarily in the biological and medical sciences, that provides doctoral and postdoctoral education.
KTH Royal Institute of Technology (KTH; Kungliga Tekniska högskolan) is a university in Stockholm, Sweden, specialized in Engineering and Technology, it ranks highest in northern mainland Europe in its academic fields.
Russell Noftsker is an American entrepreneur who notably founded Symbolics, and was its first chairman and president.
Salon is an American news and opinion website, created by David Talbot in 1995 and currently owned by the Salon Media Group.
Marie-Ségolène Royal, known as Ségolène Royal (born 22 September 1953), is a French politician and prominent member of the Socialist Party.
Scribe is a markup language and word processing system which pioneered the use of descriptive markup.
A search warrant is a court order that a magistrate or judge issues to authorize law enforcement officers to conduct a search of a person, location, or vehicle for evidence of a crime and to confiscate any evidence they find.
In a religious context, sin is the act of transgression against divine law.
Software as a service (SaaS) is a software licensing and delivery model in which software is licensed on a subscription basis and is centrally hosted.
The software patent debate is the argument about the extent to which, as a matter of public policy, it should be possible to patent software and computer-implemented inventions.
A software protection dongle (commonly known as a dongle or key) is an electronic copy protection and content protection device which, when attached to a computer or other electronic appliance, unlocks software functionality or decodes content.
is a Japanese multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Kōnan, Minato, Tokyo.
A scandal erupted in 2005 regarding Sony BMG's implementation of deceptive, illegal, and harmful copy protection measures on about 22 million CDs.
SCEA v. Hotz was a lawsuit in the United States by Sony Computer Entertainment of America against George Hotz and associates of the group fail0verflow for jailbreaking and reverse engineering the PlayStation 3.
In computing, source code is any collection of code, possibly with comments, written using a human-readable programming language, usually as plain text.
Steven Paul Jobs (February 24, 1955 – October 5, 2011) was an American entrepreneur and business magnate.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Symbolics refers to two companies: now-defunct computer manufacturer Symbolics, Inc., and a privately held company that acquired the assets of the former company and continues to sell and maintain the Open Genera Lisp system and the Macsyma computer algebra system.
The Takeda Foundation, is an organisation based in Japan.
TECO (Tee'koh /), Text Editor & COrrector"A powerful and sophisticated text editor, TECO (Text Editor and Corrector)...
Telesur (stylised as teleSUR) is a multi-state funded, Latin American terrestrial and satellite television network headquartered in Caracas, Venezuela.
Texinfo is a typesetting syntax used for generating documentation in both on-line and printed form (creating filetypes as dvi, html, pdf, etc., and its own hypertext format, info) with a single source file.
A text editor is a type of computer program that edits plain text.
The Cathedral and the Bazaar: Musings on Linux and Open Source by an Accidental Revolutionary (abbreviated CatB) is an essay, and later a book, by Eric S. Raymond on software engineering methods, based on his observations of the Linux kernel development process and his experiences managing an open source project, fetchmail.
The Right to Read is a short story by Richard Stallman, the founder of the Free Software Foundation, which was first published in 1997 in Communications of the ACM.
The Thomas J. Watson Research Center is the headquarters for IBM Research.
In computer software, a time bomb is part of a computer program that has been written so that it will start or stop functioning after a predetermined date or time is reached.
Tom Knight is an American synthetic biologist and computer engineer, who was formerly a senior research scientist at the MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, a part of the MIT School of Engineering.
Tor is free software for enabling anonymous communication.
A trademark, trade mark, or trade-markThe styling of trademark as a single word is predominantly used in the United States and Philippines only, while the two-word styling trade mark is used in many other countries around the world, including the European Union and Commonwealth and ex-Commonwealth jurisdictions (although Canada officially uses "trade-mark" pursuant to the Trade-mark Act, "trade mark" and "trademark" are also commonly used).
Trisquel (officially Trisquel GNU/Linux) is a computer operating system, a Linux distribution, derived from another distribution, Ubuntu.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Universal Edition (UE) is a classical music publishing firm.
The University of Glasgow (Oilthigh Ghlaschu; Universitas Glasguensis; abbreviated as Glas. in post-nominals) is the fourth-oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's four ancient universities.
The University of Pavia (Università degli Studi di Pavia, UNIPV or Università di Pavia; Ticinensis Universitas) is a university located in Pavia, Lombardy, Italy.
Unix (trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, development starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.
A Unix-like (sometimes referred to as UN*X or *nix) operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification.
Usenet is a worldwide distributed discussion system available on computers.
The user operation prohibition (abbreviated UOP) is a form of use restriction used on video DVD discs and Blu-ray discs.
Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).
Venture capital (VC) is a type of private equity, a form of financing that is provided by firms or funds to small, early-stage, emerging firms that are deemed to have high growth potential, or which have demonstrated high growth (in terms of number of employees, annual revenue, or both).
vi is a screen-oriented text editor originally created for the Unix operating system.
Voluntary childlessness, also described by some as being childfree, is the voluntary choice to not have children.
The Vrije Universiteit Brussel is a Dutch-speaking university located in Brussels, Belgium.
vrms (Virtual Richard M. Stallman) is a program that analyzes the set of currently-installed packages on a Debian-based system, and reports all of the packages from the non-free tree which are currently installed.
The Wayback Machine is a digital archive of the World Wide Web and other information on the Internet.
A whistleblower (also written as whistle-blower or whistle blower) is a person who exposes any kind of information or activity that is deemed illegal, unethical, or not correct within an organization that is either private or public.
Wikipedia is a multilingual, web-based, free encyclopedia that is based on a model of openly editable content.
XEmacs is a graphical- and console-based text editor which runs on almost any Unix-like operating system as well as Microsoft Windows.
The Xerox 9700 was a high-end laser printer manufactured by Xerox Corporation beginning in 1977.
The "Yuri Rubinsky Memorial Award" was a prize that was awarded annually at the International World Wide Web Conference.
A 501(c)(3) organization is a corporation, trust, unincorporated association, or other type of organization exempt from federal income tax under section 501(c)(3) of Title 26 of the United States Code.
Chief GNUisance, Dr. Richard Stallman, Dr. richard stallman, Gnu founder, Matthew Stallman, R M Stallman, R Stallman, R. M. Stallman, R. Stallman, R.M. Stallman, RM Stallman, Ricard stallman, Richard M Stallman, Richard M. Stallman, Richard Matthew Stallman, Richard Stalin, Richard Stallmann, Richard Stalman, Richard matthew stallman, Richard stallman, RichardStallman, Rms (shortcut), Saint IGNUcius, St IGNUcius, St. IGNUcius, Stallman, Stallman's Beard, Stallman, Richard, Überhacker.