214 relations: Advanced Combat Rifle, Afghanistan, Air gun, AK-47, AK-74, American Civil War, American football, American Revolutionary War, Anti-materiel rifle, Anti-tank rifle, Antique firearms, AR-15 style rifle, Archery, Arisaka, Artillery, Assault rifle, Automatic rifle, Baker rifle, Barrett M82, Battle of Cowpens, Battle of Kings Mountain, Battle of Mukden, Battle rifle, Battles of Saratoga, Belt (firearms), Benchrest rifle, Benjamin Robins, Blaser R8, Blaser R93, Bolt (firearms), Bolt action, Break action, Breech-loading weapon, Breechblock, British military rifles, Brown Bess, Buffalo rifle, Bullet, Bullpup, Caliber, Caplock mechanism, Carabine à tige, Carbine, Carcano, Cartridge (firearms), Chassepot, Christopher Miner Spencer, Chrome plating, Civilian, Claude-Étienne Minié, ..., Colt Lightning Carbine, Colt's New Model Revolving rifle, Compressed air, Cordite, Cornhill Magazine, Crew-served weapon, Cupronickel, Cutting tool (machining), Daily Mail, Daniel Morgan, Deflagration, Designated marksman, Designated marksman rifle, Double rifle, Dreyse needle gun, Elasticity (physics), Elephant gun, Express (weaponry), Falling-block action, FAMAS, Ferguson rifle, Firearm, Flintlock, French Consulate, Full metal jacket bullet, Gas-operated reloading, Gauge (firearms), Gewehr 98, Glock, Grizzly (.22-caliber rifle), Gun barrel, Gun safety, Gunpowder, Handgun, Helix, Henri-Gustave Delvigne, Henry rifle, Hunting, Infantry, Jean Lepage, Joint Task Force 2, K31, Karabiner 98k, Kentucky, King's Royal Rifle Corps, Kingdom of Great Britain, Law enforcement, Lebel Model 1886 rifle, Lee–Enfield, Lee–Metford, Lever action, Line infantry, List of assault rifles, List of battle rifles, List of carbines, List of rifle cartridges, List of sniper rifles, Long gun, Long rifle, Longest recorded sniper kills, Louis-Étienne de Thouvenin, M1 Garand, M16 rifle, M1903 Springfield, Machine gun, Machining, Maclean's, Magazine (firearms), Mannlicher M1895, Marksman, Mauser, McMillan TAC-50, Military, Minié ball, Minié rifle, Minute and second of arc, Molybdenum disulfide, Morgan's Riflemen, Mosin–Nagant, Musket, Muzzle-loading rifle, Napoleon, Napoleonic Wars, Naval artillery, Needle gun, Nitrocellulose, Objective Individual Combat Weapon, Operation Anaconda, Pattern 1853 Enfield, Paul Mauser, Personal defense weapon, Personnel halting and stimulation response rifle, Pest control, Plinking, Polygonal rifling, Primer (firearms), Project Abakan, Projectile, Propellant, Pump action, Recoilless rifle, Repeating rifle, Rifle Brigade (The Prince Consort's Own), Rifle grenade, Rifled musket, Rifling, Rimfire ammunition, Rogers Communications, Rolling block, Ross rifle, Rotational speed, Round shot, RPK, Rugby football, Ruger 10/22, Russo-Japanese War, Scout rifle, Selective fire, Semi-automatic rifle, Service rifle, Shooting, Shooting at the Summer Olympics, Shooting range, Shooting sports, Short-barreled rifle, Shotgun, Single-shot, Small arms, Smokeless powder, Smoothbore, Snider–Enfield, Sniper, Sniper rifle, Spencer repeating rifle, Spitzer (bullet), Springfield Model 1861, Stainless steel, Steel, StG 44, Stock (firearms), Stratasys, Submachine gun, Tabatière rifle, Telescopic sight, The Globe and Mail, Trapdoor mechanism, Trench warfare, Varmint rifle, Verney-Carron, War, War of 1812, Whitworth rifle, Winchester rifle, World War I, World War II, .17 HMR, .22 caliber, .30-06 Springfield, .303 British, 20 mm caliber, 5.45×39mm, 5.56×45mm NATO, 6.5×52mm Carcano, 7.92×33mm Kurz. Expand index (164 more) » « Shrink index
The Advanced Combat Rifle (ACR) was a United States Army program, started in 1986, to find a replacement for the M16 assault rifle.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
An air gun (or airgun) is any kind of gun that launches projectiles pneumatically with compressed air or other gases that are pressurized mechanically without involving any chemical reactions, in contrast to a firearm, which relies on an exothermic chemical oxidation (deflagration) of combustible propellants to generate propulsive energy.
The AK-47, or AK as it is officially known, also known as the Kalashnikov, is a gas-operated, 7.62×39mm assault rifle, developed in the Soviet Union by Mikhail Kalashnikov.
The AK-74 (Russian: Автомат Калашникова образца 1974 года or "Kalashnikov automatic rifle model 1974") is an assault rifle developed in the early 1970s by Russian designer Mikhail Kalashnikov as the replacement for the earlier AKM (itself a refined version of the AK-47). It uses a smaller 5.45×39mm cartridge, replacing the 7.62×39mm chambering of earlier Kalashnikov-pattern weapons. The rifle first saw service with Soviet forces engaged in the 1979 Afghanistan conflict.Woźniak, Ryszard: Encyklopedia najnowszej broni palnej—tom 1 A-F, page 25. Bellona, 2001. The head of the Afghan bureau of the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence claimed that the CIA paid $5,000 for the first AK-74 captured by the Mujahideen during the Soviet–Afghan War. Presently, the rifle continues to be used by the majority of countries of the former Soviet Union. Additionally, licensed copies were produced in Bulgaria (AK-74, AKS-74 and AKS-74U), and the former East Germany (MPi-AK-74N, MPi-AKS-74N, MPi-AKS-74NK).Cutshaw, Charlie: The New World of Russian Small Arms & Ammo, page 92. Paladin Press, 1998.McNab, Chris: The AK47 (Weapons of War), page 25. Spellmount Publishers, 2001. Besides former Soviet republics and eastern European countries, Mongolia, North Korean Special Forces, and Vietnamese People's Naval infantry use AK-74s.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
American football, referred to as football in the United States and Canada and also known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
An anti-materiel rifle (AMR) is a rifle that is designed for use against military equipment (materiel), rather than against other combatants ("anti-personnel").
An anti-tank rifle is a rifle designed to penetrate the armor of vehicles, particularly tanks.
An antique firearm is a term to describe a firearm that was designed and manufactured prior to the beginning of the 20th century.
An AR-15 style rifle is a lightweight semi-automatic rifle based on the Colt AR-15 design.
Archery is the art, sport, practice or skill of using a bow to shoot arrows.
The Arisaka rifle (有坂銃 Arisaka-jū) is a family of Japanese military bolt-action service rifles, in production and use since approximately 1897, when it replaced the Murata rifle (村田銃 Murata-jū) family, until the end of World War II in 1945.
Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
An assault rifle is a selective-fire rifle that uses an intermediate cartridge and a detachable magazine.
An automatic rifle is a type of self-loading rifle that is capable of automatic fire.
The Baker rifle (officially known as the Pattern 1800 Infantry Rifle) was a flintlock rifle used by the rifle regiments of the British Army during the Napoleonic Wars.
The Barrett M82, standardized by the U.S. military as the M107, is a recoil-operated, semi-automatic anti-materiel rifle developed by the American Barrett Firearms Manufacturing company.
The Battle of Cowpens, fought on January 17, 1781, was an engagement between American Colonial forces under Brigadier General Daniel Morgan and British forces under Sir Banastre Tarleton, as part of the campaign in the Carolinas (North and South).
The Battle of Kings Mountain was a military engagement between Patriot and Loyalist militias in South Carolina during the Southern Campaign of the American Revolutionary War, resulting in a decisive victory for the Patriots.
The, one of the largest land battles to be fought before World War I and the last and the most decisive major land battle of the Russo-Japanese War, was fought from 20 February to 10 March 1905 between Japan and Russia near Mukden in Manchuria.
"Battle rifle" is a post-World War II term for military service rifles that are fed ammunition via detachable magazines and fire a full-powered rifle cartridge.
The Battles of Saratoga (September 19 and October 7, 1777) marked the climax of the Saratoga campaign, giving a decisive victory to the Americans over the British in the American Revolutionary War.
A belt or ammunition belt is a device used to retain and feed cartridges into a firearm.
A benchrest rifle is a type of rifle with a barrel and mechanism that has been built into a machine rest.
Benjamin Robins (170729 July 1751) was a pioneering British scientist, Newtonian mathematician, and military engineer.
The Blaser R8 rifle series is based on the Blaser R93 rifle series that was discontinued as of 2016.
The Blaser R93 is a German hunting rifle offered in a multitude of calibers and barrel lengths.
A bolt is the part of a repeating, breech-loading firearm that blocks the rear of the chamber while the propellant burns and moves to facilitate loading of cartridges from the magazine.
Bolt action is a type of firearm action where the handling of cartridges into and out of the weapon's barrel chamber are operated by manually manipulating the bolt directly via a handle, which is most commonly placed on the right-hand side of the weapon (as most users are right-handed).
Break action is a type of firearm action in which the barrel or barrels are hinged much like a door and rotate perpendicularly to the bore axis to expose the breech and allow loading and unloading of cartridges.
A breech-loading gun is a firearm in which the cartridge or shell is inserted or loaded into a chamber integral to the rear portion of a barrel.
A breechblock (or breech block) is the part of the firearm action that closes the breech of a weapon (whether small arms or artillery) at the moment of firing.
The origins of the modern British military rifle are within its predecessor the Brown Bess musket.
"Brown Bess" is a nickname of uncertain origin for the British Army's muzzle-loading smoothbore Land Pattern Musket and its derivatives.
Buffalo rifle generally refers to large-calibre, generally single-shot black powder cartridge firearms which were used to hunt the American Bison (or "buffalo") to near-extinction in the late-19th Century.
A bullet is a kinetic projectile and the component of firearm ammunition that is expelled from the gun barrel during shooting.
A bullpup is a firearm with its action and magazine far behind its trigger group.
In guns, particularly firearms, caliber or calibre is the approximate internal diameter of the gun barrel, or the diameter of the projectile it shoots.
The caplock mechanism or percussion lock was the successor of the flintlock mechanism in firearm technology, and used a percussion cap struck by the hammer to set off the main charge, rather than using a piece of flint to strike a steel frizzen.The caplock mechanism consists of a hammer, similar to the hammer used in a flintlock, and a nipple (sometimes referred to as a "cone"), which holds a small percussion cap.
The carabine à tige (sometimes called a "stem rifle") was a type of black-powder, muzzle-loading rifle invented by Louis-Etienne de Thouvenin.
A carbine, from French carabine, is a long gun firearm but with a shorter barrel than a rifle or musket.
Carcano is the frequently used name for a series of Italian bolt-action, magazine-fed, repeating military rifles and carbines.
A cartridge is a type of firearm ammunition packaging a projectile (bullet, shots or slug), a propellant substance (usually either smokeless powder or black powder) and an ignition device (primer) within a metallic, paper or plastic case that is precisely made to fit within the barrel chamber of a breechloading gun, for the practical purpose of convenient transportation and handling during shooting.
The Chassepot, officially known as Fusil modèle 1866, was a bolt action military breechloading rifle, famous as the arm of the French forces in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870/1871.
Christopher Miner Spencer (June 20, 1833 – January 14, 1922) was an American inventor, from Manchester, Connecticut, who invented the Spencer repeating rifle, one of the earliest models of lever-action rifle, a steam powered "horseless carriage", and several other inventions.
Chrome plating (less commonly chromium plating), often referred to simply as chrome, is a technique of electroplating a thin layer of chromium onto a metal object.
A civilian is "a person who is not a member of the military or of a police or firefighting force".
Claude-Etienne Minié (13 February 1804 – 14 December 1879) was a French Army officer famous for solving the problem of designing a reliable muzzle-loading rifle by inventing the Minié ball in 1846, and the Minié rifle in 1849.
The Colt Lightning Carbine or Colt Lightning Rifle was a slide-action (pump-action) rifle manufactured by Colt from 1884 to 1904 and was originally chambered in.44-40 caliber.
The Colt New Model Revolving rifles were early repeating rifles produced by the Colt's Manufacturing Company 1856 until 1864.
Compressed air is air kept under a pressure that is greater than atmospheric pressure.
* Cordite is a family of smokeless propellants developed and produced in the United Kingdom since 1889 to replace gunpowder as a military propellant.
The Cornhill Magazine (1860–1975) was a Victorian magazine and literary journal named after the publisher's address at 65 Cornhill in London.
A crew-served (crew-serve or crew service) weapon is any weapon system that requires a crew of more than one individual, as opposed to an individual service weapon, to function at optimum efficiency due to its operational complexity, such as requiring one person to load while another fires.
Cupronickel (also known as copper-nickel) is an alloy of copper that contains nickel and strengthening elements, such as iron and manganese.
In the context of machining, a cutting tool or cutter is any tool that is used to remove material from the work piece by means of shear deformation.
The Daily Mail is a British daily middle-marketPeter Wilby, New Statesman, 19 December 2013 (online version: 2 January 2014) tabloid newspaper owned by the Daily Mail and General Trust and published in London.
Daniel Morgan (July 6, 1736 – July 6, 1802) was an American pioneer, soldier, and politician from Virginia.
Deflagration (Lat: de + flagrare, "to burn down") is subsonic combustion propagating through heat transfer; hot burning material heats the next layer of cold material and ignites it.
The designated marksman (DM), squad advanced marksman (AD), or squad designated marksman (SDM) is a military marksman role in an infantry squad.
A designated marksman rifle (DMR) is the precision scoped weapon system used by modern infantries in the designated marksman (DM) role.
The double rifle, also known as the double-barrelled rifle, is a rifle with two barrels mounted parallel to each other.
The Dreyse needle-gun (German Zündnadelgewehr, which translates roughly as "ignition needle rifle") was a military breechloading rifle, famous as the main infantry weapon of the Prussians, who accepted it for service in 1841 as the "leichtes Perkussionsgewehr Model 1841" ("light percussion rifle Model 1841"), with the name chosen to hide the revolutionary nature of the new weapon.
In physics, elasticity (from Greek ἐλαστός "ductible") is the ability of a body to resist a distorting influence and to return to its original size and shape when that influence or force is removed.
An elephant gun is a large caliber gun, rifled or smoothbore, originally developed for use by big-game hunters for elephant and other big game.
The term express was first applied to hunting rifles and ammunition beginning in the middle 19th century, to indicate a rifle or ammunition capable of higher than typical velocities.
A falling-block action (also known as a sliding-block or dropping-block action) is a single-shot firearm action in which a solid metal breechblock slides vertically in grooves cut into the breech of the weapon and is actuated by a lever.
The FAMAS (Fusil d'Assaut de la Manufacture d'Armes de Saint-Étienne, in English "Assault Rifle from the Saint-Étienne Weapon Factory") is a bullpup-styled assault rifle designed and manufactured in France by MAS located in Saint-Étienne, which is now a member of the French government-owned Nexter group.
The Ferguson rifle was one of the first breech-loading rifles to be put into service by the British military.
A firearm is a portable gun (a barreled ranged weapon) that inflicts damage on targets by launching one or more projectiles driven by rapidly expanding high-pressure gas produced by exothermic combustion (deflagration) of propellant within an ammunition cartridge.
Flintlock is a general term for any firearm that uses a flint striking ignition mechanism.
The Consulate (French: Le Consulat) was the government of France from the fall of the Directory in the coup of Brumaire in November 1799 until the start of the Napoleonic Empire in May 1804.
A full metal jacket (FMJ) bullet is a small-arms projectile consisting of a soft core (often lead) encased in a shell of harder metal, such as gilding metal, cupronickel, or less commonly a steel alloy.
Gas-operation is a system of operation used to provide energy to operate autoloading firearms.
The gauge of a firearm is a unit of measurement used to express the inner diameter (bore diameter) of the barrel.
The Gewehr 98 (abbreviated G98, Gew 98 or M98) is a German bolt-action Mauser rifle firing cartridges from a 5-round internal clip-loaded magazine that was the German service rifle from 1898 to 1935, when it was replaced by the Karabiner 98k, a shorter weapon using the same basic design.
The Glock pistol is a series of polymer-framed, short recoil-operated, locked-breech semi-automatic pistols designed and produced by Austrian Glock Ges.m.b.H..
The Grizzly and the Grizzly 2.0 is a 3D printed.22-caliber rifle created around August 2013.
A gun barrel is a crucial part of gun-type ranged weapons such as small firearms, artillery pieces and air guns.
Gun safety rules and practice recommendations are intended to avoid accidental discharge or negligent discharge, or the consequences of firearm malfunctions.
Gunpowder, also known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive.
A handgun is a short-barreled firearm designed to be fired with only one hand.
A helix, plural helixes or helices, is a type of smooth space curve, i.e. a curve in three-dimensional space.
Henri-Gustave Delvigne (April 10, 1800 in Hamburg – October 18, 1876 in Toulon) was a French soldier and inventor.
The Henry repeating rifle is a lever-action, breech-loading, tubular magazine rifle famed both for its use at the Battle of the Little Bighorn and being the basis for the iconic Winchester rifle of the American Wild West.
Hunting is the practice of killing or trapping animals, or pursuing or tracking them with the intent of doing so.
Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and tank forces.
Jean Lepage (1779–1822) was a well-known French gunsmith.
Joint Task Force 2 (JTF2) (Force opérationnelle interarmées 2, FOI 2) is an elite special operations force of the Canadian Armed Forces.
The Karabiner Model 1931 (K31) is a magazine-fed, straight-pull bolt action rifle.
The Karabiner 98 kurz ("carbine 98 short", often abbreviated Kar98k or K98k) is a bolt-action rifle chambered for the 7.92×57mm Mauser cartridge that was adopted on 21 June 1935 as the standard service rifle by the German Wehrmacht.
Kentucky, officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States.
The King's Royal Rifle Corps was an infantry rifle regiment of the British Army that was originally raised in British North America as the Royal American Regiment (also known as the Royal Americans) in the Seven Years' War and for Loyalist service in the American Revolutionary War.
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.
Law enforcement is any system by which some members of society act in an organized manner to enforce the law by discovering, deterring, rehabilitating, or punishing people who violate the rules and norms governing that society.
The Lebel Model 1886 rifle (French: Fusil Modèle 1886 dit "Fusil Lebel") is also known as the "Fusil Mle 1886 M93", after a bolt modification was added in 1893.
The Lee–Enfield is a bolt-action, magazine-fed, repeating rifle that served as the main firearm used by the military forces of the British Empire and Commonwealth during the first half of the 20th century.
The Lee–Metford rifle (a.k.a. Magazine Lee–Metford, abbreviated MLM) was a bolt action British army service rifle, combining James Paris Lee's rear-locking bolt system and detachable magazine with an innovative seven groove rifled barrel designed by William Ellis Metford.
Lever action is a type of firearm action which uses a lever located around the trigger guard area (often including the trigger guard itself) to load fresh cartridges into the chamber of the barrel when the lever is worked.
Line infantry was the type of infantry that composed the basis of European land armies from the middle of the 17th century to the middle of the 19th century.
An assault rifle is a rifle that uses an intermediate cartridge, a detachable magazine, and can switch between semiautomatic/fully automatic fire.
Battle rifles are full-powered rifles, that use detachable box magazines, often with selective fire capability.
A carbine, from French carabine, is a long arm firearm but with a shorter barrel than a rifle or musket.
List of rifle cartridges, by category, then by name.
This page is a listing of major sniper rifle variants from around the world.
A long gun is a category of firearms with longer barrels than other classes.
The long rifle, also known as longrifle, Kentucky rifle, or Pennsylvania rifle, was one of the first commonly used rifles for hunting and warfare.
Reports regarding the longest recorded sniper kills that contain information regarding the shooting distance and the identity of the sniper have been presented to the general public since 1967.
Louis-Étienne de Thouvenin (1791–1882) was a French Army general.
The M1 GarandOfficially designated as U.S. rifle, caliber.30, M1, later simply called Rifle, Caliber.30, M1, also called US Rifle, Cal.
The M16 rifle, officially designated Rifle, Caliber 5.56 mm, M16, is a United States military adaptation of the ArmaLite AR-15 rifle.Kern, Danford Allan (2006).. m-14parts.com. A thesis presented to the Faculty of the US Army Command and General Staff College in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree MASTER OF MILITARY ART AND SCIENCE, Military History. Fort Leavenworth, KansasKokalis, Peter G.. Nodakspud.com The original M16 was a selective fire 5.56mm rifle with a 20-round magazine. In 1964, the M16 entered U.S. military service and the following year was deployed for jungle warfare operations during the Vietnam War. In 1969, the M16A1 replaced the M14 rifle to become the U.S. military's standard service rifle.Ezell, Edward Clinton (1983). Small Arms of the World. New York: Stackpole Books. pp. 46–47..Urdang, p. 801. The M16A1 improvements include a bolt-assist, chrome plated bore and a new 30-round magazine. In 1983, the U.S. Marine Corps adopted the M16A2 rifle and the U.S. Army adopted it in 1986. The M16A2 fires the improved 5.56×45mm NATO (M855/SS109) cartridge and has a new adjustable rear sight, case deflector, heavy barrel, improved handguard, pistol grip and buttstock, as well as a semi-auto and three-round burst only fire selector. Adopted in 1998, the M16A4 is the fourth generation of the M16 series.Weapons of the Modern Marines, by Michael Green, MBI Publishing Company, 2004, page 16 It is equipped with a removable carrying handle and Picatinny rail for mounting optics and other ancillary devices. The M16 has also been widely adopted by other militaries around the world. Total worldwide production of M16s has been approximately 8 million, making it the most-produced firearm of its 5.56 mm caliber. The U.S. Military has largely replaced the M16 in combat units with a shorter and lighter version named the M4 carbine.
The M1903 Springfield, formally the United States Rifle, Caliber.30-06, Model 1903, is an American five-round magazine fed, bolt-action service repeating rifle, used primarily during the first half of the 20th century.
A machine gun is a fully automatic mounted or portable firearm designed to fire bullets in rapid succession from an ammunition belt or magazine, typically at a rate of 300 rounds per minute or higher.
Machining is any of various processes in which a piece of raw material is cut into a desired final shape and size by a controlled material-removal process.
Maclean's is a Canadian news magazine that was founded in 1905, reporting on Canadian issues such as politics, pop culture, and current events.
A magazine is an ammunition storage and feeding device within or attached to a repeating firearm.
The Mannlicher M1895 (Infanterie Repetier-Gewehr M.95, Gyalogsági Ismétlő Puska M95; "Infantry Repeating-Rifle M95") is a bolt-action rifle, designed by Ferdinand Ritter von Mannlicher that used a refined version of his revolutionary straight-pull action bolt, much like the Mannlicher M1890 carbine.
A marksman is a person who is skilled in precision shooting, using accurate precision scoped projectile weapons (in modern days most commonly a designated marksman rifle or a sniper rifle) to shoot at high-value targets at longer-than-usual ranges.
Mauser, begun as Königliche Waffen Schmieden, is a German arms manufacturer.
The McMillan TAC-50 is a long-range anti-materiel and anti-personnel sniper rifle.
A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.
The Minié ball, or Minni ball, is a type of muzzle-loading spin-stabilized rifle bullet named after its co-developer, Claude-Étienne Minié, inventor of the Minié rifle.
The Minié rifle was an important infantry rifle of the mid-19th century.
A minute of arc, arcminute (arcmin), arc minute, or minute arc is a unit of angular measurement equal to of one degree.
Molybdenum disulfide is an inorganic compound composed of molybdenum and sulfur.
Morgan's Riflemen or Morgan's Rifles, previously Morgan's Sharpshooters, and the one named Provisional Rifle Corps, were an elite light infantry unit commanded by General Daniel Morgan in the American Revolutionary War, which served a vital role executing his tasks because it was equipped with what was then the cutting-edge rifle instead of muskets, allowing superior accuracy at an up to ten times the distance of the typical troops of the day.
The 3-line rifle M1891 (трёхлинейная винтовка образца 1891 года, tryokhlineynaya vintovka obraztsa 1891 goda), colloquially known as Mosin–Nagant (винтовка Мосина, ISO 9) is a five-shot, bolt-action, internal magazine–fed, military rifle developed from 1882 to 1891, and used by the armed forces of the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union and various other nations.
A musket is a muzzle-loaded, smoothbore long gun that appeared in early 16th century Europe, at first as a heavier variant of the arquebus, capable of penetrating heavy armor.
A muzzle-loading rifle is a muzzle-loaded small arm or artillery piece that has a rifled barrel rather than a smoothbore.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
Naval artillery is artillery mounted on a warship, originally used only for naval warfare, later also for naval gunfire support against targets on land, and for anti-aircraft use.
A needle gun is a firearm that has a needle-like firing pin, which can pass through the paper cartridge case to strike a percussion cap at the bullet base.
Nitrocellulose (also known as cellulose nitrate, flash paper, flash cotton, guncotton, and flash string) is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose through exposure to nitric acid or another powerful nitrating agent.
The Objective Individual Combat Weapon or OICW was the next-generation service rifle competition that was under development as part of the United States Army OICW program; the program was eventually discontinued without bringing the weapon out of the prototype phase.
Operation Anaconda took place in early March 2002.
The Enfield Pattern 1853 rifle-musket (also known as the Pattern 1853 Enfield, P53 Enfield, and Enfield rifle-musket) was a.577 calibre Minié-type muzzle-loading rifled musket, used by the British Empire from 1853 to 1867, after which many Enfield 1853 rifle-muskets were converted to (and replaced in service by) the cartridge-loaded Snider–Enfield rifle.
Paul Mauser, after 1912 von Mauser, (June 27, 1838 – May 29, 1914) was a German weapon designer and manufacturer/industrialist.
Personal defense weapons (PDWs) are a class of compact semi-automatic (selective fire for military and law enforcement), magazine-fed, submachine gun like firearms – essentially a hybrid between a submachine gun and compact rifles.
The personnel halting and stimulation response rifle (PHASR) is a prototype non-lethal laser dazzler developed by the Air Force Research Laboratory's Directed Energy Directorate, U.S. Department of Defense.
Pest control is the regulation or management of a species defined as a pest, a member of the animal kingdom that impacts adversely on human activities.
Plinking refers to informal target shooting done for pleasure typically at non-standard targets such as tin cans, logs, soda bottles, or any other homemade or naturally occurring target.
Polygonal rifling is a type of gun barrel rifling where the traditional sharp-edged lands and grooves are replaced by less-edged "hills and valleys" in a polygonal pattern, usually taking the form of a hexagon or octagon.
In firearms, the primer is a component of handgun cartridges, rifle cartridges and shotgun shells, and is responsible for initiating the propellant combustion that will push the projectiles out of the gun barrel.
Project Abakan was a Soviet/Russian advanced assault rifle programme in rival to the US Advanced Combat Rifle that took place between 1980 and 1994.
A projectile is any object thrown into space (empty or not) by the exertion of a force.
A propellant or propellent is a chemical substance used in the production of energy or pressurized gas that is subsequently used to create movement of a fluid or to generate propulsion of a vehicle, projectile, or other object.
A pump-action or slide-action firearm is one in which a forend can be moved forward and backward in order to eject a spent round of ammunition and to chamber a fresh one.
A recoilless rifle (RCLR) or recoilless gun is a type of lightweight tube artillery that is designed to allow some of the propellant gases to escape out the rear of the weapon at the moment of ignition, creating forward thrust that counteracts some of the weapon's recoil.
A repeating rifle, or repeater for short, is a single-barrel rifle capable of repeated discharges following a single ammunition reload, typically by having multiple cartridges stored in a magazine (within or attached to the gun) and then fed into the chamber by the bolt via either a manual or automatic mechanism, while the act of chambering the rifle typically also recocks the action for the following shot.
The Rifle Brigade (The Prince Consort's Own) was an infantry rifle regiment of the British Army formed in January 1800 as the "Experimental Corps of Riflemen" to provide sharpshooters, scouts, and skirmishers.
A rifle grenade is a grenade that uses a rifle-based launcher to permit a longer effective range than would be possible if the grenade was thrown by hand.
A rifled musket or rifle musket is a type of firearm made in the mid-19th century.
In firearms, rifling is the helical groove pattern that is machined into the internal (bore) surface of a gun's barrel, for the purpose of exerting torque and thus imparting a spin to a projectile around its longitudinal axis during shooting.
Rimfire is a method of ignition for metallic firearm cartridges as well as the cartridges themselves.
Rogers Communications Inc. is a Canadian communications and media company.
A rolling block action is a form of firearm action where the sealing of the breech is done with a specially shaped breechblock able to rotate on a pin.
The Ross rifle was a straight-pull bolt action.303 inch-calibre rifle produced in Canada from 1903 until 1918. The Ross Mk.II (or "model 1905") rifle was highly successful in target shooting before World War I, but the close chamber tolerances, lack of primary extraction and overall length made the Mk.III (or "1910") Ross rifle unsuitable for the conditions of trench warfare, exacerbated by the often poor quality ammunition issued. By 1916, the rifle had been withdrawn from front line service, but continued to be used by many snipers of the Canadian Expeditionary Force until the end of the war due to its exceptional accuracy. The Ross Rifle Co. made sporting rifles from early in its production, most notably chambered in.280 Ross, introduced in 1907. This cartridge is recorded as the first to achieve over 3000 feet per second velocity, and the cartridge acquired a very considerable international reputation among target shooters and hunters.
Rotational speed (or speed of revolution) of an object rotating around an axis is the number of turns of the object divided by time, specified as revolutions per minute (rpm), cycles per second (cps), radians per second (rad/s), etc..
A round shot (or solid shot, or a cannonball, or simply ball) is a solid projectile without explosive charge, fired from a cannon.
The RPK (Ruchnoy Pulemyot Kalashnikova, Ручной пулемёт Калашникова or "Kalashnikov hand-held machine gun") is a 7.62×39mm light machine gun of Soviet design, developed by Mikhail Kalashnikov in the late 1950s, parallel with the AKM assault rifle.
Rugby football refers to the team sports rugby league and rugby union.
The Ruger 10/22 is a series of semi-automatic rifles produced by American firearm manufacturer Sturm, Ruger & Co., chambered for the.22 Long Rifle rimfire cartridge.
The Russo–Japanese War (Russko-yaponskaya voina; Nichirosensō; 1904–05) was fought between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea.
The scout rifle is a class of general-purpose rifles defined and promoted by Jeff Cooper in the early 1980s.
Selective fire means the capability of a weapon to be adjusted to fire in semi-automatic, burst mode, and/or fully automatic firing mode.
A semi-automatic rifle, also known as a self-loading rifle ('SLR') or auto-loading rifle, is a self-loading rifle that fires a single round each time the trigger is pulled.
The service rifle (also known as standard-issue rifle) of a given armed force is that which it issues as standard to its service members.
Shooting is the act or process of discharging a projectile from a ranged weapon (such as a gun, slingshot, crossbow, or bow. Even the acts of launching/discharging artillery, darts, grenades, rockets and guided missiles can be considered acts of shooting. When using a firearm, the act of shooting is often called firing as it involves initiating a combustion process (deflagration). Shooting can take place in a shooting range or in the field, in shooting sports, hunting or in combat. A person involved in the shooting activity is a shooter. A proficient shooter is a marksman or sharpshooter. A person's level of shooting proficiency is referred to as marksmanship.
Shooting sports have been included at every Summer Olympic Games since the birth of the modern Olympic movement at the 1896 Summer Olympics, except at the 1904 and 1928 games.
A shooting range or firing range or archery range or pistol range or rifle range or shooting gallery or shooting ground is a specialized facility designed for archery or firearms practice.
Shooting sports is a collective group of competitive and recreational sporting activities involving proficiency tests of accuracy, precision and speed in using various types of ranged weapons, mainly referring to man-portable guns (firearms and airguns, in forms such as handguns, rifles and shotguns) and bows/crossbows.
Short-barreled rifle (SBR) is a legal designation in the United States, referring to a shoulder-fired, rifled firearm, made from a rifle, with a barrel length of less than or overall length of less than, or a handgun fitted with a buttstock and a barrel of less than 16 inches length.
A shotgun (also known as a scattergun, or historically as a fowling piece) is a firearm that is usually designed to be fired from the shoulder, which uses the energy of a fixed shell to fire a number of small spherical pellets called shot, or a solid projectile called a slug.
Single-shot firearms are firearms that hold only a single round of ammunition, and must be reloaded after each shot.
Small arms include handguns (revolvers and pistols) and long guns, such as rifles, carbines, shotguns, submachine guns, assault rifles, personal defense weapons, and light machine guns.
Smokeless powder is the name given to a number of propellants used in firearms and artillery that produce negligible smoke when fired, unlike the black powder they replaced.
A smoothbore weapon is one that has a barrel without rifling.
The British.577 Snider–Enfield was a breech-loading rifle.
A sniper is a military/paramilitary marksman who operates to maintain effective visual contact with the enemy and engage targets from concealed positions or at distances exceeding their detection capabilities.
A sniper rifle is a high-precision rifle designed for sniper missions.
The Spencer 1860 was an American lever action rifle.
The spitzer bullet, also commonly referred to as a spire point bullet, is primarily a small arms ballistics development of the late 19th and early 20th century, driven by military desire for aerodynamic bullet designs that will give a higher degree of accuracy and kinetic efficiency, especially at extended ranges.
The Springfield Model 1861 was a Minié-type rifled musket shoulder-arm used by the United States Army and Marine Corps during the American Civil War.
In metallurgy, stainless steel, also known as inox steel or inox from French inoxydable (inoxidizable), is a steel alloy with a minimum of 10.5% chromium content by mass.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
The StG 44 (abbreviation of Sturmgewehr 44, "assault rifle 44") is a German selective-fire rifle developed during World War II.
A gunstock, often simply stock, also known as a shoulder stock, a buttstock or simply a butt, is a part of a long gun such as rifle, to which the barrelled action and firing mechanism are attached and is held against the user's shoulder when shooting the gun.
Stratasys, Ltd. is a manufacturer of 3D printers and 3D production systems for office-based rapid prototyping and direct digital manufacturing solutions.
A submachine gun (SMG) is a magazine-fed, automatic carbine designed to fire pistol cartridges.
The Tabatière rifle was a breech-loading rifle of the French Army.
A telescopic sight, commonly called a scope, is an optical sighting device that is based on a refracting telescope.
The Globe and Mail is a Canadian newspaper printed in five cities in western and central Canada.
In firearms, a trapdoor is a form of breech-loading mechanism for rifles, where a hinged breechblock rotated up and forward, resembling the movement of a trapdoor.
Trench warfare is a type of land warfare using occupied fighting lines consisting largely of military trenches, in which troops are well-protected from the enemy's small arms fire and are substantially sheltered from artillery.
Varmint rifle is an American English term for a small-caliber firearm or high-powered air gun primarily used for varmint hunting — killing small/medium-sized non-native or non-game animals such as rats, house sparrows, starling, crows, ground squirrels, gophers, jackrabbits, nutria, marmots, groundhogs, porcupine, opossum, coyote, skunks, weasels, or feral cats, dogs, goats, pigs and other animals considered to be nuisance vermin destructive to native or domestic plants and animals.
Verney-Carron S.A. is a French firearm manufacturing company based in Saint-Etienne, Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes.
War is a state of armed conflict between states, societies and informal groups, such as insurgents and militias.
The War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States, the United Kingdom, and their respective allies from June 1812 to February 1815.
The Whitworth Rifle was a single-shot muzzle-loaded rifle used in the latter half of the 19th century.
Winchester rifle is a comprehensive term describing a series of lever-action repeating rifles manufactured by the Winchester Repeating Arms Company.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
.17 Hornady Magnum Rimfire, commonly known as the.17 HMR, is a rimfire rifle cartridge developed by the ammunition company Hornady in 2002.
The 22 caliber, or 5.6mm caliber, is a small, extremely common size of ammunition, fitted to firearms with a bore diameter of 0.22 in (5.6 mm).
The.30-06 Springfield cartridge (pronounced "thirty-aught-six" or "thirty-oh-six"), 7.62×63mm in metric notation and called ".30 Gov't '06" by Winchester, was introduced to the United States Army in 1906 and later standardized; it remained in use until the early 1980s.
The.303 British (designated as the 303 British by the C.I.P. and SAAMI) or 7.7×56mmR, is a calibre (with the bore diameter measured between the lands as is common practice in Europe) rimmed rifle cartridge first developed in Britain as a black-powder round put into service in December 1888 for the Lee–Metford rifle.
The 20 mm caliber is a specific size of cannon or autocannon ammunition.
The 5.45×39mm cartridge is a rimless bottlenecked Intermediate cartridge.
The 5.56×45mm NATO (official NATO nomenclature 5.56 NATO) is a rimless bottlenecked intermediate cartridge family developed in Belgium by FN Herstal.
The 6.5×52mm Carcano, also known as the 6.5×52mm Parravicini–Carcano or 6.5×52mm Mannlicher–Carcano, is an Italian military 6.5 mm (.268 cal, actually 0.2675 inches) rimless bottle-necked rifle cartridge, developed from 1889 to 1891 and used in the Carcano 1891 rifle and many of its successors.
The 7.92×33mm Kurz (designated as the 7.92 x 33 kurz by the C.I.P.)Small Arms Review, Vol.