368 relations: Aalborg, Abwehr, Ageing of Europe, Akmens tilts, Albert of Riga, Alexander III of Russia, Alfred Rosenberg, Almaty, Amsterdam, Andris Biedriņš, Animal husbandry, Apothecary, Arēna Rīga, Archbishopric of Bremen, Archbishopric of Riga, Armenia, Armistice of 11 November 1918, Art Academy of Latvia, Art Nouveau, Artur Fonvizin, ASK Riga, Association football, Astana, Australia, Ķīpsala, BA School of Business and Finance, Baltic Germans, Baltic governorates, Baltic states, Basketball, Battle of Jugla, Beijing, Belarus, Belarusians, Berthold of Hanover, BK Barons, BK VEF Rīga, Body of European Regulators for Electronic Communications, Bordeaux, Bourgeoisie, Brīvības iela, Bremen, Bremen (state), Buffalo Sabres, Bus, Cairns, Calais, Capital city, Capitulation of Estonia and Livonia, Catholic Church, ..., Central Administrative Okrug, Central District, Riga, Charles Kalme, Chile, China, Christianity, Christianization, Coach (bus), Cold War, Condominium (international law), Congress Poland, Crusades, Culture of Latvia, Dailes Theatre, Dallas, Daugava, Daugava Stadium (Riga), Daugavgrīva, Defensive wall, Demonym, Denmark, Dinamo Riga, Dinamo Riga (original), DJ Lethal, Drama school, Eastern Partnership, Elīna Garanča, Emigration, Ernst Munzinger, Ernst von Bergmann, Estonia, EuroBasket 1937, EuroBasket 2015, EuroBasket Women 2009, Eurocities, EuroCup Basketball, EuroLeague, EuroLeague Women, European Capital of Culture, European route E22, European route E67, European Union, Eurovision Song Contest 2003, Facsimile, FIBA EuroChallenge, Finnic peoples, Flag of Riga, Florence, France, Free imperial city, Freedom Monument, Freeport of Riga, Friedrich Zander, FS METTA/Latvijas Universitāte, German Army (German Empire), German occupation of Latvia during World War II, Germany, Gidon Kremer, Governorate of Livonia, Great Northern War, Gulf of Riga, Gunnar Birkerts, Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, Hanseatic League, Harbor, Hartwig of Uthlede, Heinz Erhardt, Helmuts Balderis, High-speed rail, History of the Jews in Latvia, HK Rīga, Holy Roman Empire, House of the Blackheads (Riga), Humid continental climate, Ice hockey, Iconoclasm, Ikšķile, Isaiah Berlin, Island Bridge, Riga, Italy, Ivan Krylov, Jacob W. Davis, Jakob Benjamin Fischer, Japan, Jeļena Ostapenko, Jiangsu, Johann Georg Hamann, Johann Gottfried Herder, Johann Steinhauer, June deportation, Junior Hockey League (Russia), Juris Hartmanis, Juris Upatnieks, Kaiserwald concentration camp, Karlis Kaufmanis, Kaspars Dubra, Kazakhstan, Kārlis Ulmanis, KGB, Kiev, Kobe, Koknese, Kontinental Hockey League, Kristjan Jaak Peterson, Kurzeme District, Riga, Laila Freivalds, Latgale Suburb, Riga, Latvia, Latvia national football team, Latvian Americans, Latvian Canadians, Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre, Latvian Higher League, Latvian National Awakening, Latvian National Opera, Latvian National Theatre, Latvian Social Democratic Workers' Party, Latvians, Latvijas Basketbola līga, Latvijas Universitates Stadions, Léopold Bernhard Bernstamm, Leonīds Breikšs, List of cities and towns in Latvia, List of National Roads in Latvia, List of sovereign states, Lithuanians, Livonian Brothers of the Sword, Livonian Chronicle of Henry, Livonian language, Livonian Order, Livonian War, Livonians, Lola Hoffmann, Low-cost carrier, Lutheranism, Marians Pahars, Mary, mother of Jesus, Maskavas Forštate, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Metres above sea level, Microdistrict, Miervaldis Jursevskis, Mikhail Baryshnikov, Mikhail Eisenstein, Mikhail Tal, Minibus, Minsk, Monarchy of Sweden, Moscow, Motorsport, Mstislav Keldysh, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Nationalist Movement, Nazi concentration camps, Nazi–Soviet population transfers, Netherlands, New Current, New Riga Theatre, NHL Entry Draft, Nicolai Hartmann, Nils Ušakovs, Non-citizens (Latvia), Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Norrköping, North Holland, Northern District, Riga, Official language, Orthodoxy, Paganism, Pasažieru vilciens, Pārdaugava, Peter the Great, Philip of Swabia, Philippe Halsman, Poles, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Polish–Swedish War (1621–25), Polotsk, Pompeii, Pope Innocent III, Pori, Prague, Presidency of the Council of the European Union, Principality of Jersika, Principality of Smolensk, Protestantism, Public transport, Queensland, Rail Baltica, Railway Bridge, Riga, Raimonds Pauls, Rīgas Satiksme, Red Bull X-Fighters, Reformation, Richard Hakluyt, Richard Wagner, Riga Cathedral, Riga Charter, Riga City Council, Riga Ghetto, Riga Graduate School of Law, Riga International Airport, Riga International Coach Terminal, Riga International School of Economics and Business Administration, Riga Marathon, Riga Passenger Terminal, Riga Planning Region, Riga Radio and TV Tower, Riga Salsa Festival, Riga Stradiņš University, Riga Technical University, Roman Catholic Diocese of Inflanty, Romani people, Rostock, Routledge, Rumbula Air Base, Rumbula massacre, Russia, Russian Empire, Russian Revolution, Russian Theatre, Riga, Russians, Russification, Russo-Swedish War (1656–1658), Rutanya Alda, Saint Meinhard, Saint Petersburg, Sandis Ozoliņš, Santiago, Sergei Eisenstein, Sister city, Skonto FC, Skonto Stadium, Social Democratic Party "Harmony", Southern Bridge, Soviet Union, Spilve Airport, Sport of athletics, St. James's Cathedral, Riga, St. Peter's Church, Riga, Standard-gauge railway, Stanley Cup, Stockholm, Stockholm School of Economics in Riga, Suzhou, Sweden, Swedish Empire, Taipei, Taiwan, Tallink, Tallinn, Tallinn University of Technology, Tanhum Cohen-Mintz, Tartu, Tashkent, Tatiana Warsher, Tbilisi, Telephone numbers in Latvia, Terra Mariana, Texas, Thirty Years' War, Threshing, Trade route, Trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks, Traffic congestion, Tram, Trans-European Transport Networks, Transport and Telecommunication Institute, Transport corridor, Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, Treaty of Drohiczyn, Treaty of Nystad, Trial by ordeal, Trolleybus, Tsar, TTT Riga, Turība University, Tuscany, Ukraine, Ukrainians, Umeå, Union of the Baltic Cities, University of Latvia, Valdemar II of Denmark, Valdis Dombrovskis, Valentin Pikul, Vanšu Bridge, Varangians, Vecrīga, Vidzeme Suburb, Riga, Viking Age, Vilnius, Volleyball, Walter Zapp, Warsaw, Wehrmacht, Western Europe, Wilhelm Ostwald, World Choir Games, World Heritage site, World War I, World War II, Yerevan, Yeshayahu Leibowitz, Yosef Mendelevitch, Young Latvians, Zaķusala, Zemgale Suburb, Riga, Zemgus Girgensons, Zolitūde shopping centre roof collapse, 1905 Russian Revolution, 1999 European Athletics Junior Championships, 2006 IIHF World Championship, 2006 Men's World Ice Hockey Championships, 2006 Riga summit, 2007–08 FIBA EuroCup, 2013 World Women's Curling Championship, 2016 Men's World Floorball Championships. 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Aalborg, is Denmark's fourth largest city with an urban population of 136,000, including 22,000 in the twin city Nørresundby 600 meters across the Limfjord.
The Abwehr was the German military intelligence service for the Reichswehr and Wehrmacht from 1920 to 1945.
The ageing of Europe, also known as the greying of Europe, is a demographic phenomenon in Europe characterized by a decrease in fertility, a decrease in mortality rate, and a higher life expectancy among European populations.
Akmens tilts is a bridge in Riga.
Albert of Riga or Albert of Livonia (Alberts fon Buksthēvdens; Albert von Buxthoeven; c.1165 – 17 January 1229) was the third Bishop of Riga in Livonia.
Alexander III (r; 1845 1894) was the Emperor of Russia, King of Poland, and Grand Duke of Finland from until his death on.
Alfred Ernst Rosenberg (12 January 1893 – 16 October 1946) was a German theorist and an influential ideologue of the Nazi Party.
Almaty (Алматы, Almaty; Алматы), formerly known as Alma-Ata (Алма-Ата) and Verny (Верный Vernyy), is the largest city in Kazakhstan, with a population of 1,797,431 people, about 8% of the country's total population.
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.
Andris Biedriņš (born April 2, 1986) is a Latvian former professional basketball player.
Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat, fibre, milk, eggs, or other products.
Apothecary is one term for a medical professional who formulates and dispenses materia medica to physicians, surgeons, and patients.
Arena Riga (Arēna Rīga) is an indoor arena in Riga, Latvia.
The Archdiocese of Bremen (also Archdiocese of Hamburg-Bremen, Erzbistum Bremen, not to be confused with the modern Archdiocese of Hamburg, founded in 1994) is a historical Roman Catholic diocese (787–1566/1648) and formed from 1180 to 1648 an ecclesiastical state (continued under other names until 1823), named Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen (Erzstift Bremen) within the Holy Roman Empire.
The Archbishopric of Riga (Archiepiscopatus Rigensis, Erzbisdom Riga) was an archbishopric in Medieval Livonia, a subject to the Holy See.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The Armistice of 11 November 1918 was the armistice that ended fighting on land, sea and air in World War I between the Allies and their last opponent, Germany.
The Art Academy of Latvia (Latvijas Mākslas akadēmija) is an institution of higher education and scientific research in art, located in Riga, Latvia.
Art Nouveau is an international style of art, architecture and applied art, especially the decorative arts, that was most popular between 1890 and 1910.
Artur Vladimirovich Fonvizin (Артур Влади́мирович Фонви́зин., from von Wiesen; 11 January 1883 – 19 August 1973) was a Soviet painter of watercolours.
ASK Rīga is a former professional basketball club that was based in Riga, Latvia.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Astana (Астана, Astana) is the capital city of Kazakhstan.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Ķīpsala is an island on the left bank of the Daugava river, connected to Riga city center and Pārdaugava by the Shroud Bridge.
The BA School of Business and Finance (Banku Augstskola) is one of the leading, self-financing business schools in Latvia.
The Baltic Germans (Deutsch-Balten or Deutschbalten, later Baltendeutsche) are ethnic German inhabitants of the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea, in what today are Estonia and Latvia.
The Baltic governorates (Прибалтийские губернии), originally the Ostsee governorates (Ostseegouvernements, Остзейские губернии), was a collective name for the administrative units of the Russian Empire set up in the territories of Swedish Estonia, Swedish Livonia (1721) and, afterwards, of Duchy of Courland and Semigallia (1795).
The Baltic states, also known as the Baltic countries, Baltic republics, Baltic nations or simply the Baltics (Balti riigid, Baltimaad, Baltijas valstis, Baltijos valstybės), is a geopolitical term used for grouping the three sovereign countries in Northern Europe on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
Basketball is a team sport played on a rectangular court.
The Battle of Jugla was a defensive battle of the Russian Republic's 12th Army of the First World War from 1 to 3 September 1917.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
Belarusians (беларусы, biełarusy, or Byelorussians (from the Byelorussian SSR), are an East Slavic ethnic group who are native to modern-day Belarus and the immediate region. There are over 9.5 million people who proclaim Belarusian ethnicity worldwide, with the overwhelming majority residing either in Belarus or the adjacent countries where they are an autochthonous minority.
Berthold of Hanover (died 24 July 1198) was a German Cistercian and Bishop of Livonia, who met his death in a crusade against the pagan Livonians.
BK Barons/LDz (previously Barons/LMT) is a professional basketball club which is based in Riga, Latvia.
VEF Rīga is a Latvian professional basketball team that is based in Riga, Latvia.
The Body of European Regulators for Electronic Communications (BEREC;, EEKRE; Gremium Europäischer Regulierungsstellen für elektronische Kommunikation, GEREK), based in Riga (Latvia), is the regulating agency of the telecommunication market in the European Union.
Bordeaux (Gascon Occitan: Bordèu) is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France.
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.
Brīvības iela is the central street of Riga, the capital of Latvia.
The City Municipality of Bremen (Stadtgemeinde Bremen) is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany, which belongs to the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (also called just "Bremen" for short), a federal state of Germany.
The Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (Freie Hansestadt Bremen) is the smallest and least populous of Germany's 16 states.
The Buffalo Sabres are a professional ice hockey team based in Buffalo, New York.
A bus (archaically also omnibus, multibus, motorbus, autobus) is a road vehicle designed to carry many passengers.
Cairns is a city in the Cairns Region, Queensland, Australia.
Calais (Calés; Kales) is a city and major ferry port in northern France in the department of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sub-prefecture.
A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.
With the Capitulation of Estonia and Livonia in 1710 the Swedish dominions Estonia and Livonia were integrated into the Russian EmpireLuts (2006), p. 159 following their conquest during the Great Northern War.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Central Administrative Okrug, or Tsentralny Administrativny Okrug (Центра́льный администрати́вный о́круг, Tsentralny administrativny okrug), is one of the twelve administrative okrugs of Moscow, Russia, located within the Kamer-Kollezhny Bank.
Central District (Centra rajons) is one of six administrative districts of Riga, the capital of Latvia.
Charles Ivars Kalme (Kārlis Ivars Kalme, November 15, 1939 – March 20, 2002) was a Latvian American, the World Chess Federation, and a mathematician.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christianization (or Christianisation) is the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire groups at once.
A coach (also motor coach) is a type of bus used for conveying passengers.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
In international law, a condominium (plural either condominia, as in Latin, or condominiums) is a political territory (state or border area) in or over which multiple sovereign powers formally agree to share equal dominium (in the sense of sovereignty) and exercise their rights jointly, without dividing it into "national" zones.
The Kingdom of Poland, informally known as Congress Poland or Russian Poland, was created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna as a sovereign state of the Russian part of Poland connected by personal union with the Russian Empire under the Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland until 1832.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
The culture of Latvia combines traditional Latvian and Livonian heritage with influences of the country's varied historical heritage.
The Dailes Theatre (Dailes teātris) is a professional Latvian theater founded by Latvian director and actor Eduards Smiļģis (1886-1966) on November 19, 1920 at the Craftsmen Relief Society House at Lāčplēša Street 25, Riga, Latvia.
Dallas is a city in the U.S. state of Texas.
The Daugava (Daugova) or Western Dvina is a river rising in the Valdai Hills, Russia, flowing through Russia, Belarus, and Latvia and into the Gulf of Riga.
Daugava National Stadium is a multifunctional stadium in Riga, Latvia, which was opened in 1958.
Daugavgrīva (Dünamünde; Dynemunt; Усть-Двинск or Ust`-Dvinsk) is a neighbourhood in North West Riga, Latvia on the left bank of the Daugava river.
A defensive wall is a fortification usually used to protect a city, town or other settlement from potential aggressors.
A demonym (δῆμος dẽmos "people, tribe", ὄόνομα ónoma "name") is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place, which is derived from the name of that particular place.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
Dinamo Riga (Rīgas Dinamo) is a professional ice hockey team based in Riga, Latvia.
Dinamo Riga (Rīgas Dinamo) was an ice hockey club, based in Riga, Latvia.
Leor Dimant (Leors Dimants; born December 18, 1972) better known as DJ Lethal, is a Latvian American turntablist and producer and is best known as a member of the groups House of Pain and Limp Bizkit.
A drama school, stage school or theatre school is an undergraduate and/or graduate school or department at a college or university; or a free-standing institution (such as the Drama section at the Juilliard School); which specializes in the pre-professional training in drama and theatre arts, such as acting, design and technical theatre, arts administration, and related subjects.
The Eastern Partnership (EaP) is an initiative of the European External Action Service of the European Union (EU) governing its relationship with the post-Soviet states of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine, intended to provide an avenue for discussions of trade, economic strategy, travel agreements, and other issues between the EU and its Eastern European neighbours.
Elīna Garanča (born 16 September 1976) is a Latvian mezzo-soprano.
Emigration is the act of leaving a resident country or place of residence with the intent to settle elsewhere.
Ernst Gustav Adolf Munzinger (6 July 1887 – 23 April 1945) was a German businessman and lieutenant colonel in Army intelligence.
Ernst von Bergmann (16 December 1836 – 25 March 1907) was a Baltic German surgeon.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
The 1937 FIBA European Championship, commonly called FIBA EuroBasket 1937, was the second FIBA EuroBasket regional basketball championship, held by FIBA Europe.
FIBA EuroBasket 2015 was the 39th annual edition of the EuroBasket championship that is organised by FIBA Europe.
The 2009 European Women Basketball Championship, commonly called EuroBasket Women 2009, was the 32nd regional championship held by FIBA Europe.
EUROCITIES is the network of major European cities, founded in 1986 by the mayors of Barcelona, Birmingham, Frankfurt, Lyon, Milan, and Rotterdam.
EuroCup Basketball, commonly known as EuroCup and currently called the 7DAYS EuroCup for name sponsorship reasons, is an annual European-wide second tier level professional basketball club competition that is organized by Euroleague Basketball, since 2002, for eligible European basketball clubs.
The EuroLeague, also known as the Turkish Airlines EuroLeague for name sponsorship reasons, is the European-wide top-tier level professional basketball club competition that is organized by Euroleague Basketball, since 2000, for eligible European basketball clubs.
The EuroLeague Women (officially FIBA EuroLeague Women) is the highest professional basketball league in Europe for women's clubs.
The European Capital of Culture is a city designated by the European Union (EU) for a period of one calendar year during which it organises a series of cultural events with a strong pan-European dimension.
The European route E 22 is one of the longest European routes.
European route E 67 is an E-road running from Prague in the Czech Republic to Helsinki in Finland by way of Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The Eurovision Song Contest 2003 was the 48th edition of the annual Eurovision Song Contest.
A facsimile (from Latin fac simile (to 'make alike')) is a copy or reproduction of an old book, manuscript, map, art print, or other item of historical value that is as true to the original source as possible.
FIBA EuroChallenge (called the FIBA Europe League in 2003–05, and FIBA EuroCup in 2005–08) was the 3rd tier level transnational men's professional club basketball competition in Europe, from 2003 to 2015.
The Finnic peoples or Baltic Finns consist of the peoples inhabiting the region around the Baltic Sea in Northeastern Europe who speak Finnic languages, including the Finns proper, Estonians (including Võros and Setos), Karelians (including Ludes and Olonets), Veps, Izhorians, Votes, and Livonians as well as their descendants worldwide.
The flag of Riga is one of the official symbols of Riga, along with the coat of arms of Riga.
Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
In the Holy Roman Empire, the collective term free and imperial cities (Freie und Reichsstädte), briefly worded free imperial city (Freie Reichsstadt, urbs imperialis libera), was used from the fifteenth century to denote a self-ruling city that had a certain amount of autonomy and was represented in the Imperial Diet.
The Freedom Monument (Brīvības piemineklis) is a memorial located in Riga, Latvia, honouring soldiers killed during the Latvian War of Independence (1918–1920).
Riga Free Port (Rīgas brīvosta.) - a major port on the east coast of the Baltic Sea, is located in Riga, the capital of Latvia.
Friedrich Zander (Фридрих Артурович Цандер Fridrikh Arturovich Tsander. Frīdrihs Canders, – 28 March 1933), was a Baltic German pioneer of rocketry and spaceflight in the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union.
FK Metta is a professional Latvian football club in Riga.
The Imperial German Army (Deutsches Heer) was the name given to the combined land and air forces of the German Empire (excluding the Marine-Fliegerabteilung maritime aviation formations of the Imperial German Navy).
The occupation of Latvia by Nazi Germany was completed on July 10, 1941 by Germany's armed forces.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Gidon Kremer (Gidons Krēmers; born 27 February 1947) is a Latvian classical violinist, artistic director, and founder of Kremerata Baltica.
The Governorate of Livonia (Лифляндская губерния, Liflyandskaya guberniya; Gouvernement Livland, Livländisches Gouvernement; Vidzemes guberņa, after the Latvian inhabited Vidzeme region) was one of the Baltic governorates of the Russian Empire, now divided between the Republic of Latvia and the Republic of Estonia.
The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.
The Gulf of Riga, Bay of Riga, or Gulf of Livonia (Rīgas jūras līcis, Liivi laht, Рижский залив) is a bay of the Baltic Sea between Latvia and Estonia.
Gunnar Birkerts (Gunārs Birkerts, January 17, 1925 – August 15, 2017) was a Latvian-American architect who, for most of his career, was based in the metropolitan area of Detroit, Michigan.
Gustav II Adolf (9 December 1594 – 6 November 1632, O.S.), widely known in English by his Latinised name Gustavus Adolphus or as Gustav II Adolph, was the King of Sweden from 1611 to 1632 who is credited for the founding of Sweden as a great power (Stormaktstiden).
The Hanseatic League (Middle Low German: Hanse, Düdesche Hanse, Hansa; Standard German: Deutsche Hanse; Latin: Hansa Teutonica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe.
A harbor or harbour (see spelling differences; synonyms: wharves, haven) is a sheltered body of water where ships, boats, and barges can be docked.
Hartwig of Uthlede (died 3 November 1207) was a German nobleman who – as Hartwig II – Prince-Archbishop of Bremen (1185–1190 and de facto again 1192–1207) and one of the originators of the Livonian Crusade.
Heinz Erhardt (20 February 1909 – 5 June 1979) was a German comedian, musician, entertainer, actor, and poet.
Helmuts Balderis-Sildedzis (born 31 July 1952) is a retired Latvian soviet ice hockey player.
High-speed rail is a type of rail transport that operates significantly faster than traditional rail traffic, using an integrated system of specialized rolling stock and dedicated tracks.
The History of the Jews in Latvia dates back to the first Jewish colony established in Piltene in 1571.
HK Rīga is an ice hockey club, based in Riga, Latvia.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
House of the Blackheads (Melngalvju nams, Schwarzhäupterhaus) is a building situated in the old town of Riga, Latvia.
A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, which is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold in the northern areas) winters.
Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice, usually in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points.
IconoclasmLiterally, "image-breaking", from κλάω.
Ikšķile (Uexküll; Ikškilā; Üksküla) is a town in Latvia, the administrative centre of Ikšķile municipality.
Sir Isaiah Berlin (6 June 1909 – 5 November 1997) was a Russian-British social and political theorist, philosopher and historian of ideas.
The Island Bridge (Salu tilts) is a bridge that crosses the Daugava river in Riga, the capital of Latvia.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Ivan Andreyevich Krylov (Ива́н Андре́евич Крыло́в; February 13, 1769 – November 21, 1844) is Russia's best-known fabulist and probably the most epigrammatic of all Russian authors.
Jacob W. Davis (born Jacob Youphes) (1831–1908) was a Latvian/American tailor who is credited with inventing modern jeans.
Jakob Benjamin Fischer (13 October 1731–25 July 1793) was a Baltic German naturalist and apothecary.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Jeļena Ostapenko (born 8 June 1997), also known as Aļona Ostapenko, is a professional tennis player from Latvia.
Jiangsu, formerly romanized as Kiangsu, is an eastern-central coastal province of the People's Republic of China.
Johann Georg Hamann (27 August 1730 – 21 June 1788) was a German philosopher, whose work was used by his student J. G. Herder as a main support of the Sturm und Drang movement, and associated by historian of ideas Isaiah Berlin with the Counter-Enlightenment.
Johann Gottfried (after 1802, von) Herder (25 August 174418 December 1803) was a German philosopher, theologian, poet, and literary critic.
Johann Steinhauer (Jānis Šteinhauers, born Jānis Akmeņkalis; 19 January 1705 – 21 February 1779) was a Latvian entrepreneur, social reformer and landowner, who made significant contributions to the Latvian civil rights throughout the 18th century.
The June deportation (Juuniküüditamine, Jūnija deportācijas, Birželio trėmimai) was a mass deportation by the Soviet Union of tens of thousands of people from the territories occupied in 1940–1941: Baltic states, occupied Poland (mostly present-day western Belarus and western Ukraine), and Moldavia.
The Junior Hockey League (MHL) (Molodezhnaya Hokkeinaya Liga), sometimes translated as the Minor or Youth Hockey League, is a major junior ice hockey league in Eurasia, founded in 2009.
Juris Hartmanis (born July 5, 1928) is a prominent computer scientist and computational theorist who, with Richard E. Stearns, received the 1993 ACM Turing Award "in recognition of their seminal paper which established the foundations for the field of computational complexity theory".
Juris Upatnieks (born 7 May 1936 in Riga) is a Latvian-American physicist and inventor, and pioneer in the field of holography.
Kaiserwald (Ķeizarmežs) was a Nazi German concentration camp near the Riga suburb of Mežaparks in Latvia.
Kārlis Kaufmanis (February 21, 1910, Riga, Latvia – June 21, 2003, Clearwater, Florida) was a Latvian-American astronomer.
Kaspars Dubra (born 20 December 1990) is a Latvian professional football defender who plays for Rīgas FS.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
Kārlis Augusts Vilhelms Ulmanis (September 4, 1877 in Bērze, Bērze Parish, Courland Governorate, Russian Empire – September 20, 1942 in Krasnovodsk prison, Soviet Union, now Türkmenbaşy, Turkmenistan) was one of the most prominent Latvian politicians of pre-World War II Latvia during the interwar period of independence from November 1918 to June 1940.
The KGB, an initialism for Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti (p), translated in English as Committee for State Security, was the main security agency for the Soviet Union from 1954 until its break-up in 1991.
Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.
is the sixth-largest city in Japan and the capital city of Hyōgo Prefecture.
Koknese is a historic town in Latvia, the administrative centre of Koknese municipality on the right bank of the Daugava River.
The Kontinental Hockey League (KHL) (Континентальная хоккейная лига (КХЛ), Kontinental'naya hokkeynaya liga) is an international professional ice hockey league founded in 2008.
Kristian Jaak Peterson (Riga –, Riga) also known as Christian Jacob Petersohn, was an Estonian poet, commonly regarded as a herald of Estonian national literature and the founder of modern Estonian poetry.
Kurzeme District (Kurzemes rajons) is one of six administrative districts of Riga, the capital of Latvia.
Laila Ligita Freivalds (born 22 June 1942) is a Swedish Social Democratic politician and who served as Minister for Justice from 1988 to 1991 and again from 1994 to 2000, as Minister for Foreign Affairs from 2003 to 2006 and as Deputy Prime Minister of Sweden briefly in 2004.
Latgale Suburb (Latgales priekšpilsēta) is one of six administrative districts of Riga, the capital of Latvia.
Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
The Latvia national football team (Latvijas futbola izlase) represents the country in international football competitions, such as the World Cup and the European Championships.
Latvian Americans are Americans who are of Latvian ancestry.
Latvian Canadians are Canadian citizens of Latvian descent or Latvian-born people who are in possession of Canadian citizenship.
The Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre (Latvijas Vides, ģeoloģijas un meteoroloģijas centrs; LVĢMC) is a governmental service under the Ministry of Environment of Latvia The main objectives of the centre are to collect and process environmental information, carry out environmental monitoring and inform the society on the environmental situation, as well as, ensure the geologic supervision and rational use of natural resources and realize state policies in the spheres of geology, meteorology, climatology, hydrology, air quality, and cross-border air pollution influence.
Latvian Higher League or Virslīga, (sponsored name of SynotTip Higher League), is a professional football league and the top tier of association football in Latvia.
The Latvian National Awakening (latviešu tautas atmoda) refers to three distinct but ideologically related National revival movements.
The Latvian National Opera (LNO, Latvijas Nacionālā opera), Riga, is the national opera of Latvia.
The Latvian National Theatre (Latvijas Nacionālais teātris) is one of the leading professional theatres in Latvia.
The Latvian Social Democratic Workers' Party (Latvijas Sociāldemokrātiskā Strādnieku Partija, LSDSP) is a social-democratic political party in Latvia.
Latvians (latvieši; lețlizt) are a Baltic ethnic group, native to what is modern-day Latvia and the immediate geographical region.
The Latvian Basketball League (LBL; Latvijas Basketbola līga) also known as the OlyBet LBL for sponsorship reasons, is the national basketball championship in Latvia; composed of 9 teams.
Latvijas Universitātes Stadions was a multi-use stadium in Riga, Latvia.
Léopold Bernhard Bernstamm (20 April 1859 - 22 January 1939), also written as Léopold-Bernhard Bernstam, Léopold Bernard Bernstamm or Leopold Adolfovich Bernstam, was a Russian sculptor active in France and Russia.
Leonīds Breikšs was a noted 1930s Latvian poet, journalist and patriot.
There are 9 cities (Republikas pilsētas, "republican cities") and 67 towns (Novada pilsētas, "municipality towns") in Latvia.
This is a list of National Roads in Latvia.
This list of sovereign states provides an overview of sovereign states around the world, with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty.
Lithuanians (lietuviai, singular lietuvis/lietuvė) are a Baltic ethnic group, native to Lithuania, where they number around 2,561,300 people.
The Livonian Brothers of the Sword (Fratres militiæ Christi Livoniae, Schwertbrüderorden, Ordre des Chevaliers Porte-Glaive) was a Catholic military order established by Albert, the third bishop of Riga (or possibly by Theoderich von Treyden), in 1202.
The Livonian Chronicle of Henry (Heinrici Cronicon Lyvoniae) or Henry's chronicle of Livonia is a document in Latin describing historic events in Livonia (roughly corresponding to today's inland Estonia and north of Latvia) and surrounding areas from 1180 to 1227.
Livonian (Livonian: līvõ kēļ or rāndakēļ) is a Finnic language.
The Livonian Order was an autonomous branch of the Teutonic Order, formed in 1237.
The Livonian War (1558–1583) was fought for control of Old Livonia (in the territory of present-day Estonia and Latvia), when the Tsardom of Russia faced a varying coalition of Denmark–Norway, the Kingdom of Sweden, and the Union (later Commonwealth) of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland.
The Livonians, or Livs (Livonian: līvlizt), are a Finnic ethnic group indigenous to northern Latvia and southwestern Estonia.
Lola Hoffmann (Helena Jacoby) (March 19, 1904 in Riga, Latvia – April 30, 1988 in Santiago, Chile) was a physiologist and psychiatrist.
A low-cost carrier or low-cost airline (also known as ''no-frills'', ''discount'' or budget carrier or airline, or LCC) is an airline without most of the traditional services provided in the fare, resulting in lower fares and fewer comforts.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Marians Pahars (born 5 August 1976) is a Latvian former footballer and manager, who most recently managed the Latvian national team.
Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran.
Maskavas Forštate (Moskauer Vorstadt) also known as Maskavas priekšpilsēta and colloquially as Maskačka, is a suburb of Riga situated on the right bank of the Daugava.
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (often Mecklenburg-West Pomerania in English and commonly shortened to "Meck-Pomm" or even "McPom" or "M-V" in German) is a federal state in northern Germany.
Metres above mean sea level (MAMSL) or simply metres above sea level (MASL or m a.s.l.) is a standard metric measurement in metres of the elevation or altitude of a location in reference to a historic mean sea level.
Microdistrict, or microraion (микрорайо́н, мікрараён, мікрорайон, միկրոշրջան), is a residential complex—a primary structural element of the residential area construction in the Soviet Union and in some post-Soviet and former Communist states.
Miervaldis (Walter) Jurševskis (born November 6, 1921 in Riga, Latvia, died March 15, 2014 in Burnaby, British Columbia) was a Latvian-Canadian chess master, and a professional artist.
Mikhail Nikolayevich Baryshnikov (p; Mihails Barišņikovs; born January 27, 1948), nicknamed "Misha" (Russian diminutive of the name "Mikhail"), is a Latvian and American dancer, choreographer, and actor.
Mikhail Osipovich Eisenstein (Михаил Осипович Эйзенштейн, Mihails Eizenšteins; 17 September 1867 – 2 July 1920) was a civil engineer and architect working in Riga, the present-day capital of Latvia, when the city was part of the Russian Empire.
Mikhail Nekhemyevich Tal (Mihails Tāls; Михаил Нехемьевич Таль, Mikhail Nekhem'evich Tal,; sometimes transliterated Mihails Tals or Mihail Tal; 9 November 1936 – 28 June 1992) was a Soviet Latvian chess Grandmaster and the eighth World Chess Champion (from 1960 to 1961).
A minibus, microbus, or minicoach is a passenger carrying motor vehicle that is designed to carry more people than a multi-purpose vehicle or minivan, but fewer people than a full-size bus.
Minsk (Мінск,; Минск) is the capital and largest city of Belarus, situated on the Svislach and the Nyamiha Rivers.
The Monarchy of Sweden concerns the monarchical head of state of Sweden,See the Instrument of Government, Chapter 1, Article 5.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
Motorsport or motor sport is a global term used to encompass the group of competitive sporting events which primarily involve the use of motorised vehicles, whether for racing or non-racing competition.
Mstislav Vsevolodovich Keldysh (Мстисла́в Все́володович Ке́лдыш; – 24 June 1978) was a Soviet scientist in the field of mathematics and mechanics, academician of the USSR Academy of Sciences (1946), President of the USSR Academy of Sciences (1961–1975), three times Hero of Socialist Labor (1956, 1961, 1971), fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh (1968).
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; pronounced, like "Noah") is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.
The Nationalist Movement is a Mississippi-founded, white nationalist organization with headquarters in Georgia that advocates what it calls a "pro-majority" position.
Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled before and during the Second World War.
The Nazi–Soviet population transfers were population transfers between 1939 and 1941 of ethnic Germans (actual) and ethnic East Slavs (planned) in an agreement according to the German–Soviet Frontier Treaty between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
The New Current (Jaunā strāva) in the history of Latvia was a broad leftist social and political movement that followed the First Latvian National Awakening (led by the Young Latvians from the 1850s to the 1880s) and culminated in the 1905 Revolution.
New Riga Theatre (Jaunais Rīgas teātris) is a theatre in Riga, Latvia.
The NHL Entry Draft (Repêchage d'entrée dans la LNH) is an annual meeting in which every franchise of the National Hockey League (NHL) systematically select the rights to available ice hockey players who meet draft eligibility requirements (North American players 18–20 years old and European/international players 18–21 years old; all others enter league as unrestricted free agents).
Nicolai Hartmann (20 February 1882 – 9 October 1950) was a Baltic German philosopher.
Nils Ušakovs (Нил Валерьевич Ушаков, Nil Valeryevich Ushakov) (born 8 June 1976) is Latvian politician and former journalist.
Non-citizens (nepilsoņi) in Latvian law are individuals who are not citizens of Latvia or any other country but, who, in accordance with the Latvian law "Regarding the status of citizens of the former USSR who possess neither Latvian nor other citizenship", have the right to a non-citizen passport issued by the Latvian government as well as other specific rights.
Nord-Pas-de-Calais (is a former administrative region of France. Since 1 January 2016, it is part of the new region Hauts-de-France. It consisted of the departments of Nord and Pas-de-Calais. Nord-Pas-de-Calais borders the English Channel (west), the North Sea (northwest), Belgium (north and east) and Picardy (south). The majority of the region was once part of the historical (Southern) Netherlands, but gradually became part of France between 1477 and 1678, particularly during the reign of king Louis XIV. The historical French provinces that preceded Nord-Pas-de-Calais are Artois, French Flanders, French Hainaut and (partially) Picardy. These provincial designations are still frequently used by the inhabitants. With its 330.8 people per km2 on just over 12,414 km2, it is a densely populated region, having some 4.1 million inhabitants, 7% of France's total population, making it the fourth most populous region in the country, 83% of whom live in urban communities. Its administrative centre and largest city is Lille. The second largest city is Calais, which serves as a major continental economic/transportation hub with Dover of Great Britain away; this makes Nord-Pas-de-Calais the closest continental European connection to the Great Britain. Other major towns include Valenciennes, Lens, Douai, Béthune, Dunkirk, Maubeuge, Boulogne, Arras, Cambrai and Saint-Omer. Numerous films, like Bienvenue chez les Ch'tis.
Norrköping is a city in the province of Östergötland in eastern Sweden and the seat of Norrköping Municipality, Östergötland County, about 160 km southwest of the national capital Stockholm.
North Holland (Noord-Holland, West Frisian Dutch: Noard-Holland) is a province of the Netherlands located in the northwestern part of the country.
Northern District (Ziemeļu rajons) is one of six administrative districts of Riga, the capital of Latvia.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
Orthodoxy (from Greek ὀρθοδοξία orthodoxía "right opinion") is adherence to correct or accepted creeds, especially in religion.
Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).
Pasažieru vilciens ("Passenger train", abbreviated: PV) is the only passenger-carrying railway company in Latvia, operating both electric and diesel trains on various lines throughout the country.
Pārdaugava is an area of Riga, composed of several neighbourhoods on the west bank of Daugava River.
Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.
Philip of Swabia (February/March 1177 – 21 June 1208) was a prince of the House of Hohenstaufen and King of Germany from 1198 to 1208.
Philippe Halsman (Filips Halsmans, Philipp Halsmann; 2 May 1906 – 25 June 1979) was an American portrait photographer.
The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history and are native speakers of the Polish language.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
The Polish–Swedish War (1621–26) was another war in the series of conflicts between the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Swedish Empire (see Polish–Swedish wars).
Polack (official transliteration), Polotsk or Polatsk (translit, translit, Połock, Polockas, Polotsk) is a historical city in Belarus, situated on the Dvina River.
Pompeii was an ancient Roman city near modern Naples in the Campania region of Italy, in the territory of the comune of Pompei.
Pope Innocent III (Innocentius III; 1160 or 1161 – 16 July 1216), born Lotario dei Conti di Segni (anglicized as Lothar of Segni) reigned from 8 January 1198 to his death in 1216.
Pori (Björneborg; Arctopolis) is a city and municipality on the west coast of Finland.
Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.
The presidency of the Council of the European Union is responsible for the functioning of the Council of the European Union, the upper house of the EU legislature.
The principality of Jersika (Gerzika, terra Lettia, Gerzika, Zargrad, Ерсика, Герцике; also known as Лотыголa) was an early medieval Latgalian principality in eastern modern-day Latvia and one of the largest early states in Latvia before the German conquests.
The Principality of Smolensk (eventually Grand Principality of Smolensk) was a Kievan Rus' lordship from the eleventh to the fifteenth century.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Public transport (also known as public transportation, public transit, or mass transit) is transport of passengers by group travel systems available for use by the general public, typically managed on a schedule, operated on established routes, and that charge a posted fee for each trip.
Queensland (abbreviated as Qld) is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia.
Rail Baltica (in Estonia also known as Rail Baltic and the Baltic part referred to as the Rail Baltica Global Project) is a greenfield railway infrastructure project to link Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland with a European standard gauge rail line, providing passenger and freight service between the countries and improving rail connections between Central and Northern Europe as well as acting as a catalyst for building the economic corridor in the Northeastern Europe.
The Railway Bridge (Dzelzceļa tilts) is a bridge that crosses the Daugava river in Riga, the capital of Latvia.
Ojārs Raimonds Pauls (born 12 January 1936 in Iļģuciems, Riga, Latvia) is a Latvian composer and piano player who is well known in Latvia, Russia, post-Soviet countries and world-wide.
Rīgas Satiksme (Riga Transport) is a municipally-owned public transportation and parking authority serving Riga, Latvia and the surrounding areas.
Red Bull X-Fighters is a freestyle motocross motorbike stunt competition, contested in bullrings and famous locations and sites.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
Richard Hakluyt (1553 – 23 November 1616) was an English writer.
Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 181313 February 1883) was a German composer, theatre director, polemicist, and conductor who is chiefly known for his operas (or, as some of his later works were later known, "music dramas").
Riga Cathedral (Rīgas Doms; Dom zu Riga) is the Evangelical Lutheran cathedral in Riga, Latvia.
The Riga Charter on Authenticity and Historical Reconstruction in Relationship to Cultural Heritage, known simply as the Riga Charter, is an international charter or a statement of the scope, objectives and participants in cultural heritage projects, which guides the conservation, restoration, maintenance, repair and use of historic railway equipment, which can still be operated.
Riga City Council (Rīgas Dome) is the government of Riga City, the capital of Latvia.
The Riga Ghetto was a small area in Maskavas Forštate, a neighborhood of Riga, Latvia, designated by the Nazis where Jews from Latvia, and later from Germany, were forced to live during World War II.
The Riga Graduate School of Law (RGSL) (Rīgas Juridiskā augstskola) in Riga (Latvia) is a private law school in the Baltic region offering Bachelor, Masters and Doctoral studies.
Riga International Airport (Starptautiskā lidosta "Rīga") is the international airport of Riga, the capital of Latvia, and the largest airport in the Baltic states with direct flights to 100 destinations in 30 countries.
Riga International Coach Terminal (Rīgas Starptautiskā autoosta) is a bus station in Riga, Latvia, for both domestic and international bus lines.
The "RISEBA" University of Business, Arts and Technology (RISEBA; Rīgas Starptautiskā ekonomikas un biznesa administrācijas augstskola) is an international business school located in Riga, Latvia.
The Lattelecom Riga Marathon is an annual road marathon, held in Riga, Latvia.
Riga Passenger Terminal (Rīgas pasažieru termināls) is a terminal in Riga, Latvia, that services public and private passenger traffic by sea.
Riga Region (Rīgas reģions), officially Riga Planning Region (Rīgas plānošanas reģions) is one of five planning regions of Latvia, situated in the central part of Latvia, in and around the metropolis of Riga and along the shores of the Gulf of Riga.
The Riga Radio and TV Tower (Rīgas radio un televīzijas tornis) in Riga, Latvia is the tallest tower in the European Union.
Riga Salsa Festival is an annual dancing event that takes place in Riga, Latvia.
Rīga Stradiņš University (RSU) (Latvian: Rīgas Stradiņa universitāte, Latin: Universitas Rigensis Stradina) is a public university located in the city of Riga, Latvia.
Riga Technical University (RTU) (Rīgas Tehniskā universitāte) is the oldest technical university in the Baltics established on October 14, 1862.
The Diocese of Livonia, later Roman Catholic Diocese of Inflanty was a territorial division of the Roman Catholic Church established in 1186 as the Diocese of Üxküll and promoted as Metropolitan Archdiocese of Riga in 1255.
The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.
Rostock is a city in the north German state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
Rumbula is an air base located southeast of Riga city centre in Latvia.
The Rumbula massacre is a collective term for incidents on November 30 and December 8, 1941 in which about 25,000 Jews were killed in or on the way to Rumbula forest near Riga, Latvia, during the Holocaust.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
The Mikhail Chekhov Riga Russian Theatre, colloquially referred to as the Russian Theatre or the RRT, is a Russian-language theatre in Riga, Latvia.
Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.
Russification (Русификация), or Russianization, is a form of cultural assimilation process during which non-Russian communities, voluntarily or not, give up their culture and language in favor of the Russian one.
The Russo-Swedish War of 1656–1658 was fought by Russia and Sweden as a theater of the Second Northern War.
Rutanya Alda (born October 13, 1942) is a Latvian-American actress.
Saint Meinhard (b. 1134 or 1136 - died August 14 or October 11, 1196) was a German canon regular and the first Bishop of Livonia.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
Sandis Ozoliņš (born August 3, 1972), commonly spelled Sandis Ozolinsh in North America, was the Latvian head coach of Dinamo Riga and a retired ice hockey player.
Santiago, also known as Santiago de Chile, is the capital and largest city of Chile as well as one of the largest cities in the Americas.
Sergei Mikhailovich Eisenstein (p; 11 February 1948) was a Soviet film director and film theorist, a pioneer in the theory and practice of montage.
Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.
Skonto FC was a Latvian football club, founded in 1991.
Skonto Stadium (Skonto stadions) is a football stadium in Riga, Latvia.
The Social Democratic Party "Harmony" (Sociāldemokrātiskā Partija "Saskaņa", SDPS, Социал-демократическая партия «Согласие»),The party officially translates its name as Social Democratic Party "Concord" also commonly referred to as Harmony (Saskaņa), is a social-democratic political party in Latvia.
The Southern Bridge (Dienvidu tilts) crosses the Daugava river in Riga, the capital of Latvia.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spilve Airport (Spilves lidosta, also given as Rīgas Centrālā Lidosta – Riga Central Airport) is a former civilian and military airport in Latvia located 5 km north of Riga's city centre, from which aircraft took off as early as the First World War.
Athletics is a collection of sporting events that involve competitive running, jumping, throwing, and walking.
A standard-gauge railway is a railway with a track gauge of.
The Stanley Cup (La Coupe Stanley) is the championship trophy awarded annually to the National Hockey League (NHL) playoff winner.
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.
The Stockholm School of Economics in Riga, (SSE Riga or Rīgas Ekonomikas augstskola) is a business school in Riga, Latvia.
Suzhou (Wu Chinese), formerly romanized as Soochow, is a major city located in southeastern Jiangsu Province of East China, about northwest of Shanghai.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
The Swedish Empire (Stormaktstiden, "Great Power Era") was a European great power that exercised territorial control over much of the Baltic region during the 17th and early 18th centuries.
Taipei, officially known as Taipei City, is the capital and a special municipality of Taiwan (officially known as the Republic of China, "ROC").
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Tallink is an Estonian shipping company operating Baltic Sea cruise ferries and ropax ships from Estonia to Finland, Estonia to Sweden, Latvia to Sweden and Finland to Sweden.
Tallinn (or,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Estonia.
Established in 1918, Tallinn University of Technology (TTÜ; Tallinna Tehnikaülikool, abbreviated TTÜ) is the only technical university in Estonia.
Tanhum Cohen-Mintz (also "Tanchum or Tani" and "Cohen-Minz"; October 8, 1939 – October 11, 2014) was an Israeli professional basketball player.
Tartu (South Estonian: Tarto) is the second largest city of Estonia, after Estonia's political and financial capital Tallinn.
Tashkent (Toshkent, Тошкент, تاشكېنت,; Ташкент) is the capital and largest city of Uzbekistan, as well as the most populated city in Central Asia with a population in 2012 of 2,309,300.
Tatiana Warsher (1880–1960) was a Russian archaeologist known for her studies of Pompeii, especially her 40-volume Codex Topographicus Pompeianus.
Tbilisi (თბილისი), in some countries also still named by its pre-1936 international designation Tiflis, is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura River with a population of approximately 1.5 million people.
The Latvian telephone numbering plan is a telephone number assigning system used in Latvia.
Terra Mariana (Medieval Latin for "Land of Mary") was the official name for Medieval Livonia or Old Livonia (Alt-Livland, Vana-Liivimaa, Livonija), which was formed in the aftermath of the Livonian Crusade in the territories comprising present day Estonia and Latvia.
Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.
The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648.
Threshing is the process of loosening the edible part of grain (or other crop) from the husks and straw to which it is attached.
A trade route is a logistical network identified as a series of pathways and stoppages used for the commercial transport of cargo.
The trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks (Vägen från varjagerna till grekerna, Shlyakh' z varahaw u hreki, Shlyakh iz varyahiv u hreky, Put' iz varjag v greki, Εμπορική οδός Βαράγγων–Ελλήνων) was a medieval trade route that connected Scandinavia, Kievan Rus' and the Eastern Roman Empire.
Traffic congestion is a condition on transport networks that occurs as use increases, and is characterized by slower speeds, longer trip times, and increased vehicular queueing.
A tram (also tramcar; and in North America streetcar, trolley or trolley car) is a rail vehicle which runs on tramway tracks along public urban streets, and also sometimes on a segregated right of way.
The Trans-European Transport Networks (TEN-T) are a planned set of road, rail, air and water transport networks in the European Union.
Transport and Telecommunication Institute (TTI) (Transporta un Sakaru Institūts, TSI) (Институт Транспорта и Связи, ТСИ) (previously known as RCAII and Riga Aviation University) is the largest university-type accredited non-state technical higher educational and scientific establishment in Riga, the capital of Latvia.
A transport corridor is a generally linear area that is defined by one or more modes of transportation like highways, railroads or public transit which share a common course.
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on 3 March 1918 between the new Bolshevik government of Soviet Russia and the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire), that ended Russia's participation in World War I. The treaty was signed at Brest-Litovsk (Brześć Litewski; since 1945 Brest), after two months of negotiations.
The Treaty of Drohiczyn was concluded on 14 January 1581, during the Livonian War, between the city of Riga and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The Treaty of Nystad (Ништадтский мир, Uudenkaupungin rauha, Freden i Nystad, Uusikaupunki rahu) was the last peace treaty of the Great Northern War of 1700–1721.
Trial by ordeal was an ancient judicial practice by which the guilt or innocence of the accused was determined by subjecting them to a painful, or at least an unpleasant, usually dangerous experience.
A trolleybus (also known as trolley bus, trolley coach, trackless trolley, trackless tram Joyce, J.; King, J. S.; and Newman, A. G. (1986). British Trolleybus Systems, pp. 9, 12. London: Ian Allan Publishing.. or trolleyDunbar, Charles S. (1967). Buses, Trolleys & Trams. Paul Hamlyn Ltd. (UK). Republished 2004 with or 9780753709702.) is an electric bus that draws power from overhead wires (generally suspended from roadside posts) using spring-loaded trolley poles.
Tsar (Old Bulgarian / Old Church Slavonic: ц︢рь or цар, цaрь), also spelled csar, or czar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe.
TTT Rīga is the name of a professional women's basketball club based in Riga, Latvia.
Turība University (formerly known as the Turība School of Business Administration; Biznesa augstskola Turība) is a higher education institution and the largest business school in Latvia.
Tuscany (Toscana) is a region in central Italy with an area of about and a population of about 3.8 million inhabitants (2013).
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
Ukrainians (українці, ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.
Umeå (South Westrobothnian; Uumaja, Ume Sami: Ubmeje, Upmeje, Ubmi) is a city in north east Sweden.
Union of the Baltic Cities (UBC) is a voluntary, proactive network mobilizing the shared potential of over 100 member cities for democratic, economic, social, cultural and environmentally sustainable development of the Baltic Sea region.
The University of Latvia (LU) (Latvijas Universitāte) is a state-run university located in Riga, Latvia.
Valdemar II (9 May 117028 March 1241), called Valdemar the Victorious or Valdemar the Conqueror (Valdemar Sejr), was the King of Denmark from 1202 until his death in 1241.
Valdis Dombrovskis (born 5 August 1971) is a Latvian politician and the current European Commission Vice-President for the Euro and Social Dialogue, serving since November 2014.
Valentin Savvich Pikul (Валенти́н Са́ввич Пи́куль) (July 13, 1928 – July 16, 1990) was a popular and prolific Soviet historical novelist of Ukrainian-Russian heritage.
The Vanšu Bridge (Vanšu tilts) in Riga is a cable-stayed bridge that crosses the Daugava river in Riga, the capital of Latvia.
The Varangians (Væringjar; Greek: Βάραγγοι, Várangoi, Βαριάγοι, Variágoi) was the name given by Greeks, Rus' people and Ruthenians to Vikings,"," Online Etymology Dictionary who between the 9th and 11th centuries, ruled the medieval state of Kievan Rus', settled among many territories of modern Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, and formed the Byzantine Varangian Guard.
Vecrīga (Old Riga) is the historical center of Riga, Latvia, located on the east side of Daugava River.
Vidzeme District (Vidzemes priekšpilsēta) is one of six administrative districts of Riga, the capital of Latvia.
The Viking Age (793–1066 AD) is a period in European history, especially Northern European and Scandinavian history, following the Germanic Iron Age.
Vilnius (see also other names) is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 574,221.
Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net.
Walter Zapp (Valters Caps; – 17 July 2003) was a Baltic German inventor.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
Friedrich Wilhelm Ostwald (2 September 1853 – 4 April 1932) was a German chemist.
The World Choir Games (formerly named the Choir Olympics) is the largest choral event in the world.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yerevan (Երևան, sometimes spelled Erevan) is the capital and largest city of Armenia as well as one of the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities.
Yeshayahu Leibowitz (ישעיהו ליבוביץ; 29 January 1903 – 18 August 1994) was an Israeli Orthodox Jewish public intellectual, professor of biochemistry, organic chemistry, and neurophysiology at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and a polymath known for his outspoken opinions on Judaism, ethics, religion, and politics.
Yosef Mendelevitch (or Mendelovitch) (b. 1947 in Riga), was a Jewish refusenik from the former Soviet Union, also known as a "Prisoner of Zion" and now a politically unaffiliated rabbi living in Jerusalem who gained fame for his adherence to Judaism and public attempts to emigrate to Israel at a time when it was considered to be against the law in the USSR.
New Latvians (jaunlatvieši) is the term most often applied to the intellectuals of the First Latvian National Awakening (Tautas atmoda), active from the 1850s to the 1880s.
Zaķusala (Hare Island) is one of several islands in the Daugava river in the central part of the city Riga, the capital of Latvia.
Zemgale Suburb (Zemgales priekšpilsēta) is one of six administrative districts of Riga, the capital of Latvia.
Zemgus Girgensons (born 5 January 1994) is a Latvian professional ice hockey centre currently playing for the Buffalo Sabres of the National Hockey League (NHL).
On 21 November 2013 the roof of the Zolitūde shopping centre in the Zolitūde neighbourhood of Riga, Latvia, collapsed at 17:41 local time resulting in the deaths of 54 people, including three rescue workers, and injuries to another 41 people.
The Russian Revolution of 1905 was a wave of mass political and social unrest that spread through vast areas of the Russian Empire, some of which was directed at the government.
The 1999 European Athletics Junior Championships were held in Riga, Latvia on August 5–8.
The 2006 IIHF World Championship was held in May 2006 in Riga, Latvia.
The 2006 Men's World Ice Hockey Championships was the 70th such event hosted by the International Ice Hockey Federation.
The 2006 Riga summit or the 19th NATO Summit was a NATO summit held in the Olympic Sports Centre, Riga, Latvia from 28 to 29 November 2006.
The FIBA EuroCup is the former name of an international professional basketball club competition for clubs throughout Europe that was renamed the FIBA EuroChallenge in July 2008.
The 2013 Titlis Glacier Mountain World Women's Curling Championship was held at the Volvo Sports Centre in Riga, Latvia from March 16 to 24.
The 2016 Men's World Floorball Championships was the 11th World Championships in men's floorball.