242 relations: Agastya, Agni, Agnicayana, Aitareya Upanishad, Al-Biruni, Andronovo culture, Angiras (sage), Anuṣṭubh, Ap (water), Apauruṣeyā, Aranyaka, Archaeoastronomy, Arthur Anthony Macdonell, Arya Samaj, Ashva, Ashvins, Atharvaveda, Atheism, Atri, Avesta, Âdityas, Śāradā script, Śruti, Bṛhaspati, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Bharatas (tribe), Bhrigu, Bibek Debroy, Brahmana, Brahmi script, Bronze Age, Camel, Carnatic music, Cattle, Central Provinces, Compound (linguistics), Dasa, Dayananda Saraswati, Dāna, Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute, Deva, Devanagari, Dharma, Dowry, Dyaus (deity), Editio princeps, Elephant, Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, Exegesis, Foot (prosody), ..., French language, Friedrich Arnold Brockhaus, Friedrich August Rosen, Ganesha, Gaur, Gayatri, Gayatri Mantra, Georg Bühler, German language, Government Sanskrit College, Varanasi, Govind Chandra Pande, Gray wolf, Gritsamada, Gujarat, Gupta Empire, Hamsa (bird), Harvard Oriental Series, Harvard University Press, Haryana, Hastin, Henotheism, Henry Thomas Colebrooke, Hermann Grassmann, Hindi, Hindu, Hindu nationalism, Hindu philosophy, Hinduism, Historical linguistics, Historical Vedic religion, Hittite texts, Horace Hayman Wilson, Horse, Hungarian language, Hyena, Hymn, Iconoclasm, Indian subcontinent, Indigenous Aryans, Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan peoples, Indo-European languages, Indo-Iranian languages, Indra, Iranian languages, Iron Age in India, Jan Gonda, Japanese language, Kalpa (Vedanga), Kanva, Karl Friedrich Geldner, Kashmir, Kashyapa, Kaushitaki Upanishad, Keśin, Khilani, Klaus Klostermaier, Koenraad Elst, Kuru Kingdom, Latin, Lion, List of commonly used taxonomic affixes, Louis Renou, Mandala, Mandala 1, Mandala 10, Mandala 2, Mandala 3, Mandala 4, Mandala 5, Mandala 6, Mandala 7, Mandala 8, Mandala 9, Maruts, Max Müller, Mayabheda, Mīmāṃsā, Memory of the World Programme, Michael Witzel, Mitanni-Aryan, Mitra (Vedic), Mitra–Varuna, Monier Monier-Williams, Monism, Monotheism, Morphology (linguistics), Mudgala Purana, Muhurta, Mundaka Upanishad, Munshiram Manoharlal, Mysticism, Nadistuti sukta, Nasadiya Sukta, National Endowment for the Humanities, Nepal, Om, Oral literature, Oral tradition, Orthoepy, Oxford University Press, Pada (foot), Pariśiṣṭa, Parjanya, Pausa, Pāṇini, Peafowl, Philology, Phonetics, Physiology, Polytheism, Pratishakhyas, Prithvi, Proto-Indo-European religion, Proto-Indo-European root, Proto-Indo-Iranian language, Pune, Purusha Sukta, Pushan, Rajputana, Ralph T. H. Griffith, Regularization (linguistics), Religious text, Revelation, Ribhus, Rice, Rigveda, Rigvedic deities, Rigvedic rivers, Rishi, Ruddy shelduck, Rudolf von Roth, Rudra, Russian language, Sacred Books of the East, Sacrifice, Samaveda, Samhita, Sandhi, Sanskara (rite of passage), Sanskrit, Sanskrit prosody, Sarasvati River, Saraswati, Sati (practice), Savitr, Sayana, Shakha, Shatapatha Brahmana, Shri Guru Charitra, Shriram Sharma, Shunahshepa, Sintashta culture, Soma (drink), Sound symbolism, Sri Aurobindo, Sri Aurobindo Ashram, Stephanie W. Jamison, Surya, Tamil language, Tatyana Elizarenkova, The Rigveda: A Historical Analysis, Theodor Aufrecht, Tristubh, UNESCO, Upanishads, Ushas, Uttar Pradesh, Varuna, Vasishtha, Vayu, Vāc, Vedas, Vedic accent, Vedic chant, Vedic meter, Vedic period, Vedic priesthood, Vedic Sanskrit, Vishnu, Vishvamitra, Visvedevas, Vritra, Vyasa, Vyākaraṇa, Water buffalo, Wendy Doniger, Wilfrid Laurier University Press, Word stem, Yajna, Yajurveda, Yāska. Expand index (192 more) » « Shrink index
Agastya was a revered Vedic sage of Hinduism.
Agni (अग्नि, Pali: Aggi, Malay: Api) is an Indian word meaning fire, and connotes the Vedic fire god of Hinduism.
The Agnicayana ("the building up of the fire altar") or Athirathram (അതിരാത്രം) is a category of advanced Śrauta rituals.
The Aitareya Upanishad (Sanskrit: ऐतरेय उपनिषद्) is a Mukhya Upanishad, associated with the Rigveda.
Abū Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Al-Bīrūnī (Chorasmian/ابوریحان بیرونی Abū Rayḥān Bērōnī; New Persian: Abū Rayḥān Bīrūnī) (973–1050), known as Al-Biruni (البيروني) in English, was an IranianD.J. Boilot, "Al-Biruni (Beruni), Abu'l Rayhan Muhammad b. Ahmad", in Encyclopaedia of Islam (Leiden), New Ed., vol.1:1236–1238.
The Andronovo culture is a collection of similar local Bronze Age cultures that flourished c. 2000–900 BC in western Siberia and the central Eurasian Steppe.
Angiras (अंगिरस्, pronounced) is a Vedic rishi (sage) of Hinduism.
(अनुष्टुभ्) is the name of a meter and a metrical unit, found in both Vedic and Classical Sanskrit poetry, but with significant differences.
Ap is the Vedic Sanskrit term for "water", which in Classical Sanskrit only occurs in the plural, 'Varuna' or (sometimes re-analysed as a thematic singular), whence Hindi.
Apaurusheya (Sanskrit: अपौरुषेय), literally means "not of a man" and "superhuman".
The Aranyakas (Sanskrit: आरण्यक) constitutes the philosophy behind ritual sacrifice of the ancient Indian sacred texts, the Vedas.
Archaeoastronomy (also spelled archeoastronomy) is the study of how people in the past "have understood the phenomena in the sky, how they used these phenomena and what role the sky played in their cultures".
Arthur Anthony Macdonell, FBA (11 May 1854 – 28 December 1930), 7th of Lochgarry, was a noted Sanskrit scholar.
Arya Samaj (Sanskrit: आर्य समाज "Noble Society" Hindi: आर्य समाज, Bengali: আর্য সমাজ, Punjabi: ਆਰੀਆ ਸਮਾਜ, Gujarati: આર્ય સમાજ) is an Indian Hindu reform movement that promotes values and practices based on the belief in the infallible authority of the Vedas.
Ashva (aśva, अश्व) is the Sanskrit word for a horse, one of the significant animals finding references in the Vedas as well as later Hindu scriptures.
The Atharva Veda (Sanskrit: अथर्ववेद, from and veda, meaning "knowledge") is the "knowledge storehouse of atharvāṇas, the procedures for everyday life".
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
Atri (अत्रि) or Attri is a Vedic sage, who is credited with composing a large number of hymns to Agni, Indra and other Vedic deities of Hinduism.
The Avesta is the primary collection of religious texts of Zoroastrianism, composed in the otherwise unrecorded Avestan language.
In Hinduism, Âdityas (आदित्य Ādityá, pronounced), meaning "of Aditi", refers to the offspring of the goddess Aditi and her husband the sage Kashyapa.
The Śāradā, Sarada or Sharada script is an abugida writing system of the Brahmic family of scripts.
Shruti or Shruthi (श्रुति;; IPA/Sanskrit) in Sanskrit means "that which is heard" and refers to the body of most authoritative, ancient religious texts comprising the central canon of Hinduism.
Bṛhaspati (बृहस्पति, often written as Brihaspati) is an Indian name, and refers to different mythical figures depending on the age of the text.
The Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute (BORI) is located in Pune, Maharashtra, India.
Bharatas were a tribe mentioned in the Rigveda, especially in Mandala 3 attributed to the Bharata sage Vishvamitra.
Maharishi Bhrigu (Bhṛgu) was one of the seven great sages, the Saptarshis, one of the many Prajapatis (the facilitators of Creation) created by Brahma Born in ballia.
Bibek Debroy (born 25 January 1955) is an Indian economist, policy maker, philosopher, indologist, literarian, and author.
The Brahmanas (Sanskrit: ब्राह्मणम्, Brāhmaṇa) are a collection of ancient Indian texts with commentaries on the hymns of the four Vedas.
Brahmi (IAST) is the modern name given to one of the oldest writing systems used in Ancient India and present South and Central Asia from the 1st millennium BCE.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
A camel is an even-toed ungulate in the genus Camelus that bears distinctive fatty deposits known as "humps" on its back.
Carnatic music, Karnāṭaka saṃgīta or Karnāṭaka saṅgītam is a system of music commonly associated with southern India, including the modern Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu, as well as Sri Lanka.
Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.
The Central Provinces was a province of British India.
In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (less precisely, a word) that consists of more than one stem.
Dasa is a Sanskrit language term found in ancient Hindu texts, such as the Rigveda and Arthashastra.
Dayanand Saraswati (12 February 1824 – 30 October 1883) was an Indian religious leader and founder of the Arya Samaj, a Hindu reform movement of the Vedic dharma.
Dāna (Devanagari: दान) is a Sanskrit and Pali word that connotes the virtue of generosity, charity or giving of alms in Indian philosophies.
Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute also referred to as Deccan College is a post-graduate institute of Archeology, Linguistics and Sanskrit & Lexicography Pune, India.
Deva may refer to.
Devanagari (देवनागरी,, a compound of "''deva''" देव and "''nāgarī''" नागरी; Hindi pronunciation), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group,, page 83 is an abugida (alphasyllabary) used in India and Nepal.
Dharma (dharma,; dhamma, translit. dhamma) is a key concept with multiple meanings in the Indian religions – Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism.
A dowry is a transfer of parental property, gifts or money at the marriage of a daughter.
(द्यौष्पितृ /, literally "Sky Father") is the "Father Heaven" deity of the Vedic pantheon, who appears in hymns with Prithvi Mata "Mother Earth" in the ancient scriptures of Hinduism.
In classical scholarship, the editio princeps (plural: editiones principes) of a work is the first printed edition of the work, that previously had existed only in manuscripts, which could be circulated only after being copied by hand.
Elephants are large mammals of the family Elephantidae and the order Proboscidea.
The Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture (abbreviation: EIEC) is an encyclopedia of Indo-European studies and the Proto-Indo-Europeans.
Exegesis (from the Greek ἐξήγησις from ἐξηγεῖσθαι, "to lead out") is a critical explanation or interpretation of a text, particularly a religious text.
The foot is the basic repeating rhythmic unit that forms part of a line of verse in most Western traditions of poetry, including English accentual-syllabic verse and the quantitative meter of classical ancient Greek and Latin poetry.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Friedrich Arnold Brockhaus (4 May 1772 – 20 August 1823) was a German encyclopedia publisher and editor, famed for publishing the Conversations-Lexikon, which is now published as the Brockhaus encyclopedia.
Friedrich August Rosen (2 September 1805 in Hannover – 12 September 1837 in London) was a German Orientalist, brother of Georg Rosen and a close friend of Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy.
Ganesha (गणेश), also known as Ganapati, Vinayaka, Pillaiyar and Binayak, is one of the best-known and most worshipped deities in the Hindu pantheon.
The gaur (Bos gaurus), also called the Indian bison, is the largest extant bovine.
Gayatri (Sanskrit: गायत्री, IAST:gāyatrī) is the personified form of popular Gayatri Mantra, a hymn from Vedic texts.
The Gāyatrī Mantra, also known as the Sāvitrī mantra, is a highly revered mantra from the Rig Veda (Mandala 3.62.10), dedicated to Savitr, the sun deity.
Professor Johann Georg Bühler (July 19, 1837 – April 8, 1898) was a scholar of ancient Indian languages and law.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Government Sanskrit College was the first college in Benaras.
Govind Chandra Pande 30 July 1923 – 22 May 2011) was a well-known Indian historian of the Vedic and the Buddhist periods. He served a professor of ancient history and vice-chancellor at Jaipur and Allahabad universities. He was also the chairman of the Indian Institute of Advanced Study, Simla for several years, the Chairman of Allahabad Museum Society and the Chairman of Central Tibetan Society, Sarnath Varanasi. Other positions he held include Member, Board of Governors, Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies, Sarnath (till 1996); Member, Executive Council, BHU (1982–85); ICHR (1987–93); ICPR (1988–91); Member, Societe Asiatique De Paris, Indian Historical Records Commission, Indian Advisory Board of Archaeology, Editorial Board of the U.P. Gaztters, the Council of Shastri, Indo-Canadian Institute, the Council of the American Institute of Indian Studies. He started his professional career as a lecturer in Allahabad University in 1947. He was Reader in the Department of Ancient History, Culture and Archaeology till 1957 and was promoted as Dean, Faculty of Arts. Pande rejoined the Allahabad University in 1978 as Vice-Chancellor after a gap of 20 years and held the office till his retirement in 1984. During 1984-88 he was Visiting Gaekwad Professor at BHU. He was the first National Fellow of ICHR from 1985–86 and was the President cum Chairman, Indian Institute of Advanced Study, Shimla. He was the Chairman of the Allahabad Museum Society and the Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies, Sarnath, and Editorial Fellow, Project in Indian History of Science, and Philosophy and Culture. He edited several volumes of ancient history in Project of History of Indian Science, Philosophy and Culture. His most recent work was a translation and explanation of the Rigveda in Hindi that was published by Lokbharti Booksellers and Distributors, Allahabad. The first volume was launched in 2008 at a ceremony at India International Center in New Delhi by Shri Dinesh Chandra Grover, proprietor of Lokbharti, along with member of parliament, Shri Murli Manohar Joshi and Shri. Triloki Nath Chaturvedi (then Governor of Karnataka).
The gray wolf (Canis lupus), also known as the timber wolf,Paquet, P. & Carbyn, L. W. (2003).
Gritsamada is a rishi, credited with most of Mandala 2 of the Rigveda (36 out of 43, hymns 27-29 being attributed to his son Kurma and 4-7 to Somahuti).
Gujarat is a state in Western India and Northwest India with an area of, a coastline of – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and a population in excess of 60 million.
The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire, existing from approximately 240 to 590 CE.
The hamsa (Sanskrit: हंस, or hansa) is an aquatic bird of passage, such as a goose or a swan.
The Harvard Oriental Series is a book series founded in 1891 by Charles Rockwell Lanman and Henry Clarke Warren.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
Haryana, carved out of the former state of East Punjab on 1November 1966 on linguistic basis, is one of the 29 states in India.
Hastin (हस्तिन्) is a term for elephant used in Vedic texts.
Henotheism is the worship of a single god while not denying the existence or possible existence of other deities.
Henry Thomas Colebrooke FRS FRSE (15 June 1765 – 10 March 1837) was an English orientalist and mathematician.
Hermann Günther Grassmann (Graßmann; April 15, 1809 – September 26, 1877) was a German polymath, known in his day as a linguist and now also as a mathematician.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
Hindu nationalism has been collectively referred to as the expressions of social and political thought, based on the native spiritual and cultural traditions of the Indian subcontinent.
Hindu philosophy refers to a group of darśanas (philosophies, world views, teachings) that emerged in ancient India.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
Historical linguistics, also called diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change over time.
The historical Vedic religion (also known as Vedism, Brahmanism, Vedic Brahmanism, and ancient Hinduism) was the religion of the Indo-Aryans of northern India during the Vedic period.
The corpus of texts written in the Hittite language is indexed by the Catalogue des Textes Hittites (CTH, since 1971).
Horace Hayman Wilson (26 September 1786 – 8 May 1860) was an English orientalist.
The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of ''Equus ferus''.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
Hyenas or hyaenas (from Greek ὕαινα hýaina) are any feliform carnivoran mammals of the family Hyaenidae.
A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a deity or deities, or to a prominent figure or personification.
IconoclasmLiterally, "image-breaking", from κλάω.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
The Indigenous Aryans theory, also known as the Out of India Theory, proposes that the Indo-European languages, or at least the Indo-Aryan languages, originated within the Indian subcontinent, as an alternative to the established migration model which proposes the Pontic steppe as the area of origin of the Indo-European languages.
The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages are the dominant language family of the Indian subcontinent.
Indo-Aryan peoples are a diverse Indo-European-speaking ethnolinguistic group of speakers of Indo-Aryan languages.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
The Indo-Iranian languages or Indo-Iranic languages, or Aryan languages, constitute the largest and easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European language family.
(Sanskrit: इन्द्र), also known as Devendra, is a Vedic deity in Hinduism, a guardian deity in Buddhism, and the king of the highest heaven called Saudharmakalpa in Jainism.
The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages in the Indo-European language family.
In the prehistory of the Indian subcontinent, an "Iron Age" is recognized as succeeding the Late Harappan (Cemetery H) culture.
Jan Gonda, (14 April 1905 – 28 July 1991) was a Dutch Indologist and the first Utrecht professor of Sanskrit.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
Kalpa (कल्प) means "proper, fit" and is one of the six disciplines of the Vedānga, or ancillary science connected with the Vedas – the scriptures of Hinduism.
Kanva (Sanskrit: कण्व) was an ancient Hindu rishi of the Treta yuga, to whom some of the hymns of the Rig Veda are ascribed.
Karl Friedrich Geldner (17 December 1852 – 5 February 1929) was a German linguist best known for his analysis and synthesis of Avestan and Vedic Sanskrit texts.
Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent.
Kashyapa (IAST: Kaśyapa) is a revered Vedic sage of Hinduism.
The Kaushitaki Upanishad (कौषीतकि उपनिषद्) is an ancient Sanskrit text contained inside the Rigveda.
The Keśin were long-haired ascetic wanderers with mystical powers described in the Keśin Hymn (RV 10, 136) of the Rigveda (an ancient Indian sacred collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns).
The Khilani (Sanskrit: खिलानि, Khilāni) are a collection of 98 "apocryphal" hymns of the Rigveda, recorded in the, but not in the shakha.
Klaus K. Klostermaier (born 1933) is a prominent German-Canadian scholar on Hinduism and Indian history and culture.
Koenraad Elst (born 7 August 1959) is a Belgian orientalist and Indologist known for his writings on comparative religion, Hindu-Muslim relations and Indian history.
Kuru (कुरु) was the name of a Vedic Indo-Aryan tribal union in northern Iron Age India, encompassing the modern-day states of Delhi, Haryana, Punjab, Uttarakhand and the western part of Uttar Pradesh (the region of Doab, till Prayag), which appeared in the Middle Vedic period (c. 1200 – c. 900 BCE) and developed into the first recorded state-level society in the Indian subcontinent.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The lion (Panthera leo) is a species in the cat family (Felidae).
This is a list of common affixes used when scientifically naming species, particularly extinct species for whom only their scientific names are used, along with their derivations.
Louis Renou (26 October 1896 – 18 August 1966) was the pre-eminent French Indologist of the twentieth century.
A mandala (Sanskrit: मण्डल, maṇḍala; literally "circle") is a spiritual and ritual symbol in Hinduism and Buddhism, representing the universe.
The first Mandala ("book") of the Rigveda has 191 hymns.
The tenth mandala of the Rigveda has 191 hymns.
The second Mandala of the Rigveda has 43 hymns, mainly to Agni and Indra chiefly attributed to the Rishi gṛtsamada śaunohotra.
The third Mandala of the Rigveda has 62 hymns, mainly to Agni and Indra.
The fourth Mandala of the Rigveda has 58 hymns, mainly to Agni and Indra.
The fifth Mandala of the Rigveda has 87 hymns.
The sixth Mandala of the Rigveda has 75 hymns, mainly to Agni and Indra.
The seventh Mandala of the Rigveda ("book 7", "RV 7") has 104 hymns.
The eighth Mandala of the Rigveda has 103 hymns.
The ninth Mandala of the Rigveda, also called the Soma Mandala, has 114 hymns, entirely (although Griffith marks 9.5 as dedicated to the Apris) devoted to, "Purifying Soma", the sacred potion of the Vedic religion.
In Hinduism, the Maruts or Marutas (मरुत), also known as the Marutagana and sometimes identified with Rudras, are storm deities and sons of Rudra and Prisni.
Friedrich Max Müller (6 December 1823 – 28 October 1900), generally known as Max Müller, was a German-born philologist and Orientalist, who lived and studied in Britain for most of his life.
Mayabheda, (Sanskrit:मायाभेद), means the breaching or removal of Avidya ("ignorance").
Mimansa (purv mi mansa) is a Sanskrit word that means "reflection" or "critical investigation".
UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme is an international initiative launched to safeguard the documentary heritage of humanity against collective amnesia, neglect, the ravages of time and climatic conditions, and willful and deliberate destruction.
Michael Witzel (born July 18, 1943) is a German-American philologist and academic.
Some theonyms, proper names and other terminology of the Mitanni are considered to form (part of) an Indo-Aryan superstrate, suggesting that an Indo-Aryan elite imposed itself over the Hurrian population in the course of the Indo-Aryan expansion.
Mitra (Sanskrit) is a divinity of Indic culture, whose function changed with time.
Mitra and Varuna are two deities (devas) frequently referred to in the ancient Indian scripture of the Rigveda.
Sir Monier Monier-Williams, KCIE (né Williams; 12 November 1819 – 11 April 1899) was the second Boden Professor of Sanskrit at Oxford University, England.
Monism attributes oneness or singleness (Greek: μόνος) to a concept e.g., existence.
Monotheism has been defined as the belief in the existence of only one god that created the world, is all-powerful and intervenes in the world.
In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.
The Mudgala Purana (Sanskrit:मुद्गल पुराणम्) is a Hindu religious text dedicated to the Hindu deity Ganesha.
Muhūrt (मुहूर्त) is a Hindu unit of measurement for time in the Hindu calendar.
The Mundaka Upanishad (मुण्डक उपनिषद्) is an ancient Sanskrit Vedic text, embedded inside Atharva Veda.
Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt.
Mysticism is the practice of religious ecstasies (religious experiences during alternate states of consciousness), together with whatever ideologies, ethics, rites, myths, legends, and magic may be related to them.
The Nadistuti sukta (Sanskrit: नदिस्तुति सूक्त), "hymn of praise of rivers", is hymn 10.75 of the Rigveda.
The Nasadiya Sukta (after the incipit, or "not the non-existent"), also known as the Hymn of Creation, is the 129th hymn of the 10th Mandala of the Rigveda (10:129).
The National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) is an independent federal agency of the U.S. government, established by the National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities Act of 1965, dedicated to supporting research, education, preservation, and public programs in the humanities.
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
Om (IAST: Auṃ or Oṃ, Devanagari) is a sacred sound and a spiritual symbol in Hindu religion.
Oral literature or folk literature corresponds in the sphere of the spoken (oral) word to literature as literature operates in the domain of the written word.
Oral tradition, or oral lore, is a form of human communication where in knowledge, art, ideas and cultural material is received, preserved and transmitted orally from one generation to another.
Orthoepy is the study of pronunciation of a particular language, within a specific oral tradition.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pāda is the Sanskrit term for "foot" (cognate to English foot, Latin pes, Greek pous), with derived meanings "step, stride; footprint, trace; vestige, mark".
(Devanagari: परिशिष्ट, "supplement, appendix") is the term applied to various ancillary works of Vedic literature dealing with details and elaborations not covered in the texts logically and chronologically prior to them: the Samhitas, Brahmanas, Aranyakas and Sutras.
Parjanya (parjánya) is according to Veda, a deity of rain, the one who fertilizes the earth.
In linguistics, pausa (Latin for "break", from Greek "παῦσις" pausis "stopping, ceasing") is the hiatus between prosodic units.
(पाणिनि, Frits Staal (1965),, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 15, No. 2 (Apr., 1965), pp. 99-116) is an ancient Sanskrit philologist, grammarian, and a revered scholar in Hinduism.
The peafowl include three species of birds in the genera Pavo and Afropavo of the Phasianidae family, the pheasants and their allies.
Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.
Phonetics (pronounced) is the branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
Polytheism (from Greek πολυθεϊσμός, polytheismos) is the worship of or belief in multiple deities, which are usually assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses, along with their own religions and rituals.
Pratishakhyas (प्रातिशाख्य), collectively constituting four treatises, are the earliest of the Shikshas: works dealing with the phonetic aspects of the Sanskrit language used in Vedas.
Prithvi or Prithvi Mata (Sanskrit: पृथ्वी,, also) "the Vast One" is the Sanskrit name for the earth as well as the name of a devi (goddess) in Hinduism and some branches of Buddhism.
Proto-Indo-European religion is the belief system adhered to by the Proto-Indo-Europeans.
The roots of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) are basic parts of words that carry a lexical meaning, so-called morphemes.
Proto-Indo-Iranian or Proto-Indo-Iranic is the reconstructed proto-language of the Indo-Iranian/Indo-Iranic branch of Indo-European.
Pune, formerly spelled Poona (1857–1978), is the second largest city in the Indian state of Maharashtra, after Mumbai.
Purusha sukta is hymn 10.90 of the Rigveda, dedicated to the Purusha, the "Cosmic Being".
Pushan (पूषन्) is a Vedic solar deity and one of the Adityas.
Rājputāna (Rajasthani/राजपूताना), (راجپُوتانہ), meaning “Land of the Rajputs”, was a region in India that included mainly the present-day Indian state of Rajasthan rajput are 10 percent in rajasthan mostly mp and mla of rajasthan are of rajput community after gurjar and meena it is the 3rd largest populated community in rajasthan arat and some adjoining areas of Sindh in modern-day southern Pakistan.
Ralph Thomas Hotchkin Griffith (1826–1906) was an English Indologist.
Regularization is a linguistic phenomenon observed in language acquisition, language development, and language change typified by the replacement of irregular forms in morphology or syntax by regular ones.
Religious texts (also known as scripture, or scriptures, from the Latin scriptura, meaning "writing") are texts which religious traditions consider to be central to their practice or beliefs.
In religion and theology, revelation is the revealing or disclosing of some form of truth or knowledge through communication with a deity or other supernatural entity or entities.
Ribhus (Sanskrit: ऋभु, ṛbhu, also Arbhu, Rbhus, Ribhuksan) is an ancient word whose meaning evolved over time.
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).
The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ऋग्वेद, from "praise" and "knowledge") is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns along with associated commentaries on liturgy, ritual and mystical exegesis.
There are 1000 hymns in the Rigveda, most of them dedicated to specific deities.
Rivers, such as the Sapta Sindhavah ("seven rivers" सप्त सिन्धव) play a prominent part in the hymns of the Rig Veda, and consequently in early Hindu religion.
Rishi (Sanskrit: ऋषि IAST: ṛṣi) is a Vedic term for an inspired poet of hymns from the Vedas.
The ruddy shelduck (Tadorna ferruginea), known in India as the Brahminy duck, is a member of the family Anatidae.
Rudolf von Roth (born Walter Rudolph Roth, 3 April 1821 – 23 June 1895) was a German Indologist, founder of the Vedic philology.
(Sanskrit: रुद्र) is a Rigvedic deity, associated with wind or storm and the hunt.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The Sacred Books of the East is a monumental 50-volume set of English translations of Asian religious writings, edited by Max Müller and published by the Oxford University Press between 1879 and 1910.
Sacrifice is the offering of food, objects or the lives of animals to a higher purpose, in particular divine beings, as an act of propitiation or worship.
The Samaveda (Sanskrit: सामवेद, sāmaveda, from "song" and "knowledge"), is the Veda of melodies and chants.
Samhita literally means "put together, joined, union", a "collection", and "a methodically, rule-based combination of text or verses".
SandhiThe pronunciation of the word "sandhi" is rather diverse among English speakers.
Sanskara (IAST:, sometimes spelled samskara) are rites of passage in a human being's life described in ancient Sanskrit texts, as well as a concept in the karma theory of Indian philosophies.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Sanskrit prosody or Chandas refers to one of the six Vedangas, or limbs of Vedic studies.
Sarasvati River (Sanskrit: सरस्वती नदी, IAST: sárasvatī nadī) is one of the Rigvedic rivers mentioned in the Rig Veda and later Vedic and post-Vedic texts.
Saraswati (सरस्वती) is the Hindu goddess of knowledge, music, art, wisdom and learning worshipped throughout Nepal and India.
Sati or suttee is an obsolete funeral custom where a widow immolates herself on her husband's pyre or takes her own life in another fashion shortly after her husband's death.
Savitaṛ (Sanskrit: stem, nominative singular) is a deity celebrated in the Rigveda, and is one of the Adityas i.e. off-spring of the Vedic primeval mother goddess Aditi.
(Kannada; with honorific; died 1387) was an important commentator on the Vedas.
A shakha (Sanskrit, "branch" or "limb"), is a Hindu theological school that specializes in learning certain Vedic texts, or else the traditional texts followed by such a school.
The Shatapatha Brahmana (IAST:, "Brāhmaṇa of one hundred parts") is a prose text describing Vedic rituals, history and mythology associated with the Śukla Yajurveda.
The Shri Guru Charitra is a book based on the life story of Shri Narasimha Saraswati, written by the 15th-16th century poet Shri Saraswati Gangadhar.
Shriram Sharma (20 September 1911 – 2 June 1990) was a social reformer, a prominent philosopher, a visionary of the New Golden Era, and founder of "All World Gayatri Pariwar", which has its headquarters at Shantikunj, Haridwar, India. He is popularly known as Pandit Shriram Sharma Acharya by the members of the Gayatri Pariwar. He pioneered the revival of spirituality and creative integration of the modern and ancient sciences and religion, relevant in the challenging circumstances of the present times. He initiated a movement for Transformation of era.
Shunahshepa (also transliterated as Cunahcepa, Cunahçepa, Sunahsephas, Sunahshepa, Shunashepa and Sunahsepa) is a legendary sage mentioned in the Indian epics and mythology.
The Sintashta culture, also known as the Sintashta-Petrovka culture.
Soma (सोम) or haoma (Avestan) is a Vedic ritual drink of importance among the early Indians.
In linguistics, sound symbolism, phonesthesia or phonosemantics is the idea that vocal sounds or phonemes carry meaning in and of themselves.
Sri Aurobindo (born Aurobindo Ghose; 15 August 1872 – 5 December 1950) was an Indian philosopher, yogi, guru, poet, and nationalist.
The Sri Aurobindo Ashram is a spiritual community (ashram) located in Pondicherry, in the Indian territory of Puducherry.
Stephanie W. Jamison is an American linguist, currently at University of California, Los Angeles and an Elected Fellow of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences.
Surya (सूर्य, IAST: ‘'Sūrya’') is a Sanskrit word that means the Sun.
Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.
Tatyana Yakovlevna Elizarenkova (September 17, 1929, Saint Petersburg - September 5, 2007, Moscow) was a distinguished Soviet Russian Indologist and linguist, known for her study of the Vedas.
The Rigveda: A Historical Analysis is a book by Shrikant G. Talageri.
Simon Theodor Aufrecht (7 January 1822 – 3 April 1907) was a German indologist and comparative linguist.
(त्रिष्टुभ्) is the name of a Vedic meter of 44 syllables (four padas of eleven syllables each), or any hymn composed in this meter.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The Upanishads (उपनिषद्), a part of the Vedas, are ancient Sanskrit texts that contain some of the central philosophical concepts and ideas of Hinduism, some of which are shared with religious traditions like Buddhism and Jainism.
Ushas (उषस्) is a Vedic goddess of dawn in Hinduism.
Uttar Pradesh (IAST: Uttar Pradeś) is a state in northern India.
Varuna (IAST: वरुण, Malay: Baruna) is a Vedic deity associated first with sky, later with waters as well as with Ṛta (justice) and Satya (truth).
Vasishtha (वसिष्ठ, IAST) is a revered Vedic sage in Hinduism.
Vāyu (Sanskrit) is a primary Hindu deity, the lord of the winds, the father of Bhima and the spiritual father of Hanuman.
Vāc (वाच्) is the Sanskrit word for "speech", from a verbal root "speak, tell, utter".
The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.
The pitch accent of Vedic Sanskrit, or Vedic accent for brevity, is traditionally divided by Sanskrit grammarians into three qualities, udātta "raised" (acute accent, high pitch), anudātta "not raised" (unmarked, low pitch) and svarita "sounded" (grave accent, high falling pitch).
The oral tradition of the Vedas (Śrauta) consists of several pathas, "recitations" or ways of chanting the Vedic mantras.
Vedic Mantra refers to the poetic meter in the Vedic literature.
The Vedic period, or Vedic age, is the period in the history of the northwestern Indian subcontinent between the end of the urban Indus Valley Civilisation and a second urbanisation in the central Gangetic Plain which began in BCE.
Priests of the Vedic religion are officiants of the yajna service.
Vedic Sanskrit is an Indo-European language, more specifically one branch of the Indo-Iranian group.
Vishnu (Sanskrit: विष्णु, IAST) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism, and the Supreme Being in its Vaishnavism tradition.
Brahmarshi Vishvamitra is one of the most venerated rishis or sages of ancient India.
The Visvedevas ("all-gods") are the various Vedic gods taken together as a whole.
In the early Vedic religion, Vritra (Sanskrit: वृत्र,, lit. 'enveloper') is a serpent or dragon, the personification of drought and adversary of Indra.
Vyasa (व्यास, literally "Compiler") is a central and revered figure in most Hindu traditions.
Vyākaraṇa (Sanskrit: "explanation, analysis") refers to one of the six ancient Vedangas, ancillary science connected with the Vedas, which are scriptures in Hinduism.
The water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) or domestic Asian water buffalo is a large bovid originating in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and China.
Wendy Doniger O'Flaherty (born November 20, 1940) is an American Indologist whose professional career has spanned five decades.
Wilfrid Laurier University Press, based in Waterloo, Ontario, is a publisher of scholarly writing and is part of Wilfrid Laurier University.
In linguistics, a stem is a part of a word.
Yajna (IAST) literally means "sacrifice, devotion, worship, offering", and refers in Hinduism to any ritual done in front of a sacred fire, often with mantras.
The Yajurveda (Sanskrit: यजुर्वेद,, from meaning "prose mantra" and veda meaning "knowledge") is the Veda of prose mantras.
was an early Sanskrit grammarian who preceded Pāṇini (fl. 6-5th century BCE, Quote: "Ashtadhyayi, Sanskrit Aṣṭādhyāyī (“Eight Chapters”), Sanskrit treatise on grammar written in the 6th to 5th century BCE by the Indian grammarian Panini."), assumed to have lived in the 7th century BCE.
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