78 relations: Affine transformation, Ambiguity aversion, American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Bank, Behavioral economics, Central moment, Certainty effect, Concave function, Consumer, COSMOS cohort study, Cumulative prospect theory, Daniel Kahneman, David Spiegelhalter, Deal or No Deal, Decision support system, Econometrica, Economics, Elasticity of intertemporal substitution, Equity premium puzzle, Expected utility hypothesis, Expected value, Exponential utility, Finance, General Medical Council, Health and Safety Executive, Human, Hyperbolic absolute risk aversion, Hyperbolic function, Income–consumption curve, Intertemporal choice, Investor, Investor profile, Isoelastic utility, John W. Pratt, Journal of Economic Perspectives, Journal of Macroeconomics, Kenneth Arrow, L'Hôpital's rule, Loss aversion, Marginal utility, Matthew Rabin, Mean-preserving spread, MMR vaccine, MMR vaccine controversy, Mobile phone, Mobile phone radiation and health, Modern portfolio theory, Neuroeconomics, Neuromodulation (medicine), Nth root, ..., Opportunity cost, Optimism bias, Playground, Problem gambling, Prospect theory, Research in Economics, Risk neutral preferences, Risk premium, Risk-seeking, School, Square root, St. Petersburg paradox, Standard deviation, Statistical risk, Stock, Substitution effect, The American Economic Review, The Review of Economics and Statistics, The Review of Financial Studies, Twersky, Uncertainty, Uncertainty avoidance, University of Cambridge, Up to, Utility, Variance, Winton Professor of the Public Understanding of Risk, World Health Organization. Expand index (28 more) »

## Affine transformation

In geometry, an affine transformation, affine mapBerger, Marcel (1987), p. 38.

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## Ambiguity aversion

In decision theory and economics, ambiguity aversion (also known as uncertainty aversion) is a preference for known risks over unknown risks.

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## American Journal of Agricultural Economics

The American Journal of Agricultural Economics is a peer-reviewed academic journal of agricultural, natural resource, and environmental economics, as well as rural and community development.

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## Bank

A bank is a financial institution that accepts deposits from the public and creates credit.

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## Behavioral economics

Behavioral economics studies the effects of psychological, cognitive, emotional, cultural and social factors on the economic decisions of individuals and institutions and how those decisions vary from those implied by classical theory.

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## Central moment

In probability theory and statistics, a central moment is a moment of a probability distribution of a random variable about the random variable's mean; that is, it is the expected value of a specified integer power of the deviation of the random variable from the mean.

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## Certainty effect

The Certainty effect refers to the psychological effect resulting from the reduction of probability from certainty to probable.

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## Concave function

In mathematics, a concave function is the negative of a convex function.

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## Consumer

A consumer is a person or organization that use economic services or commodities.

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## COSMOS cohort study

COSMOS is a cohort study of mobile phone use and health.

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## Cumulative prospect theory

Cumulative prospect theory (CPT) is a model for descriptive decisions under risk and uncertainty which was introduced by Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman in 1992 (Tversky, Kahneman, 1992).

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## Daniel Kahneman

Daniel Kahneman (דניאל כהנמן; born March 5, 1934) is an Israeli-American psychologist notable for his work on the psychology of judgment and decision-making, as well as behavioral economics, for which he was awarded the 2002 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences (shared with Vernon L. Smith).

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## David Spiegelhalter

Sir David John Spiegelhalter, (born 16 August 1953), is a British statistician and Winton Professor of the Public Understanding of Risk in the Statistical Laboratory at the University of Cambridge and a Fellow of Churchill College, Cambridge.

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## Deal or No Deal

Deal or No Deal is the name of several closely related television game shows, the first of which (launching the format) was the Dutch Miljoenenjacht (Hunt for Millions) produced by Dutch producer Endemol.

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## Decision support system

A decision support system (DSS) is an information system that supports business or organizational decision-making activities.

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## Econometrica

Econometrica is a peer-reviewed academic journal of economics, publishing articles in many areas of economics, especially econometrics.

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## Economics

Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

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## Elasticity of intertemporal substitution

Elasticity of intertemporal substitution (or intertemporal elasticity of substitution) is a measure of responsiveness of the growth rate of consumption to the real interest rate.

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## Equity premium puzzle

The equity premium puzzle refers to the inability of an important class of economic models to explain the average premium of a well-diversified U.S. equity portfolio over U.S. Treasury Bills observed for more than 100 years.

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## Expected utility hypothesis

In economics, game theory, and decision theory the expected utility hypothesis, concerning people's preferences with regard to choices that have uncertain outcomes (gambles), states that if specific axioms are satisfied, the subjective value associated with an individual's gamble is the statistical expectation of that individual's valuations of the outcomes of that gamble.

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## Expected value

In probability theory, the expected value of a random variable, intuitively, is the long-run average value of repetitions of the experiment it represents.

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## Exponential utility

In economics and finance, exponential utility refers to a specific form of the utility function, used in some contexts because of its convenience when risk (sometimes referred to as uncertainty) is present, in which case expected utility is maximized.

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## Finance

Finance is a field that is concerned with the allocation (investment) of assets and liabilities (known as elements of the balance statement) over space and time, often under conditions of risk or uncertainty.

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## General Medical Council

The General Medical Council (GMC) is a public body that maintains the official register of medical practitioners within the United Kingdom.

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## Health and Safety Executive

The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is the body responsible for the encouragement, regulation and enforcement of workplace health, safety and welfare, and for research into occupational risks in Great Britain.

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## Human

Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.

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## Hyperbolic absolute risk aversion

In finance, economics, and decision theory, hyperbolic absolute risk aversion (HARA) (Chapter I of his Ph.D. dissertation; Chapter 5 in his Continuous-Time Finance).

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## Hyperbolic function

In mathematics, hyperbolic functions are analogs of the ordinary trigonometric, or circular, functions.

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## Income–consumption curve

In economics and particularly in consumer choice theory, the income-consumption curve is a curve in a graph in which the quantities of two goods are plotted on the two axes; the curve is the locus of points showing the consumption bundles chosen at each of various levels of income.

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## Intertemporal choice

Intertemporal choice is the process by which people make decisions about what and how much to do at various points in time, when choices at one time influence the possibilities available at other points in time.

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## Investor

An investor is a person that allocates capital with the expectation of a future financial return.

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## Investor profile

An investor profile or style defines an individual's preferences in investment decisions, for example.

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## Isoelastic utility

In economics, the isoelastic function for utility, also known as the isoelastic utility function, or power utility function is used to express utility in terms of consumption or some other economic variable that a decision-maker is concerned with.

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## John W. Pratt

John Winsor Pratt (born 1931) is Emeritus William Ziegler professor business administration at Harvard University.

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## Journal of Economic Perspectives

The Journal of Economic Perspectives (JEP) is an economic journal published by the American Economic Association.

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## Journal of Macroeconomics

The Journal of Macroeconomics is a peer-reviewed academic journal established in 1979 that covers research on a broad range of issues in monetary economics and macroeconomics, including economic growth, fluctuations, fiscal policy, and macroeconomic forecasting.

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## Kenneth Arrow

Kenneth Joseph "Ken" Arrow (23 August 1921 – 21 February 2017) was an American economist, mathematician, writer, and political theorist.

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## L'Hôpital's rule

In mathematics, and more specifically in calculus, L'Hôpital's rule or L'Hospital's rule uses derivatives to help evaluate limits involving indeterminate forms.

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## Loss aversion

In cognitive psychology and decision theory, loss aversion refers to people's tendency to prefer avoiding losses to acquiring equivalent gains: it is better to not lose $5 than to find $5.

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## Marginal utility

In economics, utility is the satisfaction or benefit derived by consuming a product; thus the marginal utility of a good or service is the change in the utility from an increase in the consumption of that good or service.

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## Matthew Rabin

Matthew Joel Rabin (born December 27, 1963) is the Pershing Square Professor of Behavioral Economics in the Harvard Economics Department and Harvard Business School.

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## Mean-preserving spread

In probability and statistics, a mean-preserving spread (MPS) is a change from one probability distribution A to another probability distribution B, where B is formed by spreading out one or more portions of A's probability density function or probability mass function while leaving the mean (the expected value) unchanged.

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## MMR vaccine

The MMR vaccine (also known as the MPR vaccine after the Latin names of the diseases) is an immunization vaccine against measles, mumps, and rubella (German measles).

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## MMR vaccine controversy

The MMR vaccine controversy started with the 1998 publication of a fraudulent research paper in The Lancet linking the combined measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine to colitis and autism spectrum disorders.

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## Mobile phone

A mobile phone, known as a cell phone in North America, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area.

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## Mobile phone radiation and health

The effect of mobile phone radiation on human health is a subject of interest and study worldwide, as a result of the enormous increase in mobile phone usage throughout the world.

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## Modern portfolio theory

Modern portfolio theory (MPT), or mean-variance analysis, is a mathematical framework for assembling a portfolio of assets such that the expected return is maximized for a given level of risk.

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## Neuroeconomics

Neuroeconomics and Economic Psychology is an interdisciplinary field that seeks to explain human decision making, the ability to process multiple alternatives and to follow a course of action.

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## Neuromodulation (medicine)

Neuromodulation is "the alteration of nerve activity through targeted delivery of a stimulus, such as electrical stimulation or chemical agents, to specific neurological sites in the body".

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## Nth root

In mathematics, an nth root of a number x, where n is usually assumed to be a positive integer, is a number r which, when raised to the power n yields x: where n is the degree of the root.

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## Opportunity cost

In microeconomic theory, the opportunity cost, also known as alternative cost, is the value (not a benefit) of the choice in terms of the best alternative while making a decision.

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## Optimism bias

Optimism bias (also known as unrealistic or comparative optimism) is a cognitive bias that causes a person to believe that they are at a lesser risk of experiencing a negative event compared to others.

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## Playground

A playground, playpark, or play area is a place specifically designed to enable children to play there.

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## Problem gambling

Problem gambling (or ludomania, but usually referred to as "gambling addiction" or "compulsive gambling") is an urge to gamble continuously despite harmful negative consequences or a desire to stop.

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## Prospect theory

Prospect theory is a behavioral economic theory that describes the way people choose between probabilistic alternatives that involve risk, where the probabilities of outcomes are known (.

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## Research in Economics

Research in Economics is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal of economics.

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## Risk neutral preferences

In economics and finance, risk neutral preferences are preferences that are neither risk averse nor risk seeking.

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## Risk premium

For an individual, a risk premium is the minimum amount of money by which the expected return on a risky asset must exceed the known return on a risk-free asset in order to induce an individual to hold the risky asset rather than the risk-free asset.

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## Risk-seeking

In economics and finance, a risk-seeker or risk-lover is a person who has a preference for risk.

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## School

A school is an institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students (or "pupils") under the direction of teachers.

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## Square root

In mathematics, a square root of a number a is a number y such that; in other words, a number y whose square (the result of multiplying the number by itself, or) is a. For example, 4 and −4 are square roots of 16 because.

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## St. Petersburg paradox

The St.

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## Standard deviation

In statistics, the standard deviation (SD, also represented by the Greek letter sigma σ or the Latin letter s) is a measure that is used to quantify the amount of variation or dispersion of a set of data values.

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## Statistical risk

Statistical risk is a quantification of a situation's risk using statistical methods.

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## Stock

The stock (also capital stock) of a corporation is constituted of the equity stock of its owners.

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## Substitution effect

In economics and particularly in consumer choice theory, the substitution effect is one component of the effect of a change in the price of a good upon the amount of that good demanded by a consumer, the other being the income effect.

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## The American Economic Review

The American Economic Review is a peer-reviewed academic journal of economics.

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## The Review of Economics and Statistics

The Review of Economics and Statistics is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering applied quantitative economics.

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## The Review of Financial Studies

The Review of Financial Studies is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering the field of finance.

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## Twersky

Twersky, Twerski, or Tverski is the surname of a pedigree of rebbes in the Chernobyl Hasidic dynasty.

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## Uncertainty

Uncertainty has been called "an unintelligible expression without a straightforward description".

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## Uncertainty avoidance

In cross-cultural psychology, uncertainty avoidance is a society's tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity.

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## University of Cambridge

The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.

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## Up to

In mathematics, the phrase up to appears in discussions about the elements of a set (say S), and the conditions under which subsets of those elements may be considered equivalent.

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## Utility

Within economics the concept of utility is used to model worth or value, but its usage has evolved significantly over time.

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## Variance

In probability theory and statistics, variance is the expectation of the squared deviation of a random variable from its mean.

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## Winton Professor of the Public Understanding of Risk

The Winton Professorship of the Public Understanding of Risk is a professorship within the Statistical Laboratory of the University of Cambridge.

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## World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.

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## Redirects here:

Absolute risk aversion, Arrow-Pratt measure, CARA utility, Co-efficient of absolute risk aversion, Coefficient of absolute risk aversion, Coefficient of relative risk aversion, Constant Relative Risk Aversion, Constant absolute risk aversion, Decreasing absolute risk aversion, Decreasing relative risk aversion, Increasing absolute risk aversion, Increasing relative risk aversion, Log utility, Relative risk aversion, Risk Aversion, Risk Tolerance, Risk attitude, Risk averse, Risk aversion (Economics), Risk aversion (economics), Risk aversion scale, Risk tolerance, Risk tolerant, Risk-averse, Risk-aversion, Risk-tolerant.

## References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Risk_aversion