109 relations: Acetylcholine, Active metabolite, Adrenergic receptor, Adverse event, Akathisia, Alanine, Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor, Alpha-1A adrenergic receptor, Alpha-1B adrenergic receptor, Alpha-2A adrenergic receptor, Alpha-2B adrenergic receptor, Alpha-2C adrenergic receptor, Anger management, Antihypertensive drug, Antipsychotic, Anxiety disorder, Aripiprazole, Arkansas, Atypical antipsychotic, Autism, Benperidol, Benzisoxazole, Bipolar disorder, Bone fracture, British National Formulary, Carbamazepine, Cisapride, Clozapine, Courts of Arkansas, CYP2D6, D-amino acid oxidase, Dementia, Developing country, Dopamine antagonist, Dopamine receptor, Dopamine receptor D1, Dopamine receptor D2, Dopamine receptor D3, Dopamine receptor D4, Dopamine receptor D5, Enzyme inducer, Extrapyramidal symptoms, Food and Drug Administration, Functional group, Galactorrhea, Generic drug, Gynecomastia, Haloperidol, Health system, Histamine H1 receptor, ..., Histamine H2 receptor, HuffPost, Hyperglycemia, Hypotension, Injection (medicine), Intramuscular injection, Janssen Pharmaceutica, Johnson & Johnson, Ketanserin, Lithium (medication), Liver, Los Angeles Times, Mean absolute difference, Mental disorder, Mental health, Metoclopramide, Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, Neuroleptic malignant syndrome, Obsessive–compulsive disorder, Off-label use, Olanzapine, Paliperidone, Pharmacodynamics, Piperidine, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Pregnancy, Psychosis, Quality of life, Quetiapine, Receptor (biochemistry), Relative risk, Schizophrenia, Sedation, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Serine, Serotonin, Serotonin receptor antagonist, Serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Settlement (litigation), Steven Brill (journalist), Striatum, Subsidiary, Suicide, Tardive dyskinesia, The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach, Timothy Davis Fox, Tremor, United States National Library of Medicine, WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, 5-HT receptor, 5-HT1A receptor, 5-HT1B receptor, 5-HT1D receptor, 5-HT2A receptor, 5-HT2B receptor, 5-HT2C receptor, 5-HT5A receptor, 5-HT6 receptor, 5-HT7 receptor. Expand index (59 more) » « Shrink index
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
An active metabolite is an active form of a drug after it has been processed by the body.
The adrenergic receptors (or adrenoceptors) are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are targets of the catecholamines, especially norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline).
An adverse event (AE) is any untoward medical occurrence in a patient or clinical investigation subject administered a pharmaceutical product and which does not necessarily have a causal relationship with this treatment.
Akathisia is a movement disorder characterized by a feeling of inner restlessness and inability to stay still.
Alanine (symbol Ala or A) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
The alpha-1 (α1) adrenergic receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) associated with the Gq heterotrimeric G-protein.
The alpha-1A adrenergic receptor (α1A adrenoreceptor), also known as ADRA1A, formerly known also as the alpha-1C adrenergic receptor, is an alpha-1 adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it.
The alpha-1B adrenergic receptor (α1B adrenoreceptor), also known as ADRA1B, is an alpha-1 adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it.
The alpha-2A adrenergic receptor (α2A adrenoceptor), also known as ADRA2A, is an α2 adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it.
The alpha-2B adrenergic receptor (α2B adrenoceptor), is a G-protein coupled receptor.
The alpha-2C adrenergic receptor (α2C adrenoceptor), also known as ADRA2C, is an alpha-2 adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it.
Anger management is a psycho-therapeutic program for anger prevention and control.
Antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure).
Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers, are a class of medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear.
Aripiprazole, sold under the brand name Abilify among others, is an atypical antipsychotic. It is recommended and primarily used in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Other uses include as an add-on treatment in major depressive disorder, tic disorders, and irritability associated with autism. According to a Cochrane review, evidence for the oral form in schizophrenia is not sufficient to determine effects on general functioning. Additionally, because many people dropped out of the medication trials before they were completed, the overall strength of the conclusions is low. Side effects include neuroleptic malignant syndrome, a movement disorder known as tardive dyskinesia, and high blood sugar in those with diabetes. In the elderly there is an increased risk of death. It is thus not recommended for use in those with psychosis due to dementia. It is pregnancy category C in the United States and category C in Australia, meaning there is possible evidence of harm to the fetus. It is not recommended for women who are breastfeeding. It is unclear whether it is safe or effective in people less than 18 years old. It is a partial dopamine agonist. Aripiprazole was developed by Otsuka in Japan. In the United States, Otsuka America markets it jointly with Bristol-Myers Squibb. From April 2013 to March 2014, sales of Abilify amounted to almost $6.9 billion.
Arkansas is a state in the southeastern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2017.
The atypical antipsychotics (AAP; also known as second generation antipsychotics (SGAs)) are a group of antipsychotic drugs (antipsychotic drugs in general are also known as major tranquilizers and neuroleptics, although the latter is usually reserved for the typical antipsychotics) used to treat psychiatric conditions.
Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by troubles with social interaction and communication and by restricted and repetitive behavior.
Benperidol is a drug which is a highly potent butyrophenone derivative.
1,2-Benzisoxazole is an aromatic organic compound with a molecular formula C7H5NO containing a benzene-fused isoxazole ring structure.
Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.
A bone fracture (sometimes abbreviated FRX or Fx, Fx, or #) is a medical condition in which there is a partial or complete break in the continuity of the bone.
The British National Formulary (BNF) is a United Kingdom (UK) pharmaceutical reference book that contains a wide spectrum of information and advice on prescribing and pharmacology, along with specific facts and details about many medicines available on the UK National Health Service (NHS).
Carbamazepine (CBZ), sold under the tradename Tegretol, among others, is a medication used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy and neuropathic pain.
Cisapride is a gastroprokinetic agent, a drug that increases motility in the upper gastrointestinal tract.
Clozapine, sold under the brand name Clozaril among others, is an atypical antipsychotic medication.
Courts of Arkansas include:;State courts of Arkansas.
Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP2D6 gene.
D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO; also DAO, OXDA, DAMOX) is an enzyme with the function on a molecular level to oxidize D-amino acids to the corresponding imino acids, producing ammonia and hydrogen peroxide.
Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
A dopamine antagonist (antidopaminergic) is a type of drug which blocks dopamine receptors by receptor antagonism.
Dopamine receptors are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are prominent in the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS).
Dopamine receptor D1, also known as DRD1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DRD1 gene.
Dopamine receptor D2, also known as D2R, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the DRD2 gene.
Dopamine receptor D3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DRD3 gene.
The dopamine receptor D4 is a dopamine D2-like G protein-coupled receptor encoded by the gene on chromosome 11 at 11p15.5.
Dopamine receptor D5, also known as D1BR, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DRD5 gene.
An enzyme inducer is a type of drug that increases the metabolic activity of an enzyme either by binding to the enzyme and activating it, or by increasing the expression of the gene coding for the enzyme.
Extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), also known as extrapyramidal side effects (EPSE), are drug-induced movement disorders that include acute and tardive symptoms.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.
Galactorrhea (also spelled galactorrhoea) (galacto- + -rrhea) or lactorrhea (lacto- + -rrhea) is the spontaneous flow of milk from the breast, unassociated with childbirth or nursing.
A generic drug is a pharmaceutical drug that is equivalent to a brand-name product in dosage, strength, route of administration, quality, performance, and intended use, but does not carry the brand name.
Gynecomastia is an endocrine system disorder in which a noncancerous increase in the size of male breast tissue occurs.
Haloperidol, marketed under the trade name Haldol among others, is a typical antipsychotic medication.
A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.
The H1 receptor is a histamine receptor belonging to the family of rhodopsin-like G-protein-coupled receptors.
H2 receptors are positively coupled to adenylate cyclase via Gs.
HuffPost (formerly The Huffington Post and sometimes abbreviated HuffPo) is a liberal American news and opinion website and blog that has both localized and international editions.
Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar (also spelled hyperglycaemia or hyperglycæmia) is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma.
Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.
Injection (often referred to as a "shot" in US English, or a "jab" in UK English) is the act of putting a liquid, especially a drug, into a person's body using a needle (usually a hypodermic needle) and a syringe.
Intramuscular (also IM or im) injection is the injection of a substance directly into muscle.
Janssen Pharmaceutica is a pharmaceutical company headquartered in Beerse, Belgium.
Johnson & Johnson is an American multinational medical devices, pharmaceutical and consumer packaged goods manufacturing company founded in 1886.
Ketanserin (INN, USAN, BAN) (brand name Sufrexal; former developmental code name R41468) is a drug used clinically as an antihypertensive agent and in scientific research to study the serotonin system; specifically, the 5-HT2 receptor family.
Lithium compounds, also known as lithium salts, are primarily used as a psychiatric medication.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.
The mean absolute difference (univariate) is a measure of statistical dispersion equal to the average absolute difference of two independent values drawn from a probability distribution.
A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.
Mental health is a level of psychological well-being or an absence of mental illness.
Metoclopramide is a medication used mostly for stomach and esophageal problems.
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, or mAChRs, are acetylcholine receptors that form G protein-coupled receptor complexes in the cell membranes of certain neurons and other cells.
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a life-threatening reaction that occasionally occurs in response to neuroleptic or antipsychotic medication.
Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder where people feel the need to check things repeatedly, perform certain routines repeatedly (called "rituals"), or have certain thoughts repeatedly (called "obsessions").
Off-label use is the use of pharmaceutical drugs for an unapproved indication or in an unapproved age group, dosage, or route of administration.
Olanzapine (originally branded Zyprexa) is an antipsychotic medication used to treat schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Paliperidone, sold under the trade name Invega among others, is a dopamine antagonist and 5-HT2A antagonist of the atypical antipsychotic class of medications.
Pharmacodynamics is the study of the biochemical and physiologic effects of drugs (especially pharmaceutical drugs).
Piperidine is an organic compound with the molecular formula (CH2)5NH.
The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) is a medical scale used for measuring symptom severity of patients with schizophrenia.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
Psychosis is an abnormal condition of the mind that results in difficulties telling what is real and what is not.
Quality of life (QOL) is the general well-being of individuals and societies, outlining negative and positive features of life.
Quetiapine, marketed as Seroquel among other names, is an atypical antipsychotic used for the treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
In statistics and epidemiology, relative risk or risk ratio (RR) is the ratio of the probability of an event occurring (for example, developing a disease, being injured) in an exposed group to the probability of the event occurring in a comparison, non-exposed group.
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.
Sedation is the reduction of irritability or agitation by administration of sedative drugs, generally to facilitate a medical procedure or diagnostic procedure.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.
Serine (symbol Ser or S) is an ɑ-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
A serotonin antagonist, or serotonin receptor antagonist, is a drug used to inhibit the action at serotonin (5-HT) receptors.
A serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) is a type of drug which acts as a reuptake inhibitor of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)) by blocking the action of the serotonin transporter (SERT).
In law, a settlement is a resolution between disputing parties about a legal case, reached either before or after court action begins.
Steven Brill (born August 22, 1950) is an American lawyer and journalist-entrepreneur who founded monthly magazine The American Lawyer and the cable channel Court TV, and is the author of the best selling, Tailspin: The People and Forces Behind America’s Fifty-Year Fall – and Those Fighting to Reverse It.
The striatum, or corpus striatum (also called the neostriatum and the striate nucleus) is a nucleus (a cluster of neurons) in the subcortical basal ganglia of the forebrain.
A subsidiary, subsidiary company or daughter company"daughter company.
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a disorder that results in involuntary, repetitive body movements.
The GRADE approach (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) is a method of assessing the certainty in evidence (also known as quality of evidence or confidence in effect estimates) and the strength of recommendations in health care.
Timothy Davis Fox is the elected Circuit Judge of the Sixth Division of the Sixth Judicial Circuit of the State of Arkansas.
A tremor is an involuntary, somewhat rhythmic, muscle contraction and relaxation involving oscillations or twitching movements of one or more body parts.
The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), operated by the United States federal government, is the world's largest medical library.
The WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (EML), published by the World Health Organization (WHO), contains the medications considered to be most effective and safe to meet the most important needs in a health system.
5-hydroxytryptamine receptors or 5-HT receptors, or serotonin receptors, are a group of G protein-coupled receptor and ligand-gated ion channels found in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
The serotonin 1A receptor (or 5-HT1A receptor) is a subtype of serotonin receptor (5-HT receptor) that binds the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT).
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1B also known as the 5-HT1B receptor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HTR1B gene.
5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 1D, also known as HTR1D, is a 5-HT receptor, but also denotes the human gene encoding it.
The mammalian 5-HT2A receptor is a subtype of the 5-HT2 receptor that belongs to the serotonin receptor family and is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR).
5-Hydroxytryptamine receptor 2B (5-HT2B) also known as serotonin receptor 2B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HTR2B gene.
The 5-HT2C receptor is a subtype of 5-HT receptor that binds the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT).
5-Hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 5A, also known as HTR5A, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HTR5A gene.
The 5HT6 receptor is a subtype of 5HT receptor that binds the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5HT).
The 5-HT7 receptor is a member of the GPCR superfamily of cell surface receptors and is activated by the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) The 5-HT7 receptor is coupled to Gs (stimulates the production of the intracellular signaling molecule cAMP) and is expressed in a variety of human tissues, particularly in the brain, the gastrointestinal tract, and in various blood vessels.
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