85 relations: Allele, Argument from ignorance, Basic Books, Camouflage, Caterpillar, Charles Darwin, Chromatid, Chromosomal crossover, Climbing Mount Improbable, Coalescent theory, Computer simulation, Copying, Creationism, Darwinism, Digital data, Directed acyclic graph, DNA replication, Earth, Ecosystem, Evolution, Evolutionary biology, Exponential growth, Extraterrestrial life, Garden of Eden, Gene, Gene pool, Gene-centered view of evolution, Generation, Genetic drift, Genetic recombination, Geologic time scale, Gradient, Group selection, Heredity, Honey bee, Human eye, Huntington's disease, Hybrid (biology), Ichneumonidae, Instinct, King James Version, Kinship, Lalla Ward, Lamarckism, Locus (genetics), Matrilineality, Meaning of life, Meiosis, Mendelian inheritance, Mitochondrial DNA, ..., Mitochondrial Eve, Moon landing, Most recent common ancestor, Mutation, Natural selection, Nuclear DNA, Oleic acid, Omnibenevolence, Omnipotence, Ophrys, Orchidaceae, Organism, Phasmatodea, Planetary system, Popular science, Reverse engineering, Richard Dawkins, Science Masters series, Self-replication, Senescence, Sexual reproduction, Speciation, Species, Sphex, Stickleback, Supernormal stimulus, The Blind Watchmaker, The Extended Phenotype, The Selfish Gene, Tree (graph theory), Unicellular organism, Unit of selection, Utility, Waggle dance, Wired (magazine). Expand index (35 more) » « Shrink index
An allele is a variant form of a given gene.
Argument from ignorance (from argumentum ad ignorantiam), also known as appeal to ignorance (in which ignorance represents "a lack of contrary evidence") is a fallacy in informal logic.
Basic Books is a book publisher founded in 1952 and located in New York, now an imprint of Hachette Books.
Camouflage is the use of any combination of materials, coloration, or illumination for concealment, either by making animals or objects hard to see (crypsis), or by disguising them as something else (mimesis).
Caterpillars are the larval stage of members of the order Lepidoptera (the insect order comprising butterflies and moths).
Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
A chromatid (Greek khrōmat- 'color' + -id) is one copy of a newly copied chromosome which is still joined to the original chromosome by a single centromere.
Chromosomal crossover (or crossing over) is the exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes that results in recombinant chromosomes during sexual reproduction.
Climbing Mount Improbable is a 1996 popular science book by Richard Dawkins.
Coalescent theory is a model of how gene variants sampled from a population may have originated from a common ancestor.
Computer simulation is the reproduction of the behavior of a system using a computer to simulate the outcomes of a mathematical model associated with said system.
Copying is the duplication of information or an artifact based only on an instance of that information or artifact, and not using the process that originally generated it.
Creationism is the religious belief that the universe and life originated "from specific acts of divine creation",Gunn 2004, p. 9, "The Concise Oxford Dictionary says that creationism is 'the belief that the universe and living organisms originated from specific acts of divine creation.'" as opposed to the scientific conclusion that they came about through natural processes.
Darwinism is a theory of biological evolution developed by the English naturalist Charles Darwin (1809–1882) and others, stating that all species of organisms arise and develop through the natural selection of small, inherited variations that increase the individual's ability to compete, survive, and reproduce.
Digital data, in information theory and information systems, is the discrete, discontinuous representation of information or works.
In mathematics and computer science, a directed acyclic graph (DAG), is a finite directed graph with no directed cycles.
In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth, starting from a single common ancestor.
Exponential growth is exhibited when the rate of change—the change per instant or unit of time—of the value of a mathematical function is proportional to the function's current value, resulting in its value at any time being an exponential function of time, i.e., a function in which the time value is the exponent.
Extraterrestrial life,Where "extraterrestrial" is derived from the Latin extra ("beyond", "not of") and terrestris ("of Earth", "belonging to Earth").
The Garden of Eden (Hebrew גַּן עֵדֶן, Gan ʿEḏen) or (often) Paradise, is the biblical "garden of God", described most notably in the Book of Genesis chapters 2 and 3, and also in the Book of Ezekiel.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
The gene pool is the set of all genes, or genetic information, in any population, usually of a particular species.
The gene-centered view of evolution, gene's eye view, gene selection theory, or selfish gene theory holds that adaptive evolution occurs through the differential survival of competing genes, increasing the allele frequency of those alleles whose phenotypic trait effects successfully promote their own propagation, with gene defined as "not just one single physical bit of DNA all replicas of a particular bit of DNA distributed throughout the world".
A generation is "all of the people born and living at about the same time, regarded collectively." It can also be described as, "the average period, generally considered to be about thirty years, during which children are born and grow up, become adults, and begin to have children of their own." In kinship terminology, it is a structural term designating the parent-child relationship.
Genetic drift (also known as allelic drift or the Sewall Wright effect) is the change in the frequency of an existing gene variant (allele) in a population due to random sampling of organisms.
Genetic recombination (aka genetic reshuffling) is the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent.
The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that relates geological strata (stratigraphy) to time.
In mathematics, the gradient is a multi-variable generalization of the derivative.
Group selection is a proposed mechanism of evolution in which natural selection acts at the level of the group, instead of at the more conventional level of the individual.
Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.
A honey bee (or honeybee) is any member of the genus Apis, primarily distinguished by the production and storage of honey and the construction of perennial, colonial nests from wax.
The human eye is an organ which reacts to light and pressure.
Huntington's disease (HD), also known as Huntington's chorea, is an inherited disorder that results in death of brain cells.
In biology, a hybrid, or crossbreed, is the result of combining the qualities of two organisms of different breeds, varieties, species or genera through sexual reproduction.
The Ichneumonidae are a parasitoid wasp family within the order Hymenoptera.
Instinct or innate behavior is the inherent inclination of a living organism towards a particular complex behavior.
The King James Version (KJV), also known as the King James Bible (KJB) or simply the Version (AV), is an English translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England, begun in 1604 and completed in 1611.
In anthropology, kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of all humans in all societies, although its exact meanings even within this discipline are often debated.
Lalla Ward (born Sarah Jill Ward; 28 June 1951) is an English actress and author.
Lamarckism (or Lamarckian inheritance) is the hypothesis that an organism can pass on characteristics that it has acquired through use or disuse during its lifetime to its offspring.
A locus (plural loci) in genetics is a fixed position on a chromosome, like the position of a gene or a marker (genetic marker).
Matrilineality is the tracing of descent through the female line.
The meaning of life, or the answer to the question "What is the meaning of life?", pertains to the significance of living or existence in general.
Meiosis (from Greek μείωσις, meiosis, which means lessening) is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating four haploid cells, each genetically distinct from the parent cell that gave rise to them.
Mendelian inheritance is a type of biological inheritance that follows the laws originally proposed by Gregor Mendel in 1865 and 1866 and re-discovered in 1900.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
In human genetics, the Mitochondrial Eve (also mt-Eve, mt-MRCA) is the matrilineal most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of all currently living humans, i.e., the most recent woman from whom all living humans descend in an unbroken line purely through their mothers, and through the mothers of those mothers, back until all lines converge on one woman.
A Moon landing is the arrival of a spacecraft on the surface of the Moon.
In biology and genealogy, the most recent common ancestor (MRCA, also last common ancestor (LCA), or concestor) of any set of organisms is the most recent individual from which all the organisms are directly descended.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
Nuclear DNA, or nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid (nDNA), is the DNA contained within the nucleus of a eukaryotic organism.
Oleic acid is a fatty acid that occurs naturally in various animal and vegetable fats and oils.
Omnibenevolence (from Latin omni- meaning "all", bene- meaning "good" and volens meaning "willing") is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as "unlimited or infinite benevolence".
Omnipotence is the quality of having unlimited power.
The genus Ophrys is a large group of orchids from the alliance Orchis in the subtribe Orchidinae.
The Orchidaceae are a diverse and widespread family of flowering plants, with blooms that are often colourful and fragrant, commonly known as the orchid family.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
The Phasmatodea (also known as Phasmida or Phasmatoptera) are an order of insects, whose members are variously known as stick insects in Europe and Australasia; stick-bugs, walking sticks or bug sticks in the United States and Canada; or as phasmids, ghost insects or leaf insects (generally the family Phylliidae).
A planetary system is a set of gravitationally bound non-stellar objects in or out of orbit around a star or star system.
Popular science (also called pop-science or popsci) is an interpretation of science intended for a general audience.
Reverse engineering, also called back engineering, is the process by which a man-made object is deconstructed to reveal its designs, architecture, or to extract knowledge from the object; similar to scientific research, the only difference being that scientific research is about a natural phenomenon.
Clinton Richard Dawkins (born 26 March 1941) is an English ethologist, evolutionary biologist, and author.
The Science Masters series is a book series of short, non-mathematical books for a general audience written by scientists known for their popular writings.
Self-replication is any behavior of a dynamical system that yields construction of an identical copy of itself.
Senescence or biological ageing is the gradual deterioration of function characteristic of most complex lifeforms, arguably found in all biological kingdoms, that on the level of the organism increases mortality after maturation.
Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.
Speciation is the evolutionary process by which populations evolve to become distinct species.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
Wasps of the genus Sphex (commonly known as digger wasps) are cosmopolitan predators that sting and paralyze prey insects.
The Gasterosteidae are a family of fish including the sticklebacks.
A supernormal stimulus or superstimulus is an exaggerated version of a stimulus to which there is an existing response tendency, or any stimulus that elicits a response more strongly than the stimulus for which it evolved.
The Blind Watchmaker: Why the Evidence of Evolution Reveals a Universe without Design is a 1986 book by Richard Dawkins, in which the author presents an explanation of, and argument for, the theory of evolution by means of natural selection.
The Extended Phenotype is a 1982 book by Richard Dawkins, in which the author introduced a biological concept of the same name.
The Selfish Gene is a 1976 book on evolution by Richard Dawkins, in which the author builds upon the principal theory of George C. Williams's Adaptation and Natural Selection (1966).
In mathematics, and more specifically in graph theory, a tree is an undirected graph in which any two vertices are connected by exactly one path.
A unicellular organism, also known as a single-celled organism, is an organism that consists of only one cell, unlike a multicellular organism that consists of more than one cell.
A unit of selection is a biological entity within the hierarchy of biological organization (for example, an entity such as: a self-replicating molecule, a gene, a cell, an organism, a group, or a species) that is subject to natural selection.
Within economics the concept of utility is used to model worth or value, but its usage has evolved significantly over time.
Waggle dance is a term used in beekeeping and ethology for a particular figure-eight dance of the honey bee.
Wired is a monthly American magazine, published in print and online editions, that focuses on how emerging technologies affect culture, the economy, and politics.