329 relations: AASHO Road Test, Achaemenid Empire, Air pollution, Allergy, Amazon rainforest, Amphibious vehicle, Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station, Ancient Rome, Annapurna Circuit, Antarctica, Arterial road, Asperity (materials science), Asphalt, Asphalt concrete, Australian English, Øresund Bridge, Bactria, Baghdad, Bahrain, Banked turn, Barge, Bed (geology), Belisha beacon, Benchmark (surveying), Bering Strait crossing, Bicycle boulevard, Bicycle-friendly, Bike path, Border control, Borrow pit, Bosporus, Botts' dots, Bridle path, British English, Bypass (road), Byway (road), Cadmium, California bearing ratio, Caliphate, Camber angle, Car, Car rental, Car shuttle train, Carriageway, Cart, Cat's eye (road), Cellular confinement, Chicago, Chicane, Chipseal, ..., Civil engineering, Clay, Cobblestone, Coefficient, Combustion, Controlled-access highway, Corduroy road, Corniche, Cross slope, Crushed stone, Curb, Curb extension, Curvature, Cycle track, Cycling, Cycling infrastructure, Dalton Highway, Darién Gap, Darius I, Deep wading, Deforestation, Deicing, Dendrochronology, Design life, Destructive distillation, Developing country, Diamond grinding of pavement, Dirt, Dirt road, Dog sled, Double-track railway, Dowel bar retrofit, Drainage gradient, Drilling and blasting, Dual carriageway, Dust, Easement, Embankment (transportation), Engine braking, England and Wales, English law, Environmental policy, Epidemiology of motor vehicle collisions, Epoxy, Erosion, Europe, European Union, Eurostat, Eurotunnel Shuttle, Exhaust gas, Expressways of China, Farm-to-market road, Federated state, Fill dirt, Fire hydrant, Fjord, Florida Keys, Footpath, Fossil fuel, Four-wheel drive, Fourth power, Frost heaving, General contractor, Geogrid, Geosynthetics, Geotextile, Glastonbury, Goods, Grade (slope), Grade separation, Grand Canyon, Gravel, Gravel road, Green lane (road), Gross axle weight rating, Groundwater, Grout, Guard rail, Guide rail, Hammer drill, Heavy equipment, Heavy metals, Highway, Highway engineering, Highways Act 1555, Highways Act 1980, History of rail transport in Great Britain to 1830, Horse-drawn boat, Ice road, Icknield Way, India, Indonesia, Induced demand, Infiltration (hydrology), Intercontinental and transoceanic fixed links, International Grooving & Grinding Association, International Transport Forum, Intersection (road), Interstate Highway System, Iquitos, Island country, Juneau, Alaska, King Fahd Causeway, Land rehabilitation, Lane, Left- and right-hand traffic, Limited-access road, List of car-free places, List of countries by road network size, List of roads and highways, Loam, Local government, Location, Loose chippings, Malacca Strait Bridge, Market town, Mêdog County, Median strip, Mile, Milestone, Motor oil, Motor vehicle, Mountain pass, Mulch, Murmansk, Neighbourhood, Network effect, Nickel, Noise barrier, Noise pollution, Nome, Alaska, North American English, Northern Ireland, Nunavut, OECD, Oil field, Opinion poll, Organic compound, Overseas Highway, Pan-American Highway, Particle size, Pavement management, Pavement milling, Pedestrian crossing, Pedestrian zone, Pelican crossing, Person, Planning, Plumstead, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, Polyurethane, Pothole, Pound (mass), Pozzolan, Private highway, Private road, Private sector, Profilometer, Protected intersection, Public sector, Public space, Public–private partnership, R21 highway (Russia), Radar, Radius of curvature, Rain, Raised pavement marker, Rankin Inlet, Rebecca Riots, Reflection (physics), Respiratory system, Rest area, Rhayader, Ride quality, Right-of-way (transportation), Rights of way in England and Wales, Road roller, Road slipperiness, Road surface, Road surface marking, Road tax, Road texture, Road traffic safety, Road transport, Road verge, Roadstead, Roadworks, Rock (geology), Roll-on/roll-off, Roman Empire, Roman roads, Roundabout, Route number, Royal Commission, Royal Road, Rut (roads), Safety barrier, Sardis, Scandinavian Peninsula, Scotland, Sea ice, Seal (mechanical), Sediment, Semi-trailer truck, Service life, Shell pavement design method, Shoulder (road), Siberia, Sidewalk, Sieve, Sinai Peninsula, Single carriageway, Single-track railway, Slope, Snow chains, Snow tire, Snowmelt, Snowmobile, Socioeconomics, Sodium chloride, South Pole Traverse, Spall, Speed limit, State highway, Storm drain, Strait of Gibraltar crossing, Stream, Stream bed, Street furniture, Street gutter, Structural road design, Supai, Arizona, Surface roughness, Surface water, Surveying, Susa, Sweet Track, Tar, The Highway Code, The New York Times, Thoroughfare, Timber trackway, Toll road, Tonne, Topsoil, Track bed, Trade route, Traffic barrier, Traffic bottleneck, Traffic calming, Traffic circle, Traffic collision, Traffic engineering (transportation), Traffic island, Traffic light, Traffic sign, Trail, Transport economics, Tunnel, Turnpike trusts, Types of road, United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, United States Numbered Highway System, Ur, Urban planner, Vehicle, Vehicle Excise Duty, Victoria (Australia), Vienna Convention on Road Traffic, Wacker Drive, Walking, Waste, Water pollution, Water well, Watercourse, World Health Organization, Zebra crossing, Zinc, Zoning. 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The AASHO Road Test was a series of experiments carried out by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), to determine how traffic contributed to the deterioration of highway pavements.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
Air pollution occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances including gases, particulates, and biological molecules are introduced into Earth's atmosphere.
Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment.
The Amazon rainforest (Portuguese: Floresta Amazônica or Amazônia; Selva Amazónica, Amazonía or usually Amazonia; Forêt amazonienne; Amazoneregenwoud), also known in English as Amazonia or the Amazon Jungle, is a moist broadleaf forest in the Amazon biome that covers most of the Amazon basin of South America.
An amphibious vehicle (or simply amphibian), is a vehicle that is a means of transport, viable on land as well as on (or under) water.
The Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station is a United States scientific research station at the South Pole, the southernmost place on the Earth.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
The Annapurna Circuit is a trek within the Annapurna mountain range of central Nepal.
Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.
An arterial road or arterial thoroughfare is a high-capacity urban road.
In materials science, asperity, defined as "unevenness of surface, roughness, ruggedness" (OED, from the Latin asper — "rough"), has implications (for example) in physics and seismology.
Asphalt, also known as bitumen, is a sticky, black, and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum.
Asphalt concrete (commonly called asphalt, blacktop, or pavement in North America, and tarmac, bitumen macadam or rolled asphalt in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland) is a composite material commonly used to surface roads, parking lots, airports, as well as the core of embankment dams.
Australian English (AuE, en-AU) is a major variety of the English language, used throughout Australia.
The Øresund or Öresund Bridge (Øresundsbroen,; Öresundsbron,; hybrid name: Øresundsbron) is a combined railway and motorway bridge across the Øresund strait between Sweden and Denmark.
Bactria or Bactriana was the name of a historical region in Central Asia.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
Bahrain (البحرين), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain (مملكة البحرين), is an Arab constitutional monarchy in the Persian Gulf.
A banked turn (or banking turn) is a turn or change of direction in which the vehicle banks or inclines, usually towards the inside of the turn.
A barge is a flat-bottomed ship, built mainly for river and canal transport of heavy goods.
Salto del Fraile Formation, Peru. Beds are the layers of sedimentary rocks that are distinctly different from overlying and underlying subsequent beds of different sedimentary rocks.
A Belisha beacon is an amber-coloured globe lamp atop a tall black and white pole, marking pedestrian crossings of roads in the United Kingdom, Ireland and in other countries (e.g., Hong Kong, Malta, and Singapore), historically influenced by Britain.
The term benchmark, or bench mark, originates from the chiseled horizontal marks that surveyors made in stone structures, into which an angle-iron could be placed to form a "bench" for a leveling rod, thus ensuring that a leveling rod could be accurately repositioned in the same place in the future.
A Bering Strait crossing is a hypothetical bridge and/or tunnel spanning the relatively narrow and shallow Bering Strait between the Chukotka Peninsula in Russia and the Seward Peninsula in the U.S. state of Alaska.
A bicycle boulevard, sometimes referred to as a neighborhood greenway, neighborway, neighborhood bikeway or neighborhood byway is a type of bikeway composed of a low-speed street which has been "optimized" for bicycle traffic.
Bicycle-friendly policies and practices help some people feel more comfortable about traveling by bicycle with other traffic.
A bike path is a bikeway separated from motorized traffic and dedicated to cycling or shared with pedestrians or other non-motorized users.
Border controls are measures taken by a country to monitor or regulate its borders.
In construction and civil engineering, a borrow pit, also known as a sand box, is an area where material (usually soil, gravel or sand) has been dug for use at another location.
The Bosporus or Bosphorus;The spelling Bosporus is listed first or exclusively in all major British and American dictionaries (e.g.,,, Merriam-Webster,, and Random House) as well as the Encyclopædia Britannica and the.
Botts' dots are round non-reflective raised pavement markers.
A bridle path, also bridleway, equestrian trail, horse riding path, ride, bridle road, or horse trail, is a path, trail or a thoroughfare that is used by people riding on horses.
British English is the standard dialect of English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom.
A bypass is a road or highway that avoids or "bypasses" a built-up area, town, or village, to let through traffic flow without interference from local traffic, to reduce congestion in the built-up area, and to improve road safety.
A byway in the United Kingdom is a track, often rural, which is too minor to be called a road.
Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48.
The California bearing ratio (CBR) is a penetration test for eualvation of the mechto anical strength of natural ground, subgrades and base courses beneath new carriageway construction.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
From the front of the car, a right wheel with a negative camber angle Camber angle is the angle made by the wheels of a vehicle; specifically, it is the angle between the vertical axis of the wheels used for steering and the vertical axis of the vehicle when viewed from the front or rear.
A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation.
A car rental, hire car, or car hire agency is a company that rents automobiles for short periods of time, generally ranging from a few hours to a few weeks.
A car shuttle train, or (sometimes) car-carrying train, is a shuttle train used to transport accompanied cars (automobiles), and usually also other types of road vehicles, for a relatively short distance.
A carriageway (British English) or roadway (North American English) consists of a width of road on which a vehicle is not restricted by any physical barriers or separation to move laterally.
A cart is a vehicle designed for transport, using two wheels and normally pulled by one or a pair of draught animals.
A cat's eye is a retroreflective safety device used in road marking and was the first of a range of raised pavement markers.
Cellular confinement systems (CCS)—also known as geocells—are widely used in construction for erosion control, soil stabilization on flat ground and steep slopes, channel protection, and structural reinforcement for load support and earth retention.
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.
A chicane is a serpentine curve in a road, added by design rather than dictated by geography.
Chipseal (also chip seal) is a pavement surface treatment that combines one or more layer(s) of asphalt with one or more layer(s) of fine aggregate.
Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works such as roads, bridges, canals, dams, airports, sewerage systems, pipelines, and railways.
Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO2), metal oxides (Al2O3, MgO etc.) and organic matter.
Cobblestone is a natural building material based on cobble-sized stones, and is used for pavement roads, streets, and buildings.
In mathematics, a coefficient is a multiplicative factor in some term of a polynomial, a series or any expression; it is usually a number, but may be any expression.
Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.
A controlled-access highway is a type of highway which has been designed for high-speed vehicular traffic, with all traffic flow and ingress/egress regulated.
A corduroy road or log road is a type of road made by placing logs, perpendicular to the direction of the road over a low or swampy area.
A corniche is a road on the side of a cliff or mountain, with the ground rising on one side and falling away on the other.
Cross slope, cross fall or camber is a geometric feature of pavement surfaces: the transverse slope with respect to the horizon.
Crushed stone or angular rock is a form of construction aggregate, typically produced by mining a suitable rock deposit and breaking the removed rock down to the desired size using crushers.
A curb (American English), or kerb (Australian English, British English; see spelling differences), is the edge where a raised sidewalk (pavement in British English; pavement or footpath in Australian English) or road median/central reservation meets a street or other roadway.
A curb extension (or also neckdown, kerb extension, bulb-out, bump-out, kerb build-out, nib, elephant ear, curb bulge,"curb bulb" and blister) is a traffic calming measure, primarily used to extend the sidewalk, reducing the crossing distance and allowing pedestrians about to cross and approaching vehicle drivers to see each other when vehicles parked in a parking lane would otherwise block visibility.
In mathematics, curvature is any of a number of loosely related concepts in different areas of geometry.
A cycle track, separated bike lane or protected bike lane (sometimes historically referred to as a sidepath), is an exclusive bikeway that has elements of a separated path and on-road bike lane.
Cycling, also called bicycling or biking, is the use of bicycles for transport, recreation, exercise or sport.
Cycling infrastructure refers to all infrastructure which may be used by cyclists.
The James W. Dalton Highway, usually referred to as the Dalton Highway (and signed as Alaska Route 11), is a road in Alaska.
The Darién Gap is a break in the Pan-American Highway consisting of a large swath of undeveloped swampland and forest within Panama's Darién Province in Central America and the northern portion of Colombia's Chocó Department in South America.
Darius I (Old Persian: Dārayava(h)uš, New Persian: rtl Dāryuš;; c. 550–486 BCE) was the fourth king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire.
Deep wading or deep fording is a technique used by some heavy semi-amphibious vehicles to traverse water that is several metres deep - the vehicle drives on the riverbed/lakebed/seabed and uses screens or a pipe (a snorkel) that reaches above the water surface for an air supply.
Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.
De-icing is the process of removing snow, ice or frost from a surface.
Dendrochronology (or tree-ring dating) is the scientific method of dating tree rings (also called growth rings) to the exact year they were formed in order to analyze atmospheric conditions during different periods in history.
The design life of a component or product is the period of time during which the item is expected by its designers to work within its specified parameters; in other words, the life expectancy of the item.
Destructive distillation is the chemical process of the decomposition of unprocessed material by heating it to a high temperature; the term generally applies to processing of organic material in the absence of air or in the presence of limited amounts of oxygen or other reagents, catalysts, or solvents, such as steam or phenols.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Diamond grinding is a pavement preservation technique that corrects a variety of surface imperfections on both concrete and asphalt pavements.
Dirt is unclean matter, especially when in contact with a person's clothes, skin or possessions when they are said to become dirty.
A dirt road or track is a type of unpaved road made from the native material of the land surface through which it passes, known to highway engineers as subgrade material.
A dog sled or dog sleigh is a sled pulled by one or more sled dogs used to travel over ice and through snow.
A double-track railway usually involves running one track in each direction, compared to a single-track railway where trains in both directions share the same track.
A dowel bar retrofit (DBR) is a method of reinforcing cracks in highway pavement by inserting steel dowel bars in slots cut across the cracks.
Drainage gradient (DG) is a term in road design, defined as the combined slope due to road surface cross slope (CS) and longitudinal slope (hilliness).
Drilling and blasting is the controlled use of explosives and other methods such as gas pressure blasting pyrotechnics, to break rock for excavation.
A dual carriageway (British English) or divided highway (American English) is a class of highway with carriageways for traffic travelling in opposite directions separated by a central reservation.
Dust are fine particles of matter.
An easement is a nonpossessory right to use and/or enter onto the real property of another without possessing it.
A road, railway line or canal is normally raised onto an embankment made of compacted soil (typically clay or rock-based) to avoid a change in level required by the terrain, the alternatives being either to have an unacceptable change in level or detour to follow a contour.
Engine braking occurs when the retarding forces within an engine are used to slow a vehicle down, as opposed to using additional external braking mechanisms such as friction brakes or magnetic brakes.
England and Wales is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom.
English law is the common law legal system of England and Wales, comprising mainly criminal law and civil law, each branch having its own courts and procedures.
Environmental policy is the commitment of an organization to the laws, regulations, and other policy mechanisms concerning environmental issues.
Worldwide it was estimated that 1.25 million people were killed and many millions more were injured in motor vehicle collisions in 2013.
Epoxy is either any of the basic components or the cured end products of epoxy resins, as well as a colloquial name for the epoxide functional group.
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that remove soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Eurostat is a Directorate-General of the European Commission located in Luxembourg.
Eurotunnel Le Shuttle (sometimes shortened to Le Shuttle or The Shuttle) is a railway shuttle service between Coquelles (near Calais) in Nord-Pas-de-Calais, France and Cheriton (near Folkestone) in Kent, United Kingdom.
Exhaust gas or flue gas is emitted as a result of the combustion of fuels such as natural gas, gasoline, petrol, biodiesel blends, diesel fuel, fuel oil, or coal.
The expressway network of China, with the national-level expressway system officially known as the National Trunk Highway System (abbreviated as NTHS), is an integrated system of national and provincial-level expressways in China.
In the United States, a farm-to-market road or ranch-to-market road (sometimes farm road or ranch road for short) is a state road or county road that connects rural or agricultural areas to market towns.
A federated state (which may also be referred to by various terms such as a state, a province, a canton, a land) is a territorial and constitutional community forming part of a federation.
Fill dirt is earthy material which is used to fill in a depression or hole in the ground or create mounds or otherwise artificially change the grade or elevation of real property.
A fire hydrant, also called a fireplug, fire pump, johnny pump, or simply pump, is a connection point by which firefighters can tap into a water supply.
Geologically, a fjord or fiord is a long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs, created by a glacier.
The Florida Keys are a coral cay archipelago located off the southern coast of Florida, forming the southernmost portion of the continental United States.
A footpath (also pedestrian way, walking trail, nature trail) is a type of thoroughfare that is intended for use only by pedestrians and not other forms of traffic such as motorized vehicles, cycles, and horses.
A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.
Four-wheel drive, also called 4×4 ("four by four") or 4WD, refers to a two-axled vehicle drivetrain capable of providing torque to all of its wheels simultaneously.
In arithmetic and algebra, the fourth power of a number n is the result of multiplying four instances of n together.
Frost heaving (or a frost heave) is an upwards swelling of soil during freezing conditions caused by an increasing presence of ice as it grows towards the surface, upwards from the depth in the soil where freezing temperatures have penetrated into the soil (the freezing front or freezing boundary).
A general contractor (main contractor, prime contractor) is responsible for the day-to-day oversight of a construction site, management of vendors and trades, and the communication of information to all involved parties throughout the course of a building project.
A geogrid is geosynthetic material used to reinforce soils and similar materials.
Geosynthetics are synthetic products used to stabilize terrain.
Geotextiles are permeable fabrics which, when used in association with soil, have the ability to separate, filter, reinforce, protect, or drain.
Glastonbury is a town and civil parish in Somerset, England, situated at a dry point on the low-lying Somerset Levels, south of Bristol.
In economics, goods are materials that satisfy human wants and provide utility, for example, to a consumer making a purchase of a satisfying product.
The grade (also called slope, incline, gradient, mainfall, pitch or rise) of a physical feature, landform or constructed line refers to the tangent of the angle of that surface to the horizontal.
Grade separation is the name given to a method of aligning a junction of two or more surface transport axes at different heights (grades) so that they will not disrupt the traffic flow on other transit routes when they cross each other.
The Grand Canyon (Hopi: Ongtupqa; Wi:kaʼi:la, Navajo: Tsékooh Hatsoh, Spanish: Gran Cañón) is a steep-sided canyon carved by the Colorado River in Arizona, United States.
Gravel is a loose aggregation of rock fragments.
A gravel road is a type of unpaved road surfaced with gravel that has been brought to the site from a quarry or stream bed.
A green lane is a type of road, usually an unmetalled rural route.
The gross axle weight rating (GAWR) is the maximum distributed weight that may be supported by an axle of a road vehicle.
Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.
Grout is a fluid form of concrete used to fill gaps.
Guard rail, guardrails — or railings around properties and more generally outside of North America in some uses overlaps the industrial term "guide rail".
A guide rail is device or mechanism to direct products, vehicles or other objects through a channel, conveyor, roadway or rail system.
A hammer drill (or hammering drill) is a rotary drill with a hammering action.
Heavy equipment refers to heavy-duty vehicles, specially designed for executing construction tasks, most frequently ones involving earthwork operations.
Heavy metals are generally defined as metals with relatively high densities, atomic weights, or atomic numbers.
A highway is any public or private road or other public way on land.
Highway engineering is an engineering discipline branching from civil engineering that involves the planning, design, construction, operation, and maintenance of roads, bridges, and tunnels to ensure safe and effective transportation of people and goods.
The Highways Act 1555 (2 & 3 Ph. & Mary, c. 8), sometimes the First Statute of Highways, was an Act of Parliament of the Parliament of England passed in 1555 (and extended by the Highways Act 1562).
The Highways Act 1980 (1980 c.66) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom dealing with the management and operation of the road network in England and Wales.
The history of rail transport in Great Britain to 1830 covers the period up to the opening of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, the world's first intercity passenger railway operated solely by steam locomotives.
A horse-drawn boat or tow-boat is a historic boat operating on a canal, pulled by a horse walking beside the canal on a towpath.
An ice road (ice crossing, ice bridge) is a winter road, or part thereof, that runs on a naturally frozen water surface (a river, a lake or an expanse of sea ice) in cold regions.
The Icknield Way is an ancient trackway in southern and eastern England that goes from Norfolk to Wiltshire.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Induced demand, or latent demand, is the phenomenon that after supply increases, more of a good is consumed.
Infiltration is the process by which water on the ground surface enters the soil.
A fixed link or fixed crossing is a persistent, unbroken road or rail connection across water that uses some combination of bridges, tunnels, and causeways and does not involve intermittent connections such as drawbridges or ferries.
The International Grooving & Grinding Association (IGGA) is a non-profit trade association founded in 1972 that represents the industry that performs grooving and grinding of both concrete and asphalt surfaces in addition to Concrete Pavement Restoration (CPR) and Concrete Pavement Preservation (CPP) methods.
The International Transport Forum (ITF) is an inter-governmental organisation within the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) system.
An intersection is an at-grade junction where two or more roads meet or cross.
The Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, commonly known as the Interstate Highway System, is a network of controlled-access highways that forms part of the National Highway System in the United States.
Iquitos, also known as Iquitos City, is the capital city of Peru's Maynas Province and Loreto Region.
An island country is a country whose primary territory consists of one or more islands or parts of islands.
The City and Borough of Juneau (Tlingit: Dzánti K'ihéeni), commonly known as Juneau, is the capital city of Alaska.
The King Fahd Causeway (جسر الملك فهد, Jisr al-Malik Fahd) is a series of bridges and causeways connecting Saudi Arabia and Bahrain.
Land rehabilitation is the process of returning the land in a given area to some degree of its former state, after some process (industry, natural disasters, etc.) has resulted in its damage.
In the context of traffic control, a lane is part of a roadway (carriageway) that is designated for use by a single line of vehicles, to control and guide drivers and reduce traffic conflicts.
The terms right-hand traffic (RHT) and left-hand traffic (LHT) refer to the practice, in bidirectional traffic situations, to keep to the right side or to the left side of the road, respectively.
A limited-access road, known by various terms worldwide, including limited-access highway, dual-carriageway, expressway, and partial controlled access highway, is a highway or arterial road for high-speed traffic which has many or most characteristics of a controlled-access highway (freeway or motorway), including limited or no access to adjacent property, some degree of separation of opposing traffic flow, use of grade separated interchanges to some extent, prohibition of some modes of transport such as bicycles or horses, and very few or no intersecting cross-streets.
The areas in this list of car-free places make up a sizeable fraction of a city, town, or island; public transport connections do not in themselves constitute a car free area.
This is a list of countries by total road network size, both paved and unpaved.
List of articles related to roads and highways around the world.
Loam is soil composed mostly of sand (particle size > 63 µm), silt (particle size > 2 µm), and a smaller amount of clay (particle size These proportions can vary to a degree, however, and result in different types of loam soils: sandy loam, silty loam, clay loam, sandy clay loam, silty clay loam, and loam. In the USDA textural classification triangle, the only soil that is not predominantly sand, silt, or clay is called "loam". Loam soils generally contain more nutrients, moisture, and humus than sandy soils, have better drainage and infiltration of water and air than silt and clay-rich soils, and are easier to till than clay soils. The different types of loam soils each have slightly different characteristics, with some draining liquids more efficiently than others. The soil's texture, especially its ability to retain nutrients and water are crucial. Loam soil is suitable for growing most plant varieties. Bricks made of loam, mud, sand, and water, with an added binding material such as rice husks or straw, have been used in construction since ancient times.
A local government is a form of public administration which, in a majority of contexts, exists as the lowest tier of administration within a given state.
The terms location and place in geography are used to identify a point or an area on the Earth's surface or elsewhere.
Loose chippings are loose gravel or stone fragments on a road surface and form a hazard to vehicles using that road.
The Malacca Strait Bridge (Indonesian: Jembatan Selat Malaka, Malaysian: Jambatan Selat Melaka or JSM and Jembatan Selmal) is a proposed bridge that would connect Telok Gong, near Masjid Tanah, Malacca state in Peninsula Malaysia, Malaysia to Rupat Island and Dumai in Sumatra island, Indonesia.
Market town or market right is a legal term, originating in the Middle Ages, for a European settlement that has the right to host markets, distinguishing it from a village and city.
Mêdog, Metok, or Motuo County, also known as the Pemako ("Lotus Array"), is a county as well as a traditional region of the Nyingtri Prefecture in the Tibet Autonomous Region of People's Republic of China.
The median strip or central reservation is the reserved area that separates opposing lanes of traffic on divided roadways, such as divided highways, dual carriageways, freeways, and motorways.
The mile is an English unit of length of linear measure equal to 5,280 feet, or 1,760 yards, and standardised as exactly 1,609.344 metres by international agreement in 1959.
A milestone is one of a series of numbered markers placed along a road or boundary at intervals of one mile or occasionally, parts of a mile.
Motor oil, engine oil, or engine lubricant is any of various substances comprising base oils enhanced with additives, particularly antiwear additive plus detergents, dispersants and, for multi-grade oils viscosity index improvers.
A motor vehicle is a self-propelled vehicle, commonly wheeled, that does not operate on rails, such as trains or trams and used for the transportation of passengers, or passengers and property.
A mountain pass is a navigable route through a mountain range or over a ridge.
A mulch is a layer of material applied to the surface of soil.
Murmansk (p; Мурман ланнҍ; Murmánska; Muurman) is a port city and the administrative center of Murmansk Oblast in the far northwest part of Russia.
A neighbourhood (British English), or neighborhood (American English; see spelling differences), is a geographically localised community within a larger city, town, suburb or rural area.
A network effect (also called network externality or demand-side economies of scale) is the positive effect described in economics and business that an additional user of a good or service has on the value of that product to others.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
A noise barrier (also called a soundwall, noise wall, sound berm, sound barrier, or acoustical barrier) is an exterior structure designed to protect inhabitants of sensitive land use areas from noise pollution.
Sound pollution, also known as environmental noise or noise pollution, is the propagation of noise with harmful impact on the activity of human or animal life.
Nome (Siqnazuaq) is a city in the Nome Census Area in the Unorganized Borough of the U.S. state of Alaska.
North American English (NAmE, NAE) is the most generalized variety of the English language as spoken in the United States and Canada.
Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.
Nunavut (Inuktitut syllabics ᓄᓇᕗᑦ) is the newest, largest, and northernmost territory of Canada.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
An "oil field" or "oilfield" is a region with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (crude oil) from below ground.
An opinion poll, often simply referred to as a poll or a survey, is a human research survey of public opinion from a particular sample.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
The Overseas Highway is a highway carrying U.S. Route 1 (US 1) through the Florida Keys.
The Pan-American Highway is a network of roads measuring about in total length.
Particle size is a notion introduced for comparing dimensions of solid particles (flecks), liquid particles (droplets), or gaseous particles (bubbles).
Pavement management is the process of planning the maintenance and repair of a network of roadways or other paved facilities in order to optimize pavement conditions over the entire network.
Pavement milling (cold planing, asphalt milling, or profiling) is the process of removing at least part of the surface of a paved area such as a road, bridge, or parking lot.
A pedestrian crossing (British English) or crosswalk (American English) is a place designated for pedestrians to cross a road.
Pedestrian zones (also known as auto-free zones and car-free zones, and as pedestrian precincts in British English) are areas of a city or town reserved for pedestrian-only use and in which most or all automobile traffic may be prohibited.
A pelican crossing (previously pelicon crossing, which stood for "pedestrian light controlled crossing") is a type of pedestrian crossing, which features a pair of poles each with a standard set of traffic lights facing oncoming traffic, a push button and two illuminated, coloured pictograms facing the pedestrian from across the road.
A person is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or self-consciousness, and being a part of a culturally established form of social relations such as kinship, ownership of property, or legal responsibility.
Planning is the process of thinking about the activities required to achieve a desired goal.
Plumstead is a district of south east London located in the Royal Borough of Greenwich.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, also polyaromatic hydrocarbons or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons) are hydrocarbons—organic compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen—that are composed of multiple aromatic rings (organic rings in which the electrons are delocalized).
Polyurethane (PUR and PU) is a polymer composed of organic units joined by carbamate (urethane) links.
A pothole is a structural failure in a road surface, usually asphalt pavement, due to water in the underlying soil structure and traffic passing over the affected area.
The pound or pound-mass is a unit of mass used in the imperial, United States customary and other systems of measurement.
Pozzolans are a broad class of siliceous or siliceous and aluminous materials which, in themselves, possess little or no cementitious value but which will, in finely divided form and in the presence of water, react chemically with calcium hydroxide at ordinary temperature to form compounds possessing cementitious properties.
A private highway is a highway owned and operated for profit by private industry.
A private road is a road owned and maintained by a private individual, organization, or company rather than by a government.
The private sector is the part of the economy, sometimes referred to as the citizen sector, which is run by private individuals or groups, usually as a means of enterprise for profit, and is not controlled by the State.
A profilometer is a measuring instrument used to measure a surface's profile, in order to quantify its roughness.
A protected intersection is an at-grade road junction in which cyclists and pedestrians are separated from cars.
The public sector (also called the state sector) is the part of the economy composed of both public services and public enterprises.
A public space is a place that is generally open and accessible to people.
A public–private partnership (PPP, 3P or P3) is a cooperative arrangement between two or more public and private sectors, typically of a long-term nature.
The R21 highway (in Cyrillic Р21), also known as the Kola Motorway, is a major highway in Russia, running from Saint Petersburg to Murmansk.
Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.
In differential geometry, the radius of curvature,, is the reciprocal of the curvature.
Rain is liquid water in the form of droplets that have condensed from atmospheric water vapor and then becomes heavy enough to fall under gravity.
A raised pavement marker is a safety device used on roads.
Rankin Inlet (Kangiqliniq; Inuktitut syllabics: ᑲᖏᕿᓂᖅ or Kangirliniq, ᑲᖏᖅᖠᓂᖅ, or Kangir&iniq meaning deep bay/inlet) is an Inuit hamlet on Kudlulik Peninsula in Nunavut, Canada.
The Rebecca Riots took place between 1839 and 1843 in South and Mid Wales.
Reflection is the change in direction of a wavefront at an interface between two different media so that the wavefront returns into the medium from which it originated.
The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.
A rest area is a public facility, located next to a large thoroughfare such as a highway, expressway, or freeway, at which drivers and passengers can rest, eat, or refuel without exiting onto secondary roads.
Rhayader (Rhaeadr Gwy) is a market town, community and electoral ward in Powys, central Wales.
Ride quality refers to a vehicle's effectiveness in insulating the occupants from undulations in the road surface (eg bumps or corrugations).
A right-of-way (ROW) is a right to make a way over a piece of land, usually to and from another piece of land.
In England and Wales, other than in the 12 Inner London Boroughs and the City of London, the "right of way" refers to paths on which the public have a legally protected right to pass and re-pass.
A road roller (sometimes called a roller-compactor, or just roller) is a compactor type engineering vehicle used to compact soil, gravel, concrete, or asphalt in the construction of roads and foundations.
Road slipperiness (low skid resistance due to insufficient road friction) is the technical term for the cumulative effects of snow, ice, water, loose material and the texture of the road surface on the traction produced by the wheels of a vehicle.
A road surface or pavement is the durable surface material laid down on an area intended to sustain vehicular or foot traffic, such as a road or walkway.
Road surface marking is any kind of device or material that is used on a road surface in order to convey official information; they are commonly placed with road marking machines (or road marking equipment, pavement marking equipment).
Road tax, known by various names around the world, is a tax which has to be paid on, or included with, a wheeled vehicle to use it on a public road.
Road surface textures are deviations from a planar and smooth surface, affecting the vehicle/tyre interaction.
Road traffic safety refers to the methods and measures used to prevent road users from being killed or seriously injured.
Road transport or road transportation is a type of transport by using roads.
A road verge is a strip of grass or plants, and sometimes also trees, located between a roadway (carriageway) and a sidewalk (pavement).
A roadstead (or roads - the earlier form) is a body of water sheltered from rip currents, spring tides or ocean swell where ships can lie reasonably safely at anchor without dragging or snatching.
Roadworks (called road work or road construction in the United States) occur when part of the road, or in rare cases, the entire road, has to be occupied for work relating to the road, most often in the case of road surface repairs.
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.
Roll-on/roll-off (RORO or ro-ro) ships are vessels designed to carry wheeled cargo, such as cars, trucks, semi-trailer trucks, trailers, and railroad cars, that are driven on and off the ship on their own wheels or using a platform vehicle, such as a self-propelled modular transporter.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Roman roads (Latin: viae Romanae; singular: via Romana meaning "Roman way") were physical infrastructure vital to the maintenance and development of the Roman state, and were built from about 300 BC through the expansion and consolidation of the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.
A roundabout, also called a traffic circle, road circle, rotary, rotunda or island, is a type of circular intersection or junction in which road traffic flows almost continuously in one direction around a central island.
A route (or road) number is an identifying numeric (or alphanumeric) designation assigned by a highway authority to a particular stretch of roadway to distinguish it from other routes and, in many cases, also to indicate its classification (e.g. motorway, primary route, regional road, etc.), general geographical location (in zonal numbering systems) and/or orientation (north-south v. east-west).
A Royal Commission is a major ad-hoc formal public inquiry into a defined issue in some monarchies.
The Royal Road was an ancient highway, part of the Silk Road and the Uttara Path built in ancient South Asia and Central Asia, reorganized and rebuilt by the Persian king Darius the Great (Darius I) of the first (Achaemenid) Persian Empire in the 5th century BCE.
A rut is a depression or groove worn into a road or path by the travel of wheels or skis.
A safety barrier is a component which prevents passage into a dangerous area, commonly used to mitigate risk.
Sardis or Sardes (Lydian: 𐤮𐤱𐤠𐤭𐤣 Sfard; Σάρδεις Sardeis; Sparda) was an ancient city at the location of modern Sart (Sartmahmut before 19 October 2005) in Turkey's Manisa Province.
The Scandinavian Peninsula (Skandinaviska halvön; Den skandinaviske halvøy; Skandinavian niemimaa; ?; Скандинавский полуостров, Skandinavsky poluostrov) is a peninsula of Eurasia located in Northern Europe, which generally comprises the mainland of Sweden, the mainland of Norway (with the exception of a small coastal area bordering Russia), the northwestern area of Finland, as well as a narrow area in the west of the Pechengsky District of Russia.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
Sea ice arises as seawater freezes.
A mechanical seal is a device that helps join systems or mechanisms together by preventing leakage (e.g. in a plumbing system), containing pressure, or excluding contamination.
Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently transported by the action of wind, water, or ice, and/or by the force of gravity acting on the particles.
A semi-trailer truck (more commonly semi truck or simply "semi") is the combination of a tractor unit and one or more semi-trailers to carry freight.
A product's service life is its period of use in service.
The Shell pavement design method is used in many countries for the design of new asphalt roads.
A shoulder, or hard shoulder is an emergency stopping lane by the verge of a road or motorway, on the right in countries which drive on the right, or on the left side in India, Japan, the UK, Australia, and other left-side driving countries.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
A sidewalk (American English) or pavement (British English), also known as a footpath or footway, is a path along the side of a road.
A sieve, or sifter, is a device for separating wanted elements from unwanted material or for characterizing the particle size distribution of a sample, typically using a woven screen such as a mesh or net or metal.
The Sinai Peninsula or simply Sinai (now usually) is a peninsula in Egypt, and the only part of the country located in Asia.
A single carriageway (British English) or undivided highway (American English) is a road with one, two or more lanes arranged within a single carriageway with no central reservation to separate opposing flows of traffic.
A single-track railway is a railway where trains traveling in both directions share the same track.
In mathematics, the slope or gradient of a line is a number that describes both the direction and the steepness of the line.
Snow chains, or tire chains, are devices fitted to the tires of vehicles to provide maximum traction when driving through snow and ice.
Snow tires—also called winter tires—are tires designed for use on snow and ice.
In hydrology, snowmelt is surface runoff produced from melting snow.
A snowmobile, also known as a motor sled, motor sledge, or snowmachine, is a motorized vehicle designed for winter travel and recreation on snow.
Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes.
Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.
The South Pole Traverse, also called the McMurdo–South Pole Highway, is an approximately compacted snow road in Antarctica that links the United States's McMurdo Station on the coast to the Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station.
Spall is flakes of a material that are broken off a larger solid body and can be produced by a variety of mechanisms, including as a result of projectile impact, corrosion, weathering, cavitation, or excessive rolling pressure (as in a ball bearing).
Road speed limits are used in most countries to set the maximum (or minimum in some cases) speed at which road vehicles may legally travel on particular stretches of road.
A state highway, state road, or state route (and the equivalent provincial highway, provincial road, or provincial route) is usually either a road ''numbered'' by the state or province, falling below numbered national highways in the hierarchy (route numbers are used to aid navigation, and may or may not indicate ownership or maintenance); or a road maintained by the state or province, including both nationally numbered highways and un-numbered state highways.
A storm drain, storm sewer (U.S. and Canada), surface water drain/sewer (United Kingdom), or stormwater drain (Australia and New Zealand) is designed to drain excess rain and ground water from impervious surfaces such as paved streets, car parks, parking lots, footpaths, sidewalks, and roofs.
The Strait of Gibraltar crossing is a hypothetical bridge or tunnel spanning the Strait of Gibraltar (about 14 km or 9 miles at its narrowest point) that would connect Europe and Africa.
A stream is a body of water with surface water flowing within the bed and banks of a channel.
A stream bed is the channel bottom of a stream or river, the physical confine of the normal water flow.
Street furniture is a collective term (used in the United Kingdom, Australia and Canada) for objects and pieces of equipment installed along streets and roads for various purposes.
A street gutter is a depression running parallel to a road designed to collect rainwater flowing along the street and divert it into a storm drain.
Structural road design aims to ensure the road is strong enough for the expected number of vehicles in a certain number of years.
Supai (Havasuuw) is a census-designated place (CDP) in Coconino County, Arizona, United States, within the Grand Canyon.
Surface roughness often shortened to roughness, is a component of surface texture.
Surface water is water on the surface of the planet such as in a river, lake, wetland, or ocean.
Surveying or land surveying is the technique, profession, and science of determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional positions of points and the distances and angles between them.
Susa (fa Šuš;; שׁוּשָׁן Šušān; Greek: Σοῦσα; ܫܘܫ Šuš; Old Persian Çūšā) was an ancient city of the Proto-Elamite, Elamite, First Persian Empire, Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanian empires of Iran, and one of the most important cities of the Ancient Near East.
The Sweet Track is an ancient causeway in the Somerset Levels, England.
Tar is a dark brown or black viscous liquid of hydrocarbons and free carbon, obtained from a wide variety of organic materials through destructive distillation.
The Highway Code is a set of information, advice, guides and mandatory rules for all road users in the United Kingdom.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
A thoroughfare is a road connecting one location to another.
A timber trackway is a simple raised wooden walkway used as the shortest route between two places in a bog or peatland.
A toll road, also known as a turnpike or tollway, is a public or private road for which a fee (or toll) is assessed for passage.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
Topsoil is the upper, outermost layer of soil, usually the top to.
The track bed or trackbed is the groundwork onto which a railway track is laid.
A trade route is a logistical network identified as a series of pathways and stoppages used for the commercial transport of cargo.
Traffic barriers (sometimes called Armco barriers,AK Steel (formerly Armco) genericized trademark also known in North America as guardrails or guard rails and in Britain as crash barriers) keep vehicles within their roadway and prevent them from colliding with dangerous obstacles such as boulders, sign supports, trees, bridge abutments, buildings, walls, and large storm drains, or from traversing steep (non-recoverable) slopes or entering deep water.
A traffic bottleneck is a localized disruption of vehicular traffic on a street, road, or highway.
Traffic calming uses physical design and other measures to improve safety for motorists, pedestrians and cyclists.
A traffic circle is a type of intersection that directs both turning and through traffic onto a one-way circular roadway, usually built for the purposes of traffic calming or aesthetics.
A traffic collision, also called a motor vehicle collision (MVC) among other terms, occurs when a vehicle collides with another vehicle, pedestrian, animal, road debris, or other stationary obstruction, such as a tree, pole or building.
Traffic engineering is a branch of civil engineering that uses engineering techniques to achieve the safe and efficient movement of people and goods on roadways.
A traffic island is a solid or painted object in a road that channels traffic.
Traffic lights, also known as traffic signals, traffic lamps, traffic semaphore, signal lights, stop lights, robots (in South Africa and most of Africa), and traffic control signals (in technical parlance), are signalling devices positioned at road intersections, pedestrian crossings, and other locations to control flows of traffic.
Traffic signs or road signs are signs erected at the side of or above roads to give instructions or provide information to road users.
A trail is usually a path, track or unpaved lane or road.
Transport economics is a branch of economics founded in 1959 by American economist John R. Meyer that deals with the allocation of resources within the transport sector.
A tunnel is an underground passageway, dug through the surrounding soil/earth/rock and enclosed except for entrance and exit, commonly at each end.
Turnpike trusts were bodies set up by individual acts of Parliament, with powers to collect road tolls for maintaining the principal roads in Britain from the 17th but especially during the 18th and 19th centuries.
Roads have been adapted to a large range of structures and types in order to achieve a common goal of transportation under a large range of conditions.
The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE or ECE) was established in 1947 to encourage economic cooperation among its member States.
The United States Numbered Highway System (often called U.S. Routes or U.S. Highways) is an integrated network of roads and highways numbered within a nationwide grid in the contiguous United States.
Ur (Sumerian: Urim; Sumerian Cuneiform: KI or URIM5KI; Akkadian: Uru; أور; אור) was an important Sumerian city-state in ancient Mesopotamia, located at the site of modern Tell el-Muqayyar (تل المقير) in south Iraq's Dhi Qar Governorate.
An urban planner is a professional who practices in the field of urban planning.
A vehicle (from vehiculum) is a machine that transports people or cargo.
Vehicle Excise Duty (VED) (also known as "vehicle tax", "car tax" or "road tax", and formerly as a "tax disc") is a tax that is levied as an excise duty and which must be paid for most types of vehicles which are to be used (or parked) on public roads in the United Kingdom.
Victoria (abbreviated as Vic) is a state in south-eastern Australia.
The Convention on Road Traffic, commonly known as the Vienna Convention on Road Traffic, is an international treaty designed to facilitate international road traffic and to increase road safety by establishing standard traffic rules among the contracting parties.
Wacker Drive is a major multilevel street in Chicago, Illinois, running along the south side of the main branch and the east side of the south branch of the Chicago River in the Loop.
Walking (also known as ambulation) is one of the main gaits of locomotion among legged animals.
Waste (or wastes) are unwanted or unusable materials.
Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies, usually as a result of human activities.
A water well is an excavation or structure created in the ground by digging, driving, boring, or drilling to access groundwater in underground aquifers.
A watercourse is the channel that a flowing body of water follows.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
A zebra crossing is a type of pedestrian crossing used in many places around the world.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
Zoning is the process of dividing land in a municipality into zones (e.g. residential, industrial) in which certain land uses are permitted or prohibited.
All-weather road, Approach road, Highway construction, Highway maintenance, Joint sealing, Maintaining road, Road building, Road construction, Road machinery, Road maintenance, Road transport policy, Road wear, Roadbed, Roadbuilding, Roads, Roads and Highways, Slab stabilization, Stone chippings, Unsealed road, ⛑.