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Robert Hooke

Index Robert Hooke

Robert Hooke FRS (– 3 March 1703) was an English natural philosopher, architect and polymath. [1]

163 relations: Aberration of light, Aether theories, Alexis Clairaut, All Saints' Church, Freshwater, Allan Chapman (historian), Ammonoidea, Anagram, Anchor escapement, Artery, Ashley Montagu, Atmospheric pressure, Balance spring, Bethlem Royal Hospital, Biology, Bishop of Bath and Wells, Boyle's law, Capillary action, Catenary, Cell (biology), Charles I of England, Charles Lyell, Christ Church, Oxford, Christiaan Huygens, Christopher Wren, Church of St Mary Magdalene, Willen, Cipher, Coil spring, Columbia University, Cymatics, Double star, Dugald Stewart, Edmond Halley, Elasticity (physics), Elizabeth I of England, Encyclopædia Britannica, Ephraim Chambers, Euclid's Elements, Evolution, Extinction, Fellow of the Royal Society, Freshwater, Isle of Wight, Galileo Galilei, Gamma Arietis, Gamma Draconis, Gas laws, Geometry, George Hooper, Giovanni Battista Riccioli, Gravity, Great Fire of London, ..., Great Red Spot, Gregorian telescope, Gresham College, Gresham Professor of Geometry, Gunpowder, Haussmann's renovation of Paris, Henry Oldenburg, History of Buckinghamshire, Hooke (lunar crater), Hooke's atom, Hooke's law, Illuminated manuscript, Institute of Physics, Inverse-square law, Iron ore, Isaac Newton, Isle of Wight, James Bradley, Jan Baptist van Helmont, Johannes Trithemius, John Aubrey, John Dee, John Ray, John Robison (physicist), John Tillotson, John Ward (academic), John Wilkins, Kingdom of England, Leonardo da Vinci, Light, Limner, Linda Hall Library, Lisa Jardine, List of astronomical instrument makers, List of minor planets: 3001–4000, List of new memorials to Robert Hooke 2005 – 2009, London, Longitude, Lunar craters, Mars, Master of Arts (Oxbridge and Dublin), Mechanics, Memory, Micrographia, Microscope, Microscopy, Minute and second of arc, Montagu House, Bloomsbury, Monument to the Great Fire of London, Moon, Natural philosophy, Normal mode, Optical microscope, Oxford, Oxygen, Parallax, Pendulum, Pepys Library, Peter Lely, Petrified wood, Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, Pipe organ, Pleiades, Polymath, Project Gutenberg, Ragley Hall, Ralph Greatorex, Ramsbury Manor, Refraction, Reticle, Richard Busby, Richard Levett, Richard Semon, Richard Waller (d. 1715), Rings of Saturn, Robert Boyle, Robert Gunther, Robert Moray, Royal College of Physicians, Royal Observatory, Greenwich, Royal Society, Royalist, Samuel Pepys, Sash window, Savart wheel, Shadowgraph, Shelley Memorial, St Helen's Church, Bishopsgate, St Paul's Cathedral, Stairs, Steganography, Telescope, Tension (physics), The Guardian, The Protectorate, Thomas Newcomen, Thomas Tompion, Thomas Willis, Time (magazine), Transit (astronomy), Universal joint, University of Cincinnati, University of Oxford, Vein, Wadham College, Oxford, Watchmaker, Wellcome Library, Westminster School, Willen, William Derham, Worshipful Company of Haberdashers, Zacharias Conrad von Uffenbach, 1993 Bishopsgate bombing. Expand index (113 more) »

Aberration of light

The aberration of light (also referred to as astronomical aberration, stellar aberration, or velocity aberration) is an astronomical phenomenon which produces an apparent motion of celestial objects about their true positions, dependent on the velocity of the observer.

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Aether theories

Aether theories (also known as ether theories) in physics propose the existence of a medium, the aether (also spelled ether, from the Greek word (αἰθήρ), meaning "upper air" or "pure, fresh air"" ", American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language.), a space-filling substance or field, thought to be necessary as a transmission medium for the propagation of electromagnetic or gravitational forces.

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Alexis Clairaut

Alexis Claude Clairaut (13 May 1713 – 17 May 1765) was a French mathematician, astronomer, and geophysicist.

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All Saints' Church, Freshwater

All Saints' Church, Freshwater is a parish church in the Church of England located in Freshwater, Isle of Wight.

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Allan Chapman (historian)

Allan Chapman FRAS (born 30 May 1946) is a British historian of science.

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Ammonoids are an extinct group of marine mollusc animals in the subclass Ammonoidea of the class Cephalopoda.

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An anagram is a word or phrase formed by rearranging the letters of a different word or phrase, typically using all the original letters exactly once.

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Anchor escapement

In horology, the anchor escapement is a type of escapement used in pendulum clocks.

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An artery (plural arteries) is a blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart to all parts of the body (tissues, lungs, etc).

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Ashley Montagu

Montague Francis Ashley-Montagu (June 28, 1905November 26, 1999), previously known as Israel Ehrenberg, was a British-American anthropologist who popularized the study of topics such as race and gender and their relation to politics and development.

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Atmospheric pressure

Atmospheric pressure, sometimes also called barometric pressure, is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet).

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Balance spring

A balance spring, or hairspring, is a spring attached to the balance wheel in mechanical timepieces.

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Bethlem Royal Hospital

Bethlem Royal Hospital, also known as St Mary Bethlehem, Bethlehem Hospital and Bedlam, is a psychiatric hospital in London.

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Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.

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Bishop of Bath and Wells

The Bishop of Bath and Wells heads the Church of England Diocese of Bath and Wells in the Province of Canterbury in England.

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Boyle's law

Boyle's law (sometimes referred to as the Boyle–Mariotte law, or Mariotte's law) is an experimental gas law that describes how the pressure of a gas tends to increase as the volume of the container decreases.

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Capillary action

Capillary action (sometimes capillarity, capillary motion, capillary effect, or wicking) is the ability of a liquid to flow in narrow spaces without the assistance of, or even in opposition to, external forces like gravity.

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In physics and geometry, a catenary is the curve that an idealized hanging chain or cable assumes under its own weight when supported only at its ends.

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Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Charles I of England

Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.

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Charles Lyell

Sir Charles Lyell, 1st Baronet, (14 November 1797 – 22 February 1875) was a Scottish geologist who popularised the revolutionary work of James Hutton.

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Christ Church, Oxford

Christ Church (Ædes Christi, the temple or house, ædēs, of Christ, and thus sometimes known as "The House") is a constituent college of the University of Oxford in England.

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Christiaan Huygens

Christiaan Huygens (Hugenius; 14 April 1629 – 8 July 1695) was a Dutch physicist, mathematician, astronomer and inventor, who is widely regarded as one of the greatest scientists of all time and a major figure in the scientific revolution.

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Christopher Wren

Sir Christopher Wren PRS FRS (–) was an English anatomist, astronomer, geometer, and mathematician-physicist, as well as one of the most highly acclaimed English architects in history.

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Church of St Mary Magdalene, Willen

Church of St Mary Magdalene is a parish church in Willen, Milton Keynes, England.

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In cryptography, a cipher (or cypher) is an algorithm for performing encryption or decryption—a series of well-defined steps that can be followed as a procedure.

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Coil spring

A coil spring, also known as a helical spring, is a mechanical device which is typically used to store energy and subsequently release it, to absorb shock, or to maintain a force between contacting surfaces.

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Columbia University

Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.

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Cymatics, from κῦμα, meaning "wave", is a subset of modal vibrational phenomena.

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Double star

In observational astronomy, a double star or visual double is a pair of stars that appear close to each other in the sky as seen from Earth when viewed through an optical telescope.

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Dugald Stewart

Dugald Stewart (22 November 175311 June 1828) was a Scottish philosopher and mathematician.

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Edmond Halley

Edmond (or Edmund) Halley, FRS (–) was an English astronomer, geophysicist, mathematician, meteorologist, and physicist.

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Elasticity (physics)

In physics, elasticity (from Greek ἐλαστός "ductible") is the ability of a body to resist a distorting influence and to return to its original size and shape when that influence or force is removed.

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Elizabeth I of England

Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603.

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Encyclopædia Britannica

The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.

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Ephraim Chambers

Ephraim Chambers (c.1680 – 15 May 1740) was an English writer and encyclopaedist, who is primarily known for producing the Cyclopaedia, or a Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences.

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Euclid's Elements

The Elements (Στοιχεῖα Stoicheia) is a mathematical treatise consisting of 13 books attributed to the ancient Greek mathematician Euclid in Alexandria, Ptolemaic Egypt c. 300 BC.

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Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.

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In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.

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Fellow of the Royal Society

Fellowship of the Royal Society (FRS, ForMemRS and HonFRS) is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society judges to have made a "substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowledge, including mathematics, engineering science and medical science".

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Freshwater, Isle of Wight

Freshwater is a large village and civil parish at the western end of the Isle of Wight, England.

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Galileo Galilei

Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564Drake (1978, p. 1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath.

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Gamma Arietis

Gamma Arietis (γ Arietis, abbreviated Gamma Ari, γ Ari) is a binary star in the northern constellation of Aries.

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Gamma Draconis

Gamma Draconis (γ Draconis, abbreviated Gamma Dra, γ Dra), also named Eltanin, is a star in the northern constellation of Draco.

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Gas laws

The gas laws were developed at the end of the 18th century, when scientists began to realize that relationships between pressure, volume and temperature of a sample of gas could be obtained which would hold to approximation for all gases.

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Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.

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George Hooper

George Hooper (18 November 1640 – 6 September 1727) was a learned and influential English High church cleric of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries.

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Giovanni Battista Riccioli

Giovanni Battista Riccioli (17 April 1598 – 25 June 1671) was an Italian astronomer and a Catholic priest in the Jesuit order.

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Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.

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Great Fire of London

The Great Fire of London was a major conflagration that swept through the central parts of the English city of London from Sunday, 2 September to Thursday, 6 of September 1666.

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Great Red Spot

The Great Red Spot is a persistent high-pressure region in the atmosphere of Jupiter, producing an anticyclonic storm 22° south of the planet's equator.

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Gregorian telescope

The Gregorian telescope is a type of reflecting telescope designed by Scottish mathematician and astronomer James Gregory in the 17th century, and first built in 1673 by Robert Hooke.

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Gresham College

Gresham College is an institution of higher learning located at Barnard's Inn Hall off Holborn in Central London, England.

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Gresham Professor of Geometry

The Professor of Geometry at Gresham College, London, gives free educational lectures to the general public.

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Gunpowder, also known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive.

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Haussmann's renovation of Paris

Haussmann's renovation of Paris was a vast public works program commissioned by Emperor Napoléon III and directed by his prefect of the Seine, Georges-Eugène Haussmann, between 1853 and 1870.

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Henry Oldenburg

Henry Oldenburg (also Henry Oldenbourg) FRS (c. 1619 as Heinrich Oldenburg – 5 September 1677) was a German theologian known as a diplomat, a natural philosopher and as the creator of scientific peer review.

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History of Buckinghamshire

Although the name Buckinghamshire is Anglo Saxon in origin meaning The district (scire) of Bucca's home (referring to Buckingham in the north of the county) the name has only been recorded since about the 12th century.

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Hooke (lunar crater)

Hooke is a lunar impact crater that is located to the northwest of the crater Messala, in the northeastern part of the Moon.

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Hooke's atom

Hooke's atom, also known as harmonium or hookium, refers to an artificial helium-like atom where the Coulombic electron-nucleus interaction potential is replaced by a harmonic potential.

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Hooke's law

Hooke's law is a principle of physics that states that the force needed to extend or compress a spring by some distance scales linearly with respect to that distance.

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Illuminated manuscript

An illuminated manuscript is a manuscript in which the text is supplemented with such decoration as initials, borders (marginalia) and miniature illustrations.

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Institute of Physics

The Institute of Physics (IOP) is a scientific charity that works to advance physics education, research and application.

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Inverse-square law

The inverse-square law, in physics, is any physical law stating that a specified physical quantity or intensity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source of that physical quantity.

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Iron ore

Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted.

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Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.

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Isle of Wight

The Isle of Wight (also referred to informally as The Island or abbreviated to IOW) is a county and the largest and second-most populous island in England.

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James Bradley

James Bradley FRS (March 1693 – 13 July 1762) was an English astronomer and priest and served as Astronomer Royal from 1742, succeeding Edmond Halley.

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Jan Baptist van Helmont

Jan Baptist van Helmont (12 January 1580 – 30 December 1644) was a Flemish chemist, physiologist, and physician.

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Johannes Trithemius

Johannes Trithemius (1 February 1462 – 13 December 1516), born Johann Heidenberg, was a German Benedictine abbot and a polymath who was active in the German Renaissance as a lexicographer, chronicler, cryptographer, and occultist.

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John Aubrey

John Aubrey (12 March 1626 – 7 June 1697) was an English antiquary, natural philosopher and writer.

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John Dee

John Dee (13 July 1527 – 1608 or 1609) was an English mathematician, astronomer, astrologer, occult philosopher, and advisor to Queen Elizabeth I. He devoted much of his life to the study of alchemy, divination, and Hermetic philosophy.

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John Ray

John Ray FRS (29 November 1627 – 17 January 1705) was an English naturalist widely regarded as one of the earliest of the English parson-naturalists.

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John Robison (physicist)

John Robison FRSE LLD (4 February 1739 – 30 January 1805) was a Scottish physicist and mathematician.

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John Tillotson

John Tillotson (October 1630 – 22 November 1694) was the Anglican Archbishop of Canterbury from 1691 to 1694.

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John Ward (academic)

John Ward (1679?–1758) was an English teacher, supporter of learned societies, and biographer, remembered for his work on the Gresham College professors, of which he was one.

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John Wilkins

John Wilkins, (16141672) was an Anglican clergyman, natural philosopher and author, and was one of the founders of the Royal Society.

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Kingdom of England

The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.

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Leonardo da Vinci

Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519), more commonly Leonardo da Vinci or simply Leonardo, was an Italian polymath of the Renaissance, whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography.

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Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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A limner is an illuminator of manuscripts, or more generally, a painter of ornamental decoration.

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Linda Hall Library

The Linda Hall Library is a privately endowed American library of science, engineering and technology located in Kansas City, Missouri, sitting "majestically on a urban arboretum." It is the "largest independently funded public library of science, engineering and technology in North America" and "among the largest science libraries in the world.".

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Lisa Jardine

Lisa Anne Jardine (née Bronowski; 12 April 1944 – 25 October 2015) was a British historian of the early modern period.

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List of astronomical instrument makers

The following is a list of astronomical instrument makers, along with lifespan and country of work, if available.

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List of minor planets: 3001–4000

#d6d6d6 | 3089 Oujianquan || || December 3, 1981 || Nanking || Purple Mountain Obs.

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List of new memorials to Robert Hooke 2005 – 2009

Robert Hooke, a major figure of 17th century England, died essentially unmemorialized.

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London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Longitude, is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface.

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Lunar craters

Lunar craters are impact craters on Earth's Moon.

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Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.

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Master of Arts (Oxbridge and Dublin)

In the universities of Oxford, Cambridge, and Dublin, Bachelors of Arts with Honours of these universities are promoted to the title of Master of Arts or Master in Arts (MA) on application after six or seven years' seniority as members of the university (including years as an undergraduate).

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Mechanics (Greek μηχανική) is that area of science concerned with the behaviour of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effects of the bodies on their environment.

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Memory is the faculty of the mind by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.

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Micrographia: or Some Phyſiological Deſcriptions of Minute Bodies Made by Magnifying Glasses.

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A microscope (from the μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye.

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Microscopy is the technical field of using microscopes to view objects and areas of objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye (objects that are not within the resolution range of the normal eye).

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Minute and second of arc

A minute of arc, arcminute (arcmin), arc minute, or minute arc is a unit of angular measurement equal to of one degree.

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Montagu House, Bloomsbury

Montagu House (sometimes spelled "Montague") was a late 17th-century mansion in Great Russell Street in the Bloomsbury district of London, which became the first home of the British Museum.

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Monument to the Great Fire of London

The Monument to the Great Fire of London, more commonly known simply as the Monument, is a Doric column in the City of London, near the northern end of London Bridge, that commemorates the Great Fire of London.

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The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.

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Natural philosophy

Natural philosophy or philosophy of nature (from Latin philosophia naturalis) was the philosophical study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science.

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Normal mode

A normal mode of an oscillating system is a pattern of motion in which all parts of the system move sinusoidally with the same frequency and with a fixed phase relation.

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Optical microscope

The optical microscope, often referred to as the light microscope, is a type of microscope that uses visible light and a system of lenses to magnify images of small subjects.

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Oxford is a city in the South East region of England and the county town of Oxfordshire.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Parallax is a displacement or difference in the apparent position of an object viewed along two different lines of sight, and is measured by the angle or semi-angle of inclination between those two lines.

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A pendulum is a weight suspended from a pivot so that it can swing freely.

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Pepys Library

The Pepys Library of Magdalene College, Cambridge, is the personal library collected by Samuel Pepys which he bequeathed to the college following his death in 1703.

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Peter Lely

Sir Peter Lely (14 September 1618 – 30 November 1680) was a painter of Dutch origin whose career was nearly all spent in England, where he became the dominant portrait painter to the court.

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Petrified wood

Petrified wood (from the Greek root petro meaning "rock" or "stone"; literally "wood turned into stone") is the name given to a special type of fossilized remains of terrestrial vegetation.

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Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica

Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Latin for Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), often referred to as simply the Principia, is a work in three books by Isaac Newton, in Latin, first published 5 July 1687.

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Pipe organ

The pipe organ is a musical instrument that produces sound by driving pressurized air (called wind) through organ pipes selected via a keyboard.

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The Pleiades (also known as the Seven Sisters and Messier 45), are an open star cluster containing middle-aged, hot B-type stars located in the constellation of Taurus.

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A polymath (πολυμαθής,, "having learned much,"The term was first recorded in written English in the early seventeenth century Latin: uomo universalis, "universal man") is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas—such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems.

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Project Gutenberg

Project Gutenberg (PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize and archive cultural works, to "encourage the creation and distribution of eBooks".

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Ragley Hall

Ragley Hall is a stately home, located south of Alcester, Warwickshire, eight miles (13 km) west of Stratford-upon-Avon.

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Ralph Greatorex

Ralph Greatorex (c.1625–1675),Sarah Bendall, 'Greatorex, Ralph (c.1625–1675)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, Jan 2008 was a mathematical instrument maker.

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Ramsbury Manor

Ramsbury Manor is a country house at Ramsbury, Wiltshire, on the River Kennet between Hungerford and Marlborough, in the south of England.

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Refraction is the change in direction of wave propagation due to a change in its transmission medium.

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A reticle, or reticule, also known as a graticule, is a pattern of fine lines or markings built into the eyepiece of a sighting device, such as a telescopic sight in a telescope, a microscope, or the screen of an oscilloscope, to provide references during visual examination.

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Richard Busby


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Richard Levett

Sir Richard Levett (also spelled Richard Levet) (died 1711), Sheriff, Alderman and Lord Mayor of London, was one of the first directors of the Bank of England, an adventurer with the London East India Company and the proprietor of the trading firm Sir Richard Levett & Company.

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Richard Semon

Richard Wolfgang Semon (22 August 1859, Berlin – 27 December 1918, Munich) was a German zoologist and evolutionary biologist, a memory researcher who believed in the inheritance of acquired characters and applied this to social evolution.

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Richard Waller (d. 1715)

Richard Waller FRS (d. 1715) was an English naturalist, translator and illustrator, long-time member and secretary of the Royal Society.

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Rings of Saturn

The rings of Saturn are the most extensive ring system of any planet in the Solar System.

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Robert Boyle

Robert Boyle (25 January 1627 – 31 December 1691) was an Anglo-Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, and inventor.

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Robert Gunther

Robert William Theodore Gunther (23 August 1869 – 9 March 1940) was a historian of science, zoologist, and founder of the Museum of the History of Science, Oxford.

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Robert Moray

Sir Robert Moray (alternative spellings: Murrey, Murray) FRS (1608 or 1609 – 4 July 1673) was a Scottish soldier, statesman, diplomat, judge, spy, freemason and natural philosopher.

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Royal College of Physicians

The Royal College of Physicians is a British professional body dedicated to improving the practice of medicine, chiefly through the accreditation of physicians by examination.

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Royal Observatory, Greenwich

The Royal Observatory, Greenwich (ROG; known as the Old Royal Observatory from 1957 to 1998, when the working Royal Greenwich Observatory, RGO, moved from Greenwich to Herstmonceux) is an observatory situated on a hill in Greenwich Park, overlooking the River Thames.

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Royal Society

The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.

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A royalist supports a particular monarch as head of state for a particular kingdom, or of a particular dynastic claim.

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Samuel Pepys

Samuel Pepys (23 February 1633 – 26 May 1703) was an administrator of the navy of England and Member of Parliament who is most famous for the diary he kept for a decade while still a relatively young man.

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Sash window

A sash window or hung sash window is made of one or more movable panels, or "sashes", that form a frame to hold panes of glass, which are often separated from other panes (or "lights") by glazing bars, also known as muntins in the US (moulded strips of wood).

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Savart wheel

The Savart wheel is an acoustical device named after the French physicist Félix Savart (1791–1841), which was originally conceived and developed by the English scientist Robert Hooke (1635–1703).

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Shadowgraph is an optical method that reveals non-uniformities in transparent media like air, water, or glass.

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Shelley Memorial

The Shelley Memorial is a memorial to the English poet Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792–1822) at University College, Oxford, England, the college that he briefly attended and from which he was expelled for writing a pamphlet on The Necessity of Atheism.

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St Helen's Church, Bishopsgate

St Helen's Bishopsgate is a large conservative evangelical Anglican church located off Bishopsgate in London.

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St Paul's Cathedral

St Paul's Cathedral, London, is an Anglican cathedral, the seat of the Bishop of London and the mother church of the Diocese of London.

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A stairway, staircase, stairwell, flight of stairs, or simply stairs is a construction designed to bridge a large vertical distance by dividing it into smaller vertical distances, called steps.

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Steganography is the practice of concealing a file, message, image, or video within another file, message, image, or video.

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A telescope is an optical instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light).

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Tension (physics)

In physics, tension may be described as the pulling force transmitted axially by the means of a string, cable, chain, or similar one-dimensional continuous object, or by each end of a rod, truss member, or similar three-dimensional object; tension might also be described as the action-reaction pair of forces acting at each end of said elements.

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

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The Protectorate

The Protectorate was the period during the Commonwealth (or, to monarchists, the Interregnum) when England and Wales, Ireland and Scotland were governed by a Lord Protector as a republic.

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Thomas Newcomen

Thomas Newcomen (February 1664 – 5 August 1729) was an English inventor who created the first practical steam engine in 1712, the Newcomen atmospheric engine.

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Thomas Tompion

Thomas Tompion (1639–1713) was an English clockmaker, watchmaker and mechanician who is still regarded to this day as the Father of English Clockmaking.

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Thomas Willis

Thomas Willis (27 January 1621 – 11 November 1675) was an English doctor who played an important part in the history of anatomy, neurology and psychiatry.

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Time (magazine)

Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.

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Transit (astronomy)

In astronomy, a transit or astronomical transit is the phenomenon of at least one celestial body appearing to move across the face of another celestial body, hiding a small part of it, as seen by an observer at some particular vantage point.

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Universal joint

A universal joint (universal coupling, U-joint, Cardan joint, Spicer or Hardy Spicer joint, or Hooke's joint) is a joint or coupling connecting rigid rods whose axes are inclined to each other, and is commonly used in shafts that transmit rotary motion.

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University of Cincinnati

The University of Cincinnati (commonly referred to as UC or Cincinnati) is a comprehensive public research university in Cincinnati, in the U.S. state of Ohio, and a part of the University System of Ohio.

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University of Oxford

The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.

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Veins are blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart.

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Wadham College, Oxford

Wadham College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom.

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A watchmaker is an artisan who makes and repairs watches.

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Wellcome Library

The Wellcome Library is founded on the collection formed by Sir Henry Wellcome (1853–1936), whose personal wealth allowed him to create one of the most ambitious collections of the 20th century.

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Westminster School

Westminster School is an independent day and boarding school in London, England, located within the precincts of Westminster Abbey.

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Willen is a district of Milton Keynes, England and is also one of the ancient villages of Buckinghamshire to have been included in the designated area of the New City in 1967.

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William Derham

William Derham FRS (26 November 1657 – 5 April 1735)Smolenaars, Marja.

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Worshipful Company of Haberdashers

The Worshipful Company of Haberdashers, one of the Great Twelve City Livery Companies, is an ancient merchant guild of London, England associated with the silk and velvet trades.

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Zacharias Conrad von Uffenbach

Zacharias Conrad von Uffenbach (22 February 1683 – 6 January 1734) was a German scholar, bibliophile, book-collector, traveller, palaeographer, and consul in Frankfurt am Main who is best known today for his published travelogues.

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1993 Bishopsgate bombing

The Bishopsgate bombing occurred on 24 April 1993, when the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) detonated a powerful truck bomb on Bishopsgate, a major thoroughfare in London's financial district, the City of London.

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Hooke, Robert.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Hooke

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