59 relations: Algorithm, Astrobotic Technology, Autonomous robot, Cargo spacecraft, Cassini–Huygens, Catalysis, Communications satellite, Electron, Explorer 1, Flight dynamics (spacecraft), Geosynchronous orbit, Geosynchronous satellite, Human spaceflight, Ion, Iran, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Jupiter, Laika, Lander (spacecraft), Launch vehicle, Mars Exploration Rover, Micrometeoroid, Mission Extension Vehicle, Neptune, New Zealand, Newton's laws of motion, North Korea, Oxidizing agent, Payload, Photovoltaics, Propellant depot, Propulsion, Pyrotechnics, Radioisotope thermoelectric generator, Reaction control system, Rocket, Rover (space exploration), Satellite, Satellite bus, Saturn, Soviet space dogs, Soviet Union, Space exploration, Space Infrastructure Servicing, Space probe, Space Race, Space telescope, Spacecraft, Sputnik 1, Sputnik 2, ..., Sub-orbital spaceflight, Telemetry, Telerobotics, Timeline of Solar System exploration, United States Air Force, Unmanned spacecraft, Uranus, Vanguard 1, Venus. Expand index (9 more) » « Shrink index
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.
Astrobotic Technology is an American privately held company that is developing space robotics technology for planetary missions.
An autonomous robot is a robot that performs behaviors or tasks with a high degree of autonomy.
Cargo spacecraft are robotic spacecraft that are designed to support space stations operation by transporting food, propellant and other supplies.
The Cassini–Huygens mission, commonly called Cassini, was a collaboration between NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Italian Space Agency (ASI) to send a probe to study the planet Saturn and its system, including its rings and natural satellites.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
A communications satellite is an artificial satellite that relays and amplifies radio telecommunications signals via a transponder; it creates a communication channel between a source transmitter and a receiver at different locations on Earth.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
Explorer 1 was the first satellite of the United States, launched as part of its participation in the International Geophysical Year.
Spacecraft flight dynamics is the science of space vehicle performance, stability, and control.
A geosynchronous orbit (sometimes abbreviated GSO) is an orbit around Earth of a satellite with an orbital period that matches Earth's rotation on its axis, which takes one sidereal day (23 hours, 56 minutes, and 4 seconds).
A geosynchronous satellite is a satellite in geosynchronous orbit, with an orbital period the same as the Earth's rotation period.
Human spaceflight (also referred to as crewed spaceflight or manned spaceflight) is space travel with a crew or passengers aboard the spacecraft.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is a federally funded research and development center and NASA field center in Pasadena, California, United States, with large portions of the campus in La Cañada Flintridge, California.
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.
Laika (Лайка; c. 1954 – 3 November 1957) was a Soviet space dog who became one of the first animals in space, and the first animal to orbit the Earth.
A lander is a spacecraft which descends toward and comes to rest on the surface of an astronomical body.
A launch vehicle or carrier rocket is a rocket used to carry a payload from Earth's surface through outer space, either to another surface point (suborbital), or into space (Earth orbit or beyond).
NASA's Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission is an ongoing robotic space mission involving two Mars rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, exploring the planet Mars.
A micrometeoroid is a tiny meteoroid; a small particle of rock in space, usually weighing less than a gram.
The Mission Extension Vehicle (MEV) is a spacecraft concept proposed by ViviSat, a 50/50 joint venture of aerospace firms U.S. Space and ATK, to operate as a small-scale in-space satellite-refueling spacecraft.
Neptune is the eighth and farthest known planet from the Sun in the Solar System.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that, together, laid the foundation for classical mechanics.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
In chemistry, an oxidizing agent (oxidant, oxidizer) is a substance that has the ability to oxidize other substances — in other words to cause them to lose electrons.
Payload is the carrying capacity of an aircraft or launch vehicle, usually measured in terms of weight.
Photovoltaics (PV) is a term which covers the conversion of light into electricity using semiconducting materials that exhibit the photovoltaic effect, a phenomenon studied in physics, photochemistry, and electrochemistry.
An orbital propellant depot is a cache of propellant that is placed in orbit around Earth or another body to allow spacecraft or the transfer stage of the spacecraft to be fueled in space.
Propulsion means to push forward or drive an object forward.
Pyrotechnics is the science of using materials capable of undergoing self-contained and self-sustained exothermic chemical reactions for the production of heat, light, gas, smoke and/or sound.
A Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG, RITEG) is an electrical generator that uses an array of thermocouples to convert the heat released by the decay of a suitable radioactive material into electricity by the Seebeck effect.
A reaction control system (RCS) is a spacecraft system that uses thrusters to provide attitude control, and sometimes translation.
A rocket (from Italian rocchetto "bobbin") is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.
A rover (or sometimes planetary rover) is a space exploration vehicle designed to move across the surface of a planet or other celestial body.
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.
A satellite bus or spacecraft bus is a general model on which multiple-production satellite spacecraft are often based.
Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter.
During the 1950s and 1960s the USSR used dogs for sub-orbital and orbital space flights to determine whether human spaceflight was feasible.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Space exploration is the discovery and exploration of celestial structures in outer space by means of evolving and growing space technology.
Space Infrastructure Servicing (SIS) is a spacecraft being developed by Canadian aerospace firm MacDonald, Dettwiler and Associates to operate as a small-scale in-space refueling depot for communication satellites in geosynchronous orbit.
A space probe is a robotic spacecraft that does not orbit the Earth, but, instead, explores further into outer space.
The Space Race refers to the 20th-century competition between two Cold War rivals, the Soviet Union (USSR) and the United States (US), for dominance in spaceflight capability.
A space telescope or space observatory is an instrument located in outer space to observe distant planets, galaxies and other astronomical objects.
A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space.
Sputnik 1 (or; "Satellite-1", or "PS-1", Простейший Спутник-1 or Prosteyshiy Sputnik-1, "Elementary Satellite 1") was the first artificial Earth satellite.
Sputnik 2 (Спутник-2, Satellite 2), or Prosteyshiy Sputnik 2 (PS-2, italic, Elementary Satellite 2) was the second spacecraft launched into Earth orbit, on 3 November 1957, and the first to carry a living animal, a Soviet space dog named Laika, who died a few hours after the launch.
A sub-orbital spaceflight is a spaceflight in which the spacecraft reaches space, but its trajectory intersects the atmosphere or surface of the gravitating body from which it was launched, so that it will not complete one orbital revolution.
Telemetry is an automated communications process by which measurements and other data are collected at remote or inaccessible points and transmitted to receiving equipment for monitoring.
Telerobotics is the area of robotics concerned with the control of semi-autonomous robots from a distance, chiefly using Wireless network (like Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, the Deep Space Network, and similar) or tethered connections.
This is a timeline of Solar System exploration ordered by date of spacecraft launch.
The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
Unmanned spacecraft are spacecraft without people ("man") on board, used for unmanned spaceflight.
Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun.
Vanguard 1 (ID: 1958-Beta 2) was the fourth artificial Earth orbital satellite to be successfully launched (following Sputnik 1, Sputnik 2, and Explorer 1).
Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.
Non-human spaceflight, Robotic exploration, Robotic space exploration, Robotic space mission, Robotic spaceflight, Space robotics, Uncrewed space mission, Unmanned robotic space probes, Unmanned space mission, Unmanned space missions.