258 relations: Acceleration, Aerodynamics, Aerospace engineering, Aerotech Consumer Aerospace, Airbreathing jet engine, Aircraft, Alexander Dmitrievich Zasyadko, Ammonium perchlorate composite propellant, Amsterdam, Angle of attack, Anti-ballistic missile, Apollo 11, Apollo program, Astronomical object, Attitude control, Automotive navigation system, Bachem Ba 349, Ballistic coefficient, Ballistics, Balloon rocket, Bell X-1, Bellifortis, Bernoulli's principle, Breeches buoy, Buckling, Casimir Siemienowicz, Catalysis, Centrifugal force, Chemical reaction, China, Chronology of Pakistan's rocket tests, Cold gas thruster, Cold War, Combustion, Combustion chamber, Congreve rocket, Conrad Haas, Conservation of energy, Corpulent Stump, Cosmic ray, De Laval nozzle, Delta-v, Drag (physics), Drag equation, Drag racing, Dry weight, Edward Mounier Boxer, Ejection seat, Empennage, Emperor Lizong, ..., Encyclopedia Astronautica, Equivalence principle, Escape velocity, Exhaust gas, Factor of safety, Fin, Fire arrow, Fireworks, Fluid, Force, Fort McHenry, Francis Scott Key, Fuel, G-force, Gasoline, Gimbal, Gimbaled thrust, Gravitational acceleration, Gravity, Gravity drag, Gravity turn, Guidance system, Gunpowder, Gyroscope, Heat engine, Hermann Oberth, High-power rocketry, Hobby shop, Human spaceflight, Huolongjing, Hybrid-propellant rocket, Hydrazine, Hydrogen peroxide, Hypergolic propellant, Hypersonic speed, Incendiary device, India, Inertial navigation system, Intercontinental ballistic missile, Internal combustion engine, Italian language, JATO, Jet (fluid), Jet engine, Jet pack, Jiao Yu, Katyusha rocket launcher, Kerosene, Kinetic energy, Kingdom of Mysore, Konrad Kyeser, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, Landing, Launch escape system, Launch pad, Launch vehicle, Leonhard Fronsperger, Lift (force), Light, Liquid fuel, Liquid hydrogen, Liquid oxygen, Liquid-propellant rocket, List of German guided weapons of World War II, List of rocket launch sites, Lists of rockets, Low Earth orbit, Magnetism, Mass ratio, Max Q, Messerschmitt Me 163 Komet, Methane, Military, Missile, Model rocket, Momentum, Mongol invasions and conquests, Monocoque, Monopropellant, Moon landing, Multistage rocket, Mysorean rockets, N1 (rocket), Napoleonic Wars, NASA, National Association of Rocketry, Newton's laws of motion, Nitric acid, Nitrous oxide, NK-33, Non-rocket spacelaunch, North American X-15, Nose cone, Nozzle, Nuclear thermal rocket, Opel-RAK, Operation Paperclip, Orbit, Orbital mechanics, Orbital spaceflight, Oxidizing agent, Parabola, Parachute, Pendulum rocket fallacy, Ping-Pong (rocket), Potential energy, Project Gemini, Project Mercury, Propellant, Propellant tank, Propulsive efficiency, Proton (rocket family), Pulsed rocket motor, Reaction (physics), Reaction control system, Reaction engine, Reaction wheel, Reconnaissance, Rescue, Retrorocket, Reusable launch system, Richard Feynman, Robert H. Goddard, Rocket (weapon), Rocket artillery, Rocket car, Rocket engine, Rocket engine nozzle, Rocket Festival, Rocket garden, Rocket launch, Rocket mail, Rocket propellant, Rocket sled, Rocket-powered aircraft, Rocket-propelled grenade, Rogers Commission Report, Salvo, Salyut 7, Satellite, Satellite navigation, Saturn V, Sergei Korolev, Service structure, Shock wave, Siege, Singijeon, Single-stage-to-orbit, Sir William Congreve, 2nd Baronet, Skyrocket, Solar thermal rocket, Solid-propellant rocket, Sound barrier, Sound intensity, Sounding rocket, Soviet space program, Soyuz (rocket family), Soyuz (rocket), Soyuz 7K-ST No. 16L, Space Age, Space exploration, Space launch market competition, Space probe, Space Shuttle, Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, Space Shuttle external tank, Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster, Space station, Spacecraft, Spacecraft propulsion, Specific impulse, Specific orbital energy, Spin-stabilisation, Steam rocket, Stress (mechanics), Supercavitation, Supersonic speed, Surface-to-air missile, Takeoff, Telemetry, The Space Review, Thrust, Thrust vectoring, Thrust-to-weight ratio, Timeline of rocket and missile technology, Timeline of spaceflight, Tipu Sultan, Tripoli Rocketry Association, Tripropellant rocket, Tsiolkovsky rocket equation, Turbofan, Turbopump, United Kingdom, V-2 rocket, VA-111 Shkval, Variable-mass system, Vehicle, Velocity, Vernier thruster, Vostok (rocket family), VTVL, Warhead, Water rocket, Weapon, Wernher von Braun, William Congreve, William Hale (British inventor), William Moore (British mathematician). Expand index (208 more) » « Shrink index
In physics, acceleration is the rate of change of velocity of an object with respect to time.
Aerodynamics, from Greek ἀήρ aer (air) + δυναμική (dynamics), is the study of the motion of air, particularly its interaction with a solid object, such as an airplane wing.
Aerospace engineering is the primary field of engineering concerned with the development of aircraft and spacecraft.
Aerotech Consumer Aerospace, established in 1982, is a company that supplies motors, kits and components for mid and high power rocketry.
An airbreathing jet engine (or ducted jet engine) is a jet engine propelled by a jet of hot exhaust gases formed from heated and expanded air that is drawn into the engine via a compressor, typically a centrifugal or axial type.
An aircraft is a machine that is able to fly by gaining support from the air.
Oleksandr Dmytrovych or Alexander Dmitrievich Zasyadko (Засядко, Александр Дмитриевич; Засядько, Олександр Дмитрович) (1779 &ndash), was a Russian/Ukrainian gunner and specialist in rocketry, Lieutenant General (1829).
Ammonium perchlorate composite propellant (APCP) is a modern solid-fuel rocket used in rocket vehicles.
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.
In fluid dynamics, angle of attack (AOA, or \alpha (Greek letter alpha)) is the angle between a reference line on a body (often the chord line of an airfoil) and the vector representing the relative motion between the body and the fluid through which it is moving.
An anti-ballistic missile (ABM) is a surface-to-air missile designed to counter ballistic missiles (see missile defense).
Apollo 11 was the spaceflight that landed the first two humans on the Moon.
The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished landing the first humans on the Moon from 1969 to 1972.
An astronomical object or celestial object is a naturally occurring physical entity, association, or structure that exists in the observable universe.
Attitude control is controlling the orientation of an object with respect to an inertial frame of reference or another entity like the celestial sphere, certain fields, and nearby objects, etc.
An automotive navigation system is part of the automobile controls or a third party add-on used to find direction in an automobile.
The Bachem Ba 349 Natter (Colubrid, grass-snake) was a World War II German point-defence rocket-powered interceptor, which was to be used in a very similar way to a manned surface-to-air missile.
In ballistics, the ballistic coefficient (BC) of a body is a measure of its ability to overcome air resistance in flight.
Ballistics is the field of mechanics that deals with the launching, flight, behavior, and effects of projectiles, especially bullets, unguided bombs, rockets, or the like; the science or art of designing and accelerating projectiles so as to achieve a desired performance.
A balloon rocket is a rubber balloon filled with air or other gases.
The Bell X-1 was a rocket engine–powered aircraft, designated originally as the XS-1, and was a joint National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics–U.S. Army Air Forces–U.S. Air Force supersonic research project built by Bell Aircraft.
Bellifortis ("Strong in War", "War Fortifications") is the first fully illustrated manual of military technology, dating from the start of the 15th century.
In fluid dynamics, Bernoulli's principle states that an increase in the speed of a fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure or a decrease in the fluid's potential energy.
A breeches buoy is a crude rope-based rescue device used to extract people from wrecked vessels, or to transfer people from one location to another in situations of danger.
In science, buckling is a mathematical instability that leads to a failure mode.
Kazimierz Siemienowicz (Casimirus Siemienowicz, Kazimieras Simonavičius, Kazimierz Siemienowicz, born 1600 – 1651), was a Polish–Lithuanian general of artillery, gunsmith, military engineer, and pioneer of rocketry.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
In Newtonian mechanics, the centrifugal force is an inertial force (also called a "fictitious" or "pseudo" force) directed away from the axis of rotation that appears to act on all objects when viewed in a rotating frame of reference.
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The Suparco's spaceflight missions and tests were the sounding rocket launches of the Space Research Commission (SUPARCO) that was aimed for developing high-altitude rockets and space booster for the development of the country's space programme.
A cold gas thruster is a propulsive device that uses pressurized inert gas as the reaction mass.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.
A combustion chamber is that part of an internal combustion engine (ICE) in which the fuel/air mix is burned.
The Congreve rocket was a British military weapon designed and developed by Sir William Congreve in 1804, based directly on Mysorean rockets.
Conrad Haas (1509–1576) was an Austrian or Transylvanian Saxon military engineer for the Kingdom of Hungary and Principality of Transilvania.
In physics, the law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system remains constant, it is said to be ''conserved'' over time.
Corpulent Stump is a rocket designed and built by Richard Brown at Rocket Store and is the most powerful non commercial rocket ever launched on an Aerotech engine in the United Kingdom.
Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies.
A de Laval nozzle (or convergent-divergent nozzle, CD nozzle or con-di nozzle) is a tube that is pinched in the middle, making a carefully balanced, asymmetric hourglass shape.
Delta-v (literally "change in velocity"), symbolised as ∆v and pronounced delta-vee, as used in spacecraft flight dynamics, is a measure of the impulse that is needed to perform a maneuver such as launch from, or landing on a planet or moon, or in-space orbital maneuver.
In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) is a force acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid.
In fluid dynamics, the drag equation is a formula used to calculate the force of drag experienced by an object due to movement through a fully enclosing fluid.
For the drag queen reality competition program, see RuPaul's Drag Race. Drag racing is a type of motor racing in which automobiles or motorcycles (usually specially prepared for the purpose) compete, usually two at a time, to be first to cross a set finish line.
Dry weight is the weight of a vehicle without any consumables, passengers, or cargo.
Edward Mounier Boxer (1822-1898) was an English inventor.
In aircraft, an ejection seat or ejector seat is a system designed to rescue the pilot or other crew of an aircraft (usually military) in an emergency.
The empennage, also known as the tail or tail assembly, is a structure at the rear of an aircraft that provides stability during flight, in a way similar to the feathers on an arrow.
Emperor Lizong of Song (26 January 1205 – 16 November 1264), personal name Zhao Yun, was the 14th emperor of the Song dynasty in China and the fifth emperor of the Southern Song dynasty.
The Encyclopedia Astronautica is a reference web site on space travel.
In the theory of general relativity, the equivalence principle is any of several related concepts dealing with the equivalence of gravitational and inertial mass, and to Albert Einstein's observation that the gravitational "force" as experienced locally while standing on a massive body (such as the Earth) is the same as the pseudo-force experienced by an observer in a non-inertial (accelerated) frame of reference.
In physics, escape velocity is the minimum speed needed for an object to escape from the gravitational influence of a massive body.
Exhaust gas or flue gas is emitted as a result of the combustion of fuels such as natural gas, gasoline, petrol, biodiesel blends, diesel fuel, fuel oil, or coal.
Factors of safety (FoS), is also known as (and used interchangeably with) safety factor (SF), is a term describing the load carrying capacity of a system beyond the expected or actual loads.
A fin is a thin component or appendage attached to a larger body or structure.
Fire arrows were one of the earliest forms of weaponized gunpowder.
Fireworks are a class of low explosive pyrotechnic devices used for aesthetic and entertainment purposes.
In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress.
In physics, a force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object.
Fort McHenry is a historical American coastal pentagonal bastion fort located in the Locust Point neighborhood of Baltimore, Maryland.
Francis Scott Key (August 1, 1779January 11, 1843) was an American lawyer, author, and amateur poet from Frederick, Maryland who is best known for writing a poem which later became the lyrics for the United States' national anthem, "The Star-Spangled Banner".
A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases energy as heat energy or to be used for work.
The gravitational force, or more commonly, g-force, is a measurement of the type of acceleration that causes a perception of weight.
Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.
A gimbal is a pivoted support that allows the rotation of an object about a single axis.
Gimbaled thrust is the system of thrust vectoring used in most rockets, including the Space Shuttle, the Saturn V lunar rockets, and the Falcon 9.
In physics, gravitational acceleration is the acceleration on an object caused by the force of gravitation.
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.
In astrodynamics and rocketry, gravity drag (or gravity losses) is a measure of the loss in the net performance of a rocket while it is thrusting in a gravitational field.
A gravity turn or zero-lift turn is a maneuver used in launching a spacecraft into, or descending from, an orbit around a celestial body such as a planet or a moon.
A guidance system is a virtual or physical device, or a group of devices implementing a guidance process used for controlling the movement of a ship, aircraft, missile, rocket, satellite, or any other moving object.
Gunpowder, also known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive.
A gyroscope (from Ancient Greek γῦρος gûros, "circle" and σκοπέω skopéō, "to look") is a device used for measuring or maintaining orientation and angular velocity.
In thermodynamics, a heat engine is a system that converts heat or thermal energy—and chemical energy—to mechanical energy, which can then be used to do mechanical work.
Hermann Julius Oberth (25 June 1894 – 28 December 1989) was an Austro-Hungarian-born German physicist and engineer.
High-power rocketry is a hobby similar to model rocketry.
A hobby shop (or hobby store) sells recreational items for hobbyists.
Human spaceflight (also referred to as crewed spaceflight or manned spaceflight) is space travel with a crew or passengers aboard the spacecraft.
The Huolongjing (Wade-Giles: Huo Lung Ching; rendered in English as Fire Drake Manual or Fire Dragon Manual), also known as Huoqitu (“Firearm Illustrations”), is a 14th-century military treatise compiled and edited by Jiao Yu and Liu Bowen of the early Ming dynasty (1368–1683).
A hybrid-propellant rocket is a rocket with a rocket motor which uses rocket propellants in two different phases.
Hydrazine is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula (also written), called diamidogen, archaically.
Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound with the formula.
A hypergolic propellant combination used in a rocket engine is one whose components spontaneously ignite when they come into contact with each other.
In aerodynamics, a hypersonic speed is one that is highly supersonic.
Incendiary weapons, incendiary devices or incendiary bombs are weapons designed to start fires or destroy sensitive equipment using fire (and sometimes used as anti-personnel weaponry), that use materials such as napalm, thermite, magnesium powder, chlorine trifluoride, or white phosphorus.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
An inertial navigation system (INS) is a navigation aid that uses a computer, motion sensors (accelerometers), rotation sensors (gyroscopes), and occasionally magnetic sensors (magnetometers) to continuously calculate by dead reckoning the position, the orientation, and the velocity (direction and speed of movement) of a moving object without the need for external references.
An intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) is a guided ballistic missile with a minimum range of primarily designed for nuclear weapons delivery (delivering one or more thermonuclear warheads).
An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
JATO (acronym for jet-assisted take-off), is a type of assisted take-off for helping overloaded aircraft into the air by providing additional thrust in the form of small rockets.
A jet is a stream of fluid that is projected into a surrounding medium, usually from some kind of a nozzle, aperture or orifice.
A jet engine is a type of reaction engine discharging a fast-moving jet that generates thrust by jet propulsion.
A jet pack, rocket belt or rocket pack is a device, usually worn on the back, which uses jets of gas (or in some cases liquid) to propel the wearer through the air.
Jiao Yu was a Chinese military officer, philosopher, and writer of the Ming dynasty under Zhu Yuanzhang, who founded the dynasty and became known as the Hongwu Emperor.
The Katyusha multiple rocket launcher (a) is a type of rocket artillery first built and fielded by the Soviet Union in World War II.
Kerosene, also known as paraffin, lamp oil, and coal oil (an obsolete term), is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid which is derived from petroleum.
In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion.
The Kingdom of Mysore was a kingdom in southern India, traditionally believed to have been founded in 1399 in the vicinity of the modern city of Mysore.
Konrad Kyeser (26 August 1366 – after 1405) was a German military engineer, author of Bellifortis (c. 1405), a book on military technology popular throughout the 15th century.
Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky (a; Konstanty Ciołkowski; 19 September 1935) was a Russian and Soviet rocket scientist and pioneer of the astronautic theory of ethnic Polish descent.
Landing is the last part of a flight, where a flying animal, aircraft, or spacecraft returns to the ground.
A launch escape system (LES) or launch abort system (LAS) is a crew safety system connected to a space capsule, used to quickly separate the capsule from its launch vehicle rocket in case of a launch abort emergency, such as an impending explosion.
A launch pad is an above-ground platform from which a rocket-powered missile or space vehicle is vertically launched.
A launch vehicle or carrier rocket is a rocket used to carry a payload from Earth's surface through outer space, either to another surface point (suborbital), or into space (Earth orbit or beyond).
Leonhard Fronsperger (c. 1520–1575) was a Bavarian German soldier and author.
A fluid flowing past the surface of a body exerts a force on it.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Liquid fuels are combustible or energy-generating molecules that can be harnessed to create mechanical energy, usually producing kinetic energy; they also must take the shape of their container.
Liquid hydrogen (LH2 or LH2) is the liquid state of the element hydrogen.
Liquid oxygen—abbreviated LOx, LOX or Lox in the aerospace, submarine and gas industries—is one of the physical forms of elemental oxygen.
A liquid-propellant rocket or liquid rocket is a rocket engine that uses liquid propellants.
During World War II, Nazi Germany developed many missile and precision-guided munition systems.
This article constitutes a list of rocket launch sites.
There are several different types of rockets.
A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit around Earth with an altitude of or less, and with an orbital period of between about 84 and 127 minutes.
Magnetism is a class of physical phenomena that are mediated by magnetic fields.
In aerospace engineering, mass ratio is a measure of the efficiency of a rocket.
In aerospace engineering, the maximum dynamic pressure, often referred to as maximum Q or max Q, is the point at which aerodynamic stress on a vehicle in atmospheric flight is maximized.
The Messerschmitt Me 163 Komet was a German rocket-powered interceptor aircraft.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.
In modern language, a missile is a guided self-propelled system, as opposed to an unguided self-propelled munition, referred to as a rocket (although these too can also be guided).
A model rocket is a small rocket designed to reach low altitudes (e.g., for model) and be recovered by a variety of means.
In Newtonian mechanics, linear momentum, translational momentum, or simply momentum (pl. momenta) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.
Mongol invasions and conquests took place throughout the 13th century, resulting in the vast Mongol Empire, which by 1300 covered much of Asia and Eastern Europe.
Monocoque, also structural skin, is a structural system where loads are supported through an object's external skin, similar to an egg shell.
Monopropellants are propellants consisting of chemicals that release energy through exothermic chemical decomposition.
A Moon landing is the arrival of a spacecraft on the surface of the Moon.
A multistage rocket, or step rocket is a launch vehicle that uses two or more rocket stages, each of which contains its own engines and propellant.
Mysorean rockets were the first iron-cased rockets successfully deployed for military use.
The N1 (Russian: Н1, from Ракета-носитель, Raketa-Nositel, carrier) was a super heavy-lift launch vehicle intended to deliver payloads beyond low Earth orbit, acting as the Soviet counterpart to the US Saturn V. It was designed with crewed extra-orbital travel in mind.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
The National Association of Rocketry (NAR) is a non-profit tax-exempt scientific organization dedicated to consumer safety, youth education, and the advancement of technology in the hobby of sport rocketry in the United States.
Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that, together, laid the foundation for classical mechanics.
Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.
Nitrous oxide, commonly known as laughing gas or nitrous, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula.
The NK-33 and NK-43 are rocket engines designed and built in the late 1960s and early 1970s by the Kuznetsov Design Bureau.
Non-rocket spacelaunch refers to concepts for launch into space where some or all of the needed speed and altitude are provided by something other than rockets, or by other than expendable rockets.
The North American X-15 was a hypersonic rocket-powered aircraft operated by the United States Air Force and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration as part of the X-plane series of experimental aircraft.
The term nose cone is used to refer to the forwardmost section of a rocket, guided missile or aircraft.
A nozzle is a device designed to control the direction or characteristics of a fluid flow (especially to increase velocity) as it exits (or enters) an enclosed chamber or pipe.
A nuclear thermal rocket is a proposed spacecraft propulsion technology.
Opel-RAK were a series of rocket vehicles produced by Fritz von Opel, of the Opel car company, in association with others, including Max Valier and Friedrich Wilhelm Sander largely as publicity stunts.
Operation Paperclip was a secret program of the Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency (JIOA) largely carried out by Special Agents of Army CIC, in which more than 1,600 German scientists, engineers, and technicians, such as Wernher von Braun and his V-2 rocket team, were recruited in post-Nazi Germany and taken to the U.S. for government employment, primarily between 1945 and 1959.
In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an object, such as the trajectory of a planet around a star or a natural satellite around a planet.
Orbital mechanics or astrodynamics is the application of ballistics and celestial mechanics to the practical problems concerning the motion of rockets and other spacecraft.
An orbital spaceflight (or orbital flight) is a spaceflight in which a spacecraft is placed on a trajectory where it could remain in space for at least one orbit.
In chemistry, an oxidizing agent (oxidant, oxidizer) is a substance that has the ability to oxidize other substances — in other words to cause them to lose electrons.
In mathematics, a parabola is a plane curve which is mirror-symmetrical and is approximately U-shaped.
A parachute is a device used to slow the motion of an object through an atmosphere by creating drag (or in the case of ram-air parachutes, aerodynamic lift).
The pendulum rocket fallacy is a common fundamental misunderstanding of the mechanics of rocket flight and how rockets remain on a stable trajectory.
Ping-Pong was a battlefield reconnaissance rocket developed by Lockheed-California – later the Lockheed Missiles and Space Company – for use by the United States Army.
In physics, potential energy is the energy possessed by an object because of its position relative to other objects, stresses within itself, its electric charge, or other factors.
Project Gemini was NASA's second human spaceflight program.
Project Mercury was the first human spaceflight program of the United States, running from 1958 through 1963.
A propellant or propellent is a chemical substance used in the production of energy or pressurized gas that is subsequently used to create movement of a fluid or to generate propulsion of a vehicle, projectile, or other object.
A propellant tank is a container which is part of a vehicle, where propellant is stored prior to use.
In aircraft and rocket design, overall propulsive efficiency \eta is the efficiency with which the energy contained in a vehicle's propellant is converted into kinetic energy of the vehicle, to accelerate it, or to replace losses due to aerodynamic drag or gravity.
Proton (Russian: Протон) (formal designation: UR-500) is an expendable launch system used for both commercial and Russian government space launches.
A pulsed rocket motor is typically defined as a multiple pulse solid-fuel rocket motor.
As described by the third of Newton's laws of motion of classical mechanics, all forces occur in pairs such that if one object exerts a force on another object, then the second object exerts an equal and opposite reaction force on the first.
A reaction control system (RCS) is a spacecraft system that uses thrusters to provide attitude control, and sometimes translation.
A reaction engine is an engine or motor that produces thrust by expelling reaction mass, in accordance with Newton's third law of motion.
A reaction wheel (RW) is a type of flywheel used primarily by spacecraft for three axis attitude control, which doesn't require rockets or external applicators of torque.
In military operations, reconnaissance or scouting is the exploration outside an area occupied by friendly forces to gain information about natural features and other activities in the area.
Rescue comprises responsive operations that usually involve the saving of life, or prevention of injury during an incident or dangerous situation.
A retrorocket (short for retrograde rocket) is a rocket engine providing thrust opposing the motion of a vehicle, thereby causing it to decelerate.
A reusable launch system (RLS, or reusable launch vehicle, RLV) is a space launch system intended to allow for recovery of all or part of the system for later reuse.
Richard Phillips Feynman (May 11, 1918 – February 15, 1988) was an American theoretical physicist, known for his work in the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of quantum electrodynamics, and the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, as well as in particle physics for which he proposed the parton model.
Robert Hutchings Goddard (October 5, 1882 – August 10, 1945) was an American engineer, professor, physicist, and inventor who is credited with creating and building the world's first liquid-fueled rocket.
A rocket is a self-propelled, unguided weapon system powered by a rocket motor.
Rocket artillery is a type of artillery equipped with rocket launchers instead of conventional guns or mortars.
A rocket car is a land rocket vehicle powered by a rocket engine.
A rocket engine uses stored rocket propellant mass for forming its high-speed propulsive jet.
A rocket engine nozzle is a propelling nozzle (usually of the de Laval type) used in a rocket engine to expand and accelerate the combustion gases produced by burning propellants so that the exhaust gases exit the nozzle at hypersonic velocities.
A Rocket Festival (translit, translit) is a merit-making ceremony traditionally practiced by ethnic Lao people throughout much of Isan and Laos, in numerous villages and municipalities near the beginning of the wet season.
A rocket garden is a display of missiles, sounding rockets, or space launch vehicles usually in an outdoor setting.
A rocket launch is the takeoff phase of the flight of a rocket.
Rocket mail is the delivery of mail by rocket or missile.
Rocket propellant is a material used either directly by a rocket as the reaction mass (propulsive mass) that is ejected, typically with very high speed, from a rocket engine to produce thrust, and thus provide spacecraft propulsion, or indirectly to produce the reaction mass in a chemical reaction.
A rocket sled is a test platform that slides along a set of rails, propelled by rockets.
A rocket-powered aircraft or rocket plane is an aircraft that uses a rocket engine for propulsion, sometimes in addition to airbreathing jet engines.
A rocket-propelled grenade (often abbreviated RPG) is a shoulder-fired anti-tank weapon system that fires rockets equipped with an explosive warhead.
The Rogers Commission Report was created by a Presidential Commission charged with investigating the Space Shuttle ''Challenger'' disaster during its 10th mission, STS-51-L. The report, released and submitted to President Ronald Reagan on 9 June 1986, both determined the cause of the disaster that took place 73 seconds after liftoff, and urged NASA to improve and install new safety features on the shuttles and in its organizational handling of future missions.
A salvo is the simultaneous discharge of artillery or firearms including the firing of guns either to hit a target or to perform a salute.
Salyut 7 (Салют-7; Salute 7) (a.k.a. DOS-6) was a space station in low Earth orbit from April 1982 to February 1991.
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.
A satellite navigation or satnav system is a system that uses satellites to provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning.
The Saturn V (pronounced "Saturn five") was an American human-rated expendable rocket used by NASA between 1967 and 1973.
Sergei Pavlovich Korolev (a,, also transliterated as Sergey Pavlovich Korolyov, Сергій Павлович Корольов Serhiy Pavlovych Korolyov; – 14 January 1966) worked as the lead Soviet rocket engineer and spacecraft designer during the Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union in the 1950s and 1960s.
A service structure, or umbilical tower or launch tower, is a structure built on a rocket launch pad to facilitate fueling and loading of cargo and crew into a spacecraft.
In physics, a shock wave (also spelled shockwave), or shock, is a type of propagating disturbance.
A siege is a military blockade of a city, or fortress, with the intent of conquering by attrition, or a well-prepared assault.
Singijeon or shinkichon (magical machine arrows) was a type of Korean (Joseon) fire arrow rocket, used during the era of the Joseon Dynasty (1392–1897).
A single-stage-to-orbit (or SSTO) vehicle reaches orbit from the surface of a body without jettisoning hardware, expending only propellants and fluids.
Sir William Congreve, 2nd Baronet KCH FRS (20 May 1772 – 16 May 1828) was an English inventor and rocket artillery pioneer distinguished for his development and deployment of Congreve rockets, and a Tory Member of Parliament (MP).
A skyrocket is a type of firework that uses a solid-fuel rocket to rise quickly into the sky; a bottle rocket is a small skyrocket.
A solar thermal rocket is a theoretical spacecraft propulsion system that would make use of solar power to directly heat reaction mass, and therefore would not require an electrical generator, like most other forms of solar-powered propulsion do.
A solid-propellant rocket or solid rocket is a rocket with a rocket engine that uses solid propellants (fuel/oxidizer).
The sound barrier or sonic barrier is a popular term for the sudden increase in aerodynamic drag and other effects experienced by an aircraft or other object when it approaches supersonic speed.
Sound intensity level also known as acoustic intensity is defined as the power carried by sound waves per unit area in a direction perpendicular to that area.
A sounding rocket, sometimes called a research rocket, is an instrument-carrying rocket designed to take measurements and perform scientific experiments during its sub-orbital flight.
The Soviet space program (Russian: Космическая программа СССР, Kosmicheskaya programma SSSR) comprised several of the rocket and space exploration programs conducted by the Soviet Union (USSR) from the 1930s until its collapse in 1991.
Soyuz (Союз, meaning "union", GRAU index 11A511) is a family of expendable launch systems developed by OKB-1 and manufactured by Progress Rocket Space Centre in Samara, Russia.
The Soyuz (Союз, meaning "union", GRAU index 11A511) was a Soviet expendable carrier rocket designed in the 1960s by OKB-1 and manufactured by State Aviation Plant No. 1 in Kuybyshev, Soviet Union.
Soyuz 7K-ST No.16L, sometimes known as Soyuz T-10a or T-10-1, was an unsuccessful Soyuz mission intended to visit the Salyut 7 space station, which was occupied by the Soyuz T-9 crew.
The Space Age is a time period encompassing the activities related to the Space Race, space exploration, space technology, and the cultural developments influenced by these events.
Space exploration is the discovery and exploration of celestial structures in outer space by means of evolving and growing space technology.
The space launch services business began in the 1950s with national programs.
A space probe is a robotic spacecraft that does not orbit the Earth, but, instead, explores further into outer space.
The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), as part of the Space Shuttle program.
On January 28, 1986, the NASA shuttle orbiter mission STS-51-L and the tenth flight of (OV-99) broke apart 73 seconds into its flight, killing all seven crew members, which consisted of five NASA astronauts and two payload specialists.
A Space Shuttle external tank (ET) was the component of the Space Shuttle launch vehicle that contained the liquid hydrogen fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer.
The Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) were the first solid fuel motors to be used for primary propulsion on a vehicle used for human spaceflight and provided the majority of the Space Shuttle's thrust during the first two minutes of flight.
A space station, also known as an orbital station or an orbital space station, is a spacecraft capable of supporting crewmembers, which is designed to remain in space (most commonly as an artificial satellite in low Earth orbit) for an extended period of time and for other spacecraft to dock.
A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space.
Spacecraft propulsion is any method used to accelerate spacecraft and artificial satellites.
Specific impulse (usually abbreviated Isp) is a measure of how effectively a rocket uses propellant or jet engine uses fuel.
In the gravitational two-body problem, the specific orbital energy \epsilon\,\! (or vis-viva energy) of two orbiting bodies is the constant sum of their mutual potential energy (\epsilon_p\,\!) and their total kinetic energy (\epsilon_k\,\!), divided by the reduced mass.
Spin-stabilisation is the method of stabilizing a satellite or launch vehicle by means of spin.
A steam rocket (also known as a hot water rocket) is a thermal rocket that uses water held in a pressure vessel at a high temperature, such that its saturated vapor pressure is significantly greater than ambient pressure.
In continuum mechanics, stress is a physical quantity that expresses the internal forces that neighboring particles of a continuous material exert on each other, while strain is the measure of the deformation of the material.
Supercavitation is the use of cavitation effects to create a bubble of gas or vapor large enough to encompass an object travelling through a liquid, greatly reducing the skin friction drag on the object and enabling high speeds.
Supersonic travel is a rate of travel of an object that exceeds the speed of sound (Mach 1).
A surface-to-air missile (SAM, pronunced), or ground-to-air missile (GTAM, pronounced), is a missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy aircraft or other missiles.
Takeoff is the phase of flight in which an aerospace vehicle or an animal goes from the ground to flying in the air.
Telemetry is an automated communications process by which measurements and other data are collected at remote or inaccessible points and transmitted to receiving equipment for monitoring.
The Space Review is a free online publication, published weekly with in-depth articles, essays, commentary and reviews on space exploration and development.
Thrust is a reaction force described quantitatively by Newton's third law.
Thrust vectoring, also thrust vector control or TVC, is the ability of an aircraft, rocket, or other vehicle to manipulate the direction of the thrust from its engine(s) or motor(s) in order to control the attitude or angular velocity of the vehicle.
Thrust-to-weight ratio is a dimensionless ratio of thrust to weight of a rocket, jet engine, propeller engine, or a vehicle propelled by such an engine that indicates the performance of the engine or vehicle.
This article gives a concise timeline of rocket and missile technology.
This is a timeline of known spaceflights, both manned and unmanned, sorted chronologically by launch date.
Tipu Sultan (born Sultan Fateh Ali Sahab Tipu, 20 November 1750 – 4 May 1799), also known as the Tipu Sahib, was a ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore.
The Tripoli Rocketry Association (TRA) is one of the two major organizing bodies for high power rocketry.
A tripropellant rocket is a rocket that uses three propellants, as opposed to the more common bipropellant rocket or monopropellant rocket designs, which use two or one propellants, respectively.
The Tsiolkovsky rocket equation, classical rocket equation, or ideal rocket equation, describes the motion of vehicles that follow the basic principle of a rocket: a device that can apply acceleration to itself using thrust by expelling part of its mass with high velocity and thereby move due to the conservation of momentum.
The turbofan or fanjet is a type of airbreathing jet engine that is widely used in aircraft propulsion.
A turbopump is a propellant pump with two main components: a rotodynamic pump and a driving gas turbine, usually both mounted on the same shaft, or sometimes geared together.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The V-2 (Vergeltungswaffe 2, "Retribution Weapon 2"), technical name Aggregat 4 (A4), was the world's first long-range guided ballistic missile.
The VA-111 Shkval (from шквал — squall) torpedo and its descendants are supercavitating torpedoes originally developed by the Soviet Union.
In mechanics, a variable-mass system is a collection of matter whose mass varies with time.
A vehicle (from vehiculum) is a machine that transports people or cargo.
The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position with respect to a frame of reference, and is a function of time.
A vernier thruster is a rocket engine used on a spacecraft for fine adjustments to the attitude or velocity of a spacecraft.
Vostok (Russian: Восток, translated as "East") was a family of rockets derived from the Soviet R-7 Semyorka ICBM designed for the human spaceflight programme.
Vertical takeoff, vertical landing (VTVL) is a form of takeoff and landing for rockets.
A warhead is the explosive or toxic material that is delivered by a missile, rocket, or torpedo.
A water rocket is a type of model rocket using water as its reaction mass.
A weapon, arm or armament is any device used with intent to inflict damage or harm.
Wernher Magnus Maximilian Freiherr von Braun (March 23, 1912 – June 16, 1977) was a German (and, later, American) aerospace engineer and space architect.
William Congreve (24 January 1670 – 19 January 1729) was an English playwright and poet of the Restoration period.
William Hale (21 October 1797 – 30 March 1870), was a British inventor and rocket pioneer.
William Moore was a British mathematician and early contributor to rocket theory.