42 relations: Acetylcholine, Arrestin, Bipolar neuron, Cell nucleus, Cilium, Color vision, Cone cell, Depolarization, Ganglion cell, George Wald, Glutamic acid, GTPase-activating protein, Human eye, Hyperpolarization (biology), Image resolution, Interneuron, Light, Membrane potential, Neuroscience Information Framework, Neurotransmitter, Night vision, Nyctalopia, Opsin, Organelle, Peripheral vision, Photon, Photopigment, Photoreceptor cell, Purkinje effect, Regulator of G protein signaling, Retina, Retina bipolar cell, Retina horizontal cell, Retinal, Retinal pigment epithelium, Rhodopsin, Sclera, Scotopic vision, Synapse, Transducin, Visual system, Vitamin A.
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
Arrestins (abbreviated Arr) are a small family of proteins important for regulating signal transduction at G protein-coupled receptors.
A bipolar neuron or bipolar cell, is a type of neuron which has two extensions.
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
A cilium (the plural is cilia) is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
Color vision is the ability of an organism or machine to distinguish objects based on the wavelengths (or frequencies) of the light they reflect, emit, or transmit.
Cone cells, or cones, are one of three types of photoreceptor cells in the retina of mammalian eyes (e.g. the human eye).
In biology, depolarization is a change within a cell, during which the cell undergoes a shift in electric charge distribution, resulting in less negative charge inside the cell.
A ganglion cell is a cell found in a ganglion.
George David Wald (November 18, 1906 – April 12, 1997) was an American scientist who studied pigments in the retina.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
GTPase-activating proteins or GTPase-accelerating proteins (GAPs) are a family of regulatory proteins whose members can bind to activated G proteins and stimulate their GTPase activity, with the result of terminating the signaling event.
The human eye is an organ which reacts to light and pressure.
Hyperpolarization is a change in a cell's membrane potential that makes it more negative.
Image resolution is the detail an image holds.
An interneuron (also called internuncial neuron, relay neuron, association neuron, connector neuron, intermediate neuron or local circuit neuron) is a broad class of neurons found in the human body.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
The term "membrane potential" may refer to one of three kinds of membrane potential.
The Neuroscience Information Framework is a repository of global neuroscience web resources, including experimental, clinical, and translational neuroscience databases, knowledge bases, atlases, and genetic/genomic resources and provides many authoritative links throughout the neuroscience portal of Wikipedia.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Night vision is the ability to see in low-light conditions.
Nyctalopia, also called night-blindness, is a condition making it difficult or impossible to see in relatively low light.
Opsins are a group of proteins, made light-sensitive, via the chromophore retinal found in photoreceptor cells of the retina.
In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, in which their function is vital for the cell to live.
Peripheral vision is a part of vision that occurs only on the side gaze.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
Photopigments are unstable pigments that undergo a chemical change when they absorb light.
A photoreceptor cell is a specialized type of neuroepithelial cell found in the retina that is capable of visual phototransduction.
The Purkinje effect (sometimes called the Purkinje shift) is the tendency for the peak luminance sensitivity of the human eye to shift toward the blue end of the color spectrum at low illumination levels as part of dark adaptation.
Regulators of G protein signaling (or RGS) are protein structural domains that activate GTPases for heterotrimeric G-protein alpha-subunits.
The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.
As a part of the retina, bipolar cells exist between photoreceptors (rod cells and cone cells) and ganglion cells.
Horizontal cells are the laterally interconnecting neurons having cell bodies in the inner nuclear layer of the retina of vertebrate eyes.
Retinal is also known as retinaldehyde.
The pigmented layer of retina or retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is the pigmented cell layer just outside the neurosensory retina that nourishes retinal visual cells, and is firmly attached to the underlying choroid and overlying retinal visual cells.
Rhodopsin (also known as visual purple) is a light-sensitive receptor protein involved in visual phototransduction.
The sclera, also known as the white of the eye, is the opaque, fibrous, protective, outer layer of the human eye containing mainly collagen and some elastic fiber.
Scotopic vision is the vision of the eye under low-light levels.
In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.
Transducin (Gt) is a protein naturally expressed in vertebrate retina rods and cones and it is very important in vertebrate phototransduction.
The visual system is the part of the central nervous system which gives organisms the ability to process visual detail, as well as enabling the formation of several non-image photo response functions.
Vitamin A is a group of unsaturated nutritional organic compounds that includes retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, and several provitamin A carotenoids (most notably beta-carotene).