165 relations: Abruzzo, Adelaide del Vasto, Admiral, Aegean Islands, Alexander of Telese, Alexios I Komnenos, Alfonso of Capua, Alfonso VI of León and Castile, Amalfi, Annaba, Antipope Anacletus II, Apulia, Arabs, Ariano Irpino, Assizes of Ariano, Athens, Avellino, Aversa, Baldwin I of Jerusalem, Baldwin II of Jerusalem, Bari, Battle of Nocera, Battle of Rignano, Beatrice of Rethel, Benevento, Bernard of Clairvaux, Bohemond II of Antioch, Byzantine Empire, Byzantium, Calabria, Cambridge University Press, Campania, Capri, Cassino, Centralized government, Charles William Previté-Orton, Christmas, Christodulus, Conrad III of Germany, Constance, Queen of Sicily, Corfu, Corinth, Count, County of Apulia and Calabria, County of Sicily, Crusades, Ducat, Duchy of Amalfi, Duke of Naples, Elvira of Castile, Queen of Sicily, ..., Emir, Euboea, Fagrskinna, Galluccio, Gargano, Genoa, Geography and cartography in medieval Islam, George of Antioch, Greek historiography, Greeks, Grimoald, Prince of Bari, Guarin, Gulf of Corinth, Hauteville family, Heimskringla, Henry I of England, Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor, Henry X, Duke of Bavaria, Henry, Count of Montescaglioso, Hubert Houben (historian), Hugh II, Duke of Burgundy, Imperial Treasury, Vienna, Islamic calendar, Italo-Norman, Jaquintus, Prince of Bari, Jerusalem, John (Sicilian admiral), John II Komnenos, John Julius Norwich, Jordan of Ariano, Karol Szymanowski, King Roger, Kingdom of Africa, Kingdom of Sicily, Lecce, List of Byzantine emperors, List of monarchs of Sicily, List of Princes of Capua, List of rulers of Bavaria, London, Lothair II, Holy Roman Emperor, Louis VI of France, Mahdia, Manuel I Komnenos, Margaritus of Brindisi, Martorana, Maurice Keen, Mediterranean Sea, Melfi, Mercato San Severino, Messina, Mileto, Mosaic, Muhammad al-Idrisi, Muslim, Naples, Niketas Choniates, Norman Academy, Normans, Otranto, Palermo, Palermo Cathedral, Papal bull, Papal States, Peloponnese, Pierre Aubé, Pisa, Polity, Pope Honorius II, Pope Innocent II, Pozzuoli, Principality of Capua, Principality of Taranto, Punitive expedition, Qaid, Ranulf II of Alife, Regent, Richard II of Capua, Robert II of Capua, Robert III of Loritello, Robert of Selby, Roger Borsa, Roger I of Sicily, Roger III, Duke of Apulia, Rome, Salerno, Second Crusade, Sergius VII of Naples, Sibylla of Burgundy, Sicilians, Sicily, Sigurd the Crusader, Simon of Sicily, Simon, Prince of Taranto, Snorri Sturluson, Southern Italy, Strait of Messina, Tancred of Hauteville, Tancred, Prince of Bari, Tariq Ali, Thebes, Greece, Theodore of Amasea, Theodwin, Thomas Brun, Trani, Treaty of Mignano, Tripoli, Troia, Apulia, Tropea, Vienna, Vizier, William I of Sicily, William II, Duke of Apulia, William of Tyre, Zachary Nugent Brooke. Expand index (115 more) » « Shrink index
Abruzzo (Aquiliano: Abbrùzzu) is a region of Southern Italy, with an area of 10,763 square km (4,156 sq mi) and a population of 1.2 million.
Adelaide del Vasto (Adelasia, Azalaïs) (– 16 April 1118) was countess of Sicily as the third spouse of Roger I of Sicily, and Queen consort of Jerusalem by marriage to Baldwin I of Jerusalem.
Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navies, and in many navies is the highest rank.
The Aegean Islands (Νησιά Αιγαίου, transliterated: Nisiá Aigaíou; Ege Adaları) are the group of islands in the Aegean Sea, with mainland Greece to the west and north and Turkey to the east; the island of Crete delimits the sea to the south, those of Rhodes, Karpathos and Kasos to the southeast.
Alexander of Telese (Alessandro Telesino) was an Italian chronicler and historian, and the abbot of San Salvatore, near Telese, in southern Italy from before 1127 to before November 1143.
Alexios I Komnenos (Ἀλέξιος Αʹ Κομνηνός., c. 1048 – 15 August 1118) was Byzantine emperor from 1081 to 1118.
Alfonso, also called Anfuso or Anfusus (c. 1120 – 10 October 1144), was the Prince of Capua from 1135 and Duke of Naples from 1139.
Alfonso VI (1 July 1109), nicknamed the Brave (El Bravo) or the Valiant, was the son of King Ferdinand I of León and Queen Sancha, daughter of Alfonso V and sister of Bermudo III.
Amalfi is a town and comune in the province of Salerno, in the region of Campania, Italy, on the Gulf of Salerno.
Annaba (عنّابة), ("Jujube Town"), formerly known as Bona, and then Bône, is a seaport city in the northeastern corner of Algeria, close to Tunisia.
Anacletus II (died January 25, 1138), born Pietro Pierleoni, was an Antipope who ruled from 1130 to his death in opposition to Pope Innocent II.
Apulia (Puglia; Pùglia; Pulia; translit) is a region of Italy in Southern Italy bordering the Adriatic Sea to the east, the Ionian Sea to the southeast, and the Strait of Òtranto and Gulf of Taranto to the south.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Ariano Irpino (formerly Ariano di Puglia or simply Ariano) is an Italian town and municipality in the province of Avellino, in the Campania region.
The Assizes of Ariano were a series of laws for the Kingdom of Sicily promulgated in the summer of 1140 at Ariano, near Benevento in the Mezzogiorno, by Roger II of Sicily.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
Avellino is a town and comune, capital of the province of Avellino in the Campania region of southern Italy.
Aversa is a city and comune in the Province of Caserta in Campania, southern Italy, about north of Naples.
Baldwin I, also known as Baldwin of Boulogne (1060s – 2 April 1118), was the first count of Edessa from 1098 to 1100, and the second crusader ruler and first King of Jerusalem from 1100 to his death.
Baldwin II, also known as Baldwin of Bourcq or Bourg (Baudouin; died 21 August 1131), was Count of Edessa from 1100 to 1118, and King of Jerusalem from 1118 until his death.
Bari (Barese: Bare; Barium; translit) is the capital city of the Metropolitan City of Bari and of the Apulia region, on the Adriatic Sea, in southern Italy.
The Battle of Nocera or Scafati was the first major battle of Roger II of Sicily and one of two of his major defeats (the other being the Battle of Rignano) at the hands of Count Ranulf of Alife.
The Battle of Rignano was the second great defeat of the career of Roger II of Sicily and, like the first, the Battle of Nocera, it too came at the hands of Ranulf II, Count of Alife.
Beatrice of Rethel (1130/35 – 30 March 1185) was a French noblewoman and the third Queen consort of the King Roger II of Sicily.
Benevento (Campanian: Beneviénte; Beneventum) is a city and comune of Campania, Italy, capital of the province of Benevento, northeast of Naples.
Bernard of Clairvaux, O.Cist (Bernardus Claraevallensis; 109020 August 1153) was a French abbot and a major leader in the reform of Benedictine monasticism that caused the formation of the Cistercian order.
Bohemond II (1107/1108 – February 1130) was Prince of Taranto from 1111 to 1128 and Prince of Antioch from 1111/1119 to 1130.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Byzantium or Byzantion (Ancient Greek: Βυζάντιον, Byzántion) was an ancient Greek colony in early antiquity that later became Constantinople, and later Istanbul.
Calabria (Calàbbria in Calabrian; Calavría in Calabrian Greek; Καλαβρία in Greek; Kalavrì in Arbëresh/Albanian), known in antiquity as Bruttium, is a region in Southern Italy.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Campania is a region in Southern Italy.
Capri (usually pronounced by English speakers) is an island located in the Tyrrhenian Sea off the Sorrentine Peninsula, on the south side of the Gulf of Naples in the Campania region of Italy.
Cassino is a comune in the province of Frosinone, central Italy, at the southern end of the region of Lazio, the last City of the Latin Valley.
A centralized government (also centralised government (Oxford spelling)) is one in which power or legal authority is exerted or coordinated by a de facto political executive to which '''federal states''', local authorities, and smaller units are considered subject.
Charles William Previté-Orton (16 January 1877 – 11 March 1947) was a British medieval historian and the first Professor of Medieval History at the University of Cambridge on the establishment of the position in 1937.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
Christodulus (died 1131) (Χριστόδουλος, Christodoulos, meaning "Slave of Christ;" Arabic: Abd al-Rahman al-Nasrani, meaning "Slave of the All Merciful, the Nazarene "), probably either a Greek Orthodox, the name was a common Greek Orthodox name, or a Muslim convert, was the first emir of Palermo (later ammiratus ammiratorum) under the Normans.
Conrad III (1093 – 15 February 1152) was the first King of Germany of the Hohenstaufen dynasty.
Constance (2 November 1154 – 27 November 1198) was Queen regnant of Sicily in 1194–98, jointly with her spouse from 1194 to 1197, and with her infant son Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, in 1198, as the heiress of the Norman kings of Sicily.
Corfu or Kerkyra (translit,; translit,; Corcyra; Corfù) is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea.
Corinth (Κόρινθος, Kórinthos) is an ancient city and former municipality in Corinthia, Peloponnese, which is located in south-central Greece.
Count (Male) or Countess (Female) is a title in European countries for a noble of varying status, but historically deemed to convey an approximate rank intermediate between the highest and lowest titles of nobility.
The County of Apulia and Calabria, later the Duchy of Apulia and Calabria, was a Norman country founded by William of Hauteville in 1042 in the territories of Gargano, Capitanata, Apulia, Campania, and Vulture.
The County of Sicily, also known as County of Sicily and Calabria, was a Norman state comprising the islands of Sicily and Malta and part of Calabria from 1071 until 1130.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
The ducat was a gold or silver coin used as a trade coin in Europe from the later middle ages until as late as the 20th century.
The Duchy of Amalfi (Ducato di Amalfi) or the Republic of Amalfi (Repubblica di Amalfi) was a de facto independent state centered on the Southern Italian city of Amalfi during the 10th and 11th centuries.
The Dukes of Naples were the military commanders of the ducatus Neapolitanus, a Byzantine outpost in Italy, one of the few remaining after the conquest of the Lombards.
Elvira of Castile (– 6 February 1135) was a member of the House of Jiménez and the first Queen of Sicily.
An emir (أمير), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is an aristocratic or noble and military title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries, West African, and Afghanistan.
Euboea or Evia; Εύβοια, Evvoia,; Εὔβοια, Eúboia) is the second-largest Greek island in area and population, after Crete. The narrow Euripus Strait separates it from Boeotia in mainland Greece. In general outline it is a long and narrow island; it is about long, and varies in breadth from to. Its geographic orientation is from northwest to southeast, and it is traversed throughout its length by a mountain range, which forms part of the chain that bounds Thessaly on the east, and is continued south of Euboea in the lofty islands of Andros, Tinos and Mykonos. It forms most of the regional unit of Euboea, which also includes Skyros and a small area of the Greek mainland.
Fagrskinna is one of the kings' sagas, written around 1220.
Galluccio is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Caserta in the Italian region Campania, located about northwest of Naples and about northwest of Caserta.
Gargano is a historical and geographical sub-region in the province of Foggia, Apulia, southeast Italy, consisting of a wide isolated mountain massif made of highland and several peaks and forming the backbone of the Gargano Promontory projecting into the Adriatic Sea, the "spur" on the Italian "boot".
Genoa (Genova,; Zêna; English, historically, and Genua) is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy.
Medieval Islamic geography was based on Hellenistic geography and reached its apex with Muhammad al-Idrisi in the 12th century.
George of Antioch (died 1151 or 1152) was the first true ammiratus ammiratorum, successor of the great Christodulus.
Greek historiography refers to Hellenic efforts to track and record history.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
Grimoald Alferanites was the prince of Bari from 1121 to 1132.
Guarin (French: Guérin, Italian: Guarino, Norman: Warin) (died 21 January 1137) was the chaplain (magister capellanus) and chancellor of Roger II of Sicily from about 1130 to his death, during the first decade of the Norman kingdom of Sicily.
The Gulf of Corinth or the Corinthian Gulf (Κορινθιακός Kόλπος, Korinthiakόs Kόlpos) is a deep inlet of the Ionian Sea separating the Peloponnese from western mainland Greece.
The Hauteville family, also called the Hauteville dynasty or House of Hauteville (French: Maison de Hauteville, Italian: Casa d'Altavilla), was a Norman family originally of seigneurial rank from the Cotentin.
Heimskringla is the best known of the Old Norse kings' sagas.
Henry I (c. 1068 – 1 December 1135), also known as Henry Beauclerc, was King of England from 1100 to his death.
Henry VI (Heinrich VI) (November 1165 – 28 September 1197), a member of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was King of Germany (King of the Romans) from 1190 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1191 until his death.
Henry the Proud (Heinrich der Stolze) (– 20 October 1139), a member of the House of Welf, was Duke of Bavaria (as Henry X) from 1126 to 1138 and Duke of Saxony (as Henry II) as well as Margrave of Tuscany and Duke of Spoleto from 1137 until his death.
Henry (before 1144–1173×77), born Rodrigo, was a son of the Navarrese king García Ramírez and his wife, Margaret of L'Aigle, and brother of the Sicilian queen dowager Margaret, who made him Count of Montescaglioso (1166) and then Count of the Principate (1168).
Hubert Houben (4 February 1953, Heinsberg) is a German historian who specialized in the medieval history of Southern Italy.
Hugh II of Burgundy (1084 – c. 6 February 1143) was duke of Burgundy between 1103 and 1143.
The Imperial Treasury (Kaiserliche Schatzkammer) at the Hofburg Palace in Vienna, Austria contains a valuable collection of secular and ecclesiastical treasures covering over a thousand years of European history.
The Islamic, Muslim, or Hijri calendar (التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī) is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 months in a year of 354 or 355 days.
The Italo-Normans, or Siculo-Normans when referring to Sicily and Southern Italy, are the Italian-born descendants of the first Norman conquerors to travel to southern Italy in the first half of the eleventh century.
Jaquintus was the prince (excellentissimus princeps) of Bari from the death of Tancred, the son of Roger II of Sicily, in 1138 to his own death the next year.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
John was the amiratus or emir of Roger II of Sicily.
John II Komnenos or Comnenus (Ίωάννης Βʹ Κομνηνός, Iōannēs II Komnēnos; 13 September 1087 – 8 April 1143) was Byzantine Emperor from 1118 to 1143.
John Julius Cooper, 2nd Viscount Norwich, (15 September 1929 – 1 June 2018), known as John Julius Norwich, was an English popular historian, travel writer and television personality.
Jordan (died 12 August 1127), count of Ariano (from 1102), was a petty baron in Apulia during the reign of the Duke William II.
Karol Maciej Szymanowski (3 October 188229 March 1937) was a Polish composer and pianist, the most celebrated Polish composer of the early 20th century.
King Roger (Król Roger, Op. 46) is an opera in three acts by Karol Szymanowski to a Polish libretto by the composer himself and Jarosław Iwaszkiewicz, the composer's cousin.
The Kingdom of Africa was an extension of the frontier zone of the Siculo-Norman state in the former Roman province of Africa (Ifrīqiya in Tunisian Arabic), corresponding to Tunisia and parts of Algeria and Libya today.
The Kingdom of Sicily (Regnum Siciliae, Regno di Sicilia, Regnu di Sicilia, Regne de Sicília, Reino de Sicilia) was a state that existed in the south of the Italian peninsula and for a time Africa from its founding by Roger II in 1130 until 1816.
Lecce (or; Salentino: Lècce; Griko: Luppìu, Lupiae, translit) is a historic city of 95,766 inhabitants (2015) in southern Italy, the capital of the province of Lecce, the second province in the region by population, as well as one of the most important cities of Apulia.
This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of Constantinople in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Byzantine Empire (or the Eastern Roman Empire), to its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 AD.
The monarchs of Sicily ruled from the establishment of the County of Sicily in 1071 until the "perfect fusion" in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in 1816.
This is a list of the rulers of the Principality of Capua.
The following is a list of rulers during the history of Bavaria.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Lothair II or Lothair III (before 9 June 1075 – 4 December 1137), known as Lothair of Supplinburg, was Holy Roman Emperor from 1133 until his death.
Louis VI (c.1081 – 1 August 1137), called the Fat (le Gros) or the Fighter (le Batailleur), was King of the Franks from 1108 until his death (1137).
Mahdia (المهدية) is a Tunisian coastal city with 62,189 inhabitants, south of Monastir and southeast of Sousse.
Manuel I Komnenos (or Comnenus; Μανουήλ Α' Κομνηνός, Manouēl I Komnēnos; 28 November 1118 – 24 September 1180) was a Byzantine Emperor of the 12th century who reigned over a crucial turning point in the history of Byzantium and the Mediterranean.
Margaritus of Brindisi (also Margarito; Italian Margaritone or Greek Megareites or Margaritoni: c. 1149 – 1197), called "the new Neptune", was the last great ammiratus ammiratorum (Grand Admiral) of Sicily.
The Martorana Also Co-Cathedral of St.
Maurice Hugh Keen OBE (30 October 1933 – 11 September 2012) was a British historian specializing in the Middle Ages.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Melfi (Lucano: Mèlfe) is a town and comune in the Vulture area of the province of Potenza, in the Southern Italian region of Basilicata.
Mercato San Severino (Sanseverinese: Sanzuverin') is a town and comune of the province of Salerno in the Campania region of south-west Italy.
Messina (Sicilian: Missina; Messana, Μεσσήνη) is the capital of the Italian Metropolitan City of Messina.
Mileto (Calabrian: Militu; translit) is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Vibo Valentia in the Italian region Calabria, located about southwest of Catanzaro and about south of Vibo Valentia.
A mosaic is a piece of art or image made from the assemblage of small pieces of colored glass, stone, or other materials.
Abu Abdullah Muhammad al-Idrisi al-Qurtubi al-Hasani as-Sabti, or simply al-Idrisi (أبو عبد الله محمد الإدريسي القرطبي الحسني السبتي; Dreses; 1100 – 1165), was an Arab Muslim geographer, cartographer and Egyptologist who lived in Palermo, Sicily at the court of King Roger II.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Naples (Napoli, Napule or; Neapolis; lit) is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan.
Niketas or Nicetas Choniates (Νικήτας Χωνιάτης, ca. 1155 to 1217), whose real surname was Akominatos (Ἀκομινάτος), was a Greek Byzantine government official and historian – like his brother Michael Akominatos, whom he accompanied to Constantinople from their birthplace Chonae (from which came his nickname, "Choniates" meaning "person from Chonae").
The Norman Academy (Italian: Accademia Normanna) is an organization established for the promotion of the Arts and Letters, Humanities and Human rights defence throughout the world, incorporated (but not accredited) in the State of Florida, United States.
The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; Normands; Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.
Otranto (Salentino: Uṭṛàntu; Griko: Δερεντό, translit. Derentò; translit; Hydruntum) is a town and comune in the province of Lecce (Apulia, Italy), in a fertile region once famous for its breed of horses.
Palermo (Sicilian: Palermu, Panormus, from Πάνορμος, Panormos) is a city of Southern Italy, the capital of both the autonomous region of Sicily and the Metropolitan City of Palermo.
Palermo Cathedral is the cathedral church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Palermo, located in Palermo, Sicily, southern Italy.
A papal bull is a type of public decree, letters patent, or charter issued by a pope of the Roman Catholic Church.
The Papal States, officially the State of the Church (Stato della Chiesa,; Status Ecclesiasticus; also Dicio Pontificia), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the Pope, from the 8th century until 1870.
The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Πελοπόννησος, Peloponnisos) is a peninsula and geographic region in southern Greece.
Pierre Aubé (born 23 February 1944, Normandy) is a French medieval specialist and the author of many important books.
Pisa is a city in the Tuscany region of Central Italy straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea.
A polity is any kind of political entity.
Pope Honorius II (9 February 1060 – 13 February 1130), born Lamberto Scannabecchi,Levillain, pg.
Pope Innocent II (Innocentius II; died 23 September 1143), born Gregorio Papareschi, was Pope from 14 February 1130 to his death in 1143.
Pozzuoli is a city and comune of the Metropolitan City of Naples, in the Italian region of Campania.
The Principality of Capua (Principatus Capuae or Capue, Principato di Capua) was a Lombard state centred on Capua in Southern Italy, usually de facto independent, but under the varying suzerainty of Western and Eastern Roman Empires.
The Principality of Taranto was a state in southern Italy created in 1088 for Bohemond I, eldest son of Robert Guiscard, as part of the peace between him and his younger brother Roger Borsa after a dispute over the succession to the Duchy of Apulia.
A punitive expedition is a military journey undertaken to punish a state or any group of persons outside the borders of the punishing state.
Qaid (قائد, "commander"; pl.), also spelled kaid or caïd, is a word meaning "commander" or "leader." It was a title in the Norman kingdom of Sicily, applied to palatine officials and members of the curia, usually to those who were Muslims or converts from Islam.
Ranulf II (or Rainulf II, Italian: Rainulfo; died 30 April 1139) was the count of Alife and Caiazzo, and duke of Apulia.
A regent (from the Latin regens: ruling, governing) is a person appointed to govern a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated.
Richard II (died 1105/1106), called the Bald, was the count of Aversa and the prince of Capua from 1090 or 1091.
Robert II (died 1156) was the count of Aversa and the prince of Capua from 1127 until his death.
Robert of Bassunvilla (also Basunvilla and Bassonville) (died 15 September 1182) was the count of Conversano (from 1138) and Loritello (from 1154, as Robert III).
Robert of Selby (or Salebia) (died 1152) was an Englishman, a courtier of Roger II and chancellor of the Kingdom of Sicily.
Roger Borsa (1060/61 – 22 February 1111) was the Norman Duke of Apulia and Calabria and effective ruler of southern Italy from 1085 until his death.
Roger I (– 22 June 1101), nicknamed Roger Bosso and The Great Count, was a Norman nobleman who became the first Count of Sicily from 1071 to 1101.
Roger III (1118 – 2 or 12 May 1148) was the eldest son of King Roger II of Sicily and Elvira of Castile.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
Salerno (Salernitano: Salierne) is a city and comune in Campania (southwestern Italy) and is the capital of the province of the same name.
The Second Crusade (1147–1149) was the second major crusade launched from Europe.
Sergius VII (died 30 October 1137) was the thirty-ninth and last duke (or magister militum) of Naples.
Sibylla of Burgundy (1126 – 16 September 1150 in Salerno) was the second queen consort of Roger II of Sicily.
Sicilians or the Sicilian people (Siciliani in Italian and Sicilian, or also Siculi in Italian) are a Southern European ethnic group from or with origins in the Italian island of Sicily, the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea as well as the largest and most populous of the autonomous regions of Italy.
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
Sigurd I Magnusson (c. 1090 – 26 March 1130), also known as Sigurd the Crusader (Old Norse: Sigurðr Jórsalafari, Norwegian: Sigurd Jorsalfar), was King of Norway from 1103 to 1130.
Simon of Hauteville (Palermo 1093 – Mileto 1105), called Simon de Hauteville in French and Simone D'Altavilla in Italian, was the eldest son and successor of Roger the Great Count, count of Sicily, and Adelaide del Vasto, under whose regency he reigned.
Simon, bastard son of Roger II of Sicily, was declared Prince of Taranto by his father in 1144, on the death of Roger III, Duke of Apulia, the eldest legitimate son of Roger II.
Snorri Sturluson (1179 – 23 September 1241) was an Icelandic historian, poet, and politician.
Southern Italy or Mezzogiorno (literally "midday") is a macroregion of Italy traditionally encompassing the territories of the former Kingdom of the two Sicilies (all the southern section of the Italian Peninsula and Sicily), with the frequent addition of the island of Sardinia.
The Strait of Messina (Stretto di Messina), is a narrow strait between the eastern tip of Sicily (Punta del Faro) and the western tip of Calabria (Punta Pezzo) in the south of Italy.
Tancred of Hauteville (980 – 1041) was an 11th-century Norman petty lord about whom little is known.
Tancred of Hauteville (born 1119, died 16 March between 1138 and 1140), the second son of King Roger II of Sicily and his first wife, Elvira of Castile, was the Prince of Bari and Taranto from 1132 to 1138.
Tariq Ali (Punjabi, طارق علی; born 21 October 1943) is a British Pakistani writer, journalist, historian, filmmaker, political activist, and public intellectual.
Thebes (Θῆβαι, Thēbai,;. Θήβα, Thíva) is a city in Boeotia, central Greece.
Saint Theodore of Amasea (Θεόδωρος) is one of the two saints called Theodore, who are venerated as Warrior Saints and Great Martyrs in the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Theodwin (also Theodwine, Theodin or Theodevin) (died probably on 7 March 1151 in the Kingdom of Jerusalem) was a German cardinal and papal legate of the 12th century.
Thomas Brun, also le Brun or Brown, was son or nephew of William Brun (first to bear the name Le Brun), a clerk of Henry I of England.
Trani is a seaport of Apulia, in southern Italy, on the Adriatic Sea, by railway West-Northwest of Bari.
The Treaty of Mignano of 1139 was the treaty which ended more than a decade of constant war in the Italian Mezzogiorno following the union of the mainland duchy of Apulia and Calabria with the County of Sicily in 1127.
Tripoli (طرابلس,; Berber: Oea, or Wy't) is the capital city and the largest city of Libya, with a population of about 1.1 million people in 2015.
Troia (translit or Aikai or Ece; Aecae or Æcæ; Pugliese: Troië; also formerly Troja) is a town and comune in the province of Foggia and region of Apulia in southern Italy.
Tropea (ancient Trapeia; Tropaea; translit; Calabrian: Trupìa) is a municipality located within the province of Vibo Valentia, in Calabria (southern Italy).
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
A vizier (rarely; وزير wazīr; وازیر vazīr; vezir; Chinese: 宰相 zǎixiàng; উজির ujira; Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu): वज़ीर or وزیر vazeer; Punjabi: ਵਜ਼ੀਰ or وزير vazīra, sometimes spelt vazir, vizir, vasir, wazir, vesir or vezir) is a high-ranking political advisor or minister.
William I (1120 or 1121 – May 7, 1166), called the Bad or the Wicked (Gugghiermu lu Malu, was the second King of Sicily, ruling from his father's death in 1154 to his own in 1166. He was the fourth son of Roger II and Elvira of Castile. William's title "the Bad" seems little merited and expresses the bias of the historian Hugo Falcandus and the baronial class against the king and the official class by whom he was guided.
William II (1095 – July 1127) was the Duke of Apulia and Calabria from 1111 to 1127.
William of Tyre (Willelmus Tyrensis; 1130 – 29 September 1186) was a medieval prelate and chronicler.
Zachary Nugent Brooke FBA (1 December 1883 – 7 October 1946) was a British medieval historian and author.