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Rohtas Fort

Index Rohtas Fort

Rohtas Fort (Punjabi, قلعہ روہتاس; Qila Rohtas) is a 16th-century fortress located near the city of Jhelum in the Pakistani province of Punjab.The fortress was built during the reign of the Pashtun king Sher Shah Suri between 1541 and 1548 in order to help subdue the rebellious tribes of the Potohar region of northern Punjab that were loyal to the Mughal crown. [1]

76 relations: Ahmad Shah Durrani, Akbar, Ashlar, Attock Fort, Bahawalpur, Bastion, Bihar, Canyon, Caravanserai, Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis, Dina, Pakistan, Ford (crossing), Fortification, Gakhars, Gatiali, Grand Trunk Road, Gujranwala, Gurdwara Chowa Sahib, Hindu temple, Humayun, Ihsan H. Nadiem, Indian subcontinent, International Council on Monuments and Sites, Iran, Jahangir, Jhelum, Jhelum District, Kabul, Kahan, Kannauj, Kashmir, Katas Raj Temples, Khawas Khan Marwat, Lahore, Lahore Fort, List of forts in Pakistan, List of museums in Pakistan, List of World Heritage Sites in Pakistan, Machicolation, Mahabat Khan, Maharaja, Man Singh I, Mankiala, Mian Hayaud Din, Muftian, Mughal emperors, Mughal Empire, Multan, Nader Shah, Naskh (script), ..., Nur Jahan, Pakistan, Pashtuns, Persian language, Pharwala, Pothohar Plateau, Punjab, Punjab, Pakistan, Punjabi language, Ranjit Singh, Rawat Fort, Sar Jalal, Sasaram, Shah Alam II, Sher Shah Suri, Sher Singh, Six Kalimas, Stepwell, Sultan Sarang Khan, Sur Empire, Tilla Jogian, Timur Shah Durrani, Tomb of Jahangir, UNESCO, Wazirabad, World Heritage site. Expand index (26 more) »

Ahmad Shah Durrani

Ahmad Shāh Durrānī (c. 1722 – 16 October 1772) (Pashto: احمد شاه دراني), also known as Ahmad Khān Abdālī (احمد خان ابدالي), was the founder of the Durrani Empire and is regarded as the founder of the modern state of Afghanistan.

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Abu'l-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar (15 October 1542– 27 October 1605), popularly known as Akbar I, was the third Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1556 to 1605.

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Ashlar is finely dressed (cut, worked) stone, either an individual stone that has been worked until squared or the structure built of it.

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Attock Fort

Attock Fort (اٹک قلعه) was built at Attock Khurd during the reign of Akbar the Great from 1581 to 1583 under the supervision of Khawaja Shamsuddin Khawafi to protect the passage of the River Indus.

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Bahawalpur (بہاولپُور; Punjabi), is a city located in the Punjab province of Pakistan.

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A bastion or bulwark is a structure projecting outward from the curtain wall of a fortification, most commonly angular in shape and positioned at the corners.

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Bihar is an Indian state considered to be a part of Eastern as well as Northern India.

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A canyon (Spanish: cañón; archaic British English spelling: cañon) or gorge is a deep cleft between escarpments or cliffs resulting from weathering and the erosive activity of a river over geologic timescales.

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A caravanserai was a roadside inn where travelers (caravaners) could rest and recover from the day's journey.

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Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis

Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis KG, PC (31 December 1738 – 5 October 1805), styled Viscount Brome between 1753 and 1762 and known as The Earl Cornwallis between 1762 and 1792, was a British Army general and official.

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Dina, Pakistan

Dina (دِینہ), is a commercial town in the Jhelum District of the province of Punjab, Pakistan.

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Ford (crossing)

A ford is a shallow place with good footing where a river or stream may be crossed by wading, or inside a vehicle getting its wheels wet.

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A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare; and is also used to solidify rule in a region during peacetime.

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The Gakhars (also Gakkhar or Ghakhar or Ghakkar) are a clan found predominantly in Pakistan.

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Gatiali (or Patan Gatiali or Gatiyalian) is a village in Jhelum District, Punjab, Pakistan.

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Grand Trunk Road

The Grand Trunk Road is one of Asia's oldest and longest major roads.

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Gujranwala (Punjabi, گوجرانوالا) is a city in Punjab, Pakistan, that is located north of the nearby provincial capital of Lahore.

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Gurdwara Chowa Sahib

Gurdwara Chowa Sahib (گردوارہ چوآ صاحب; literally: "Gurudwara of the exalted spring") is an abandoned gurudwara located at the northern edge of the Rohtas Fort, near Jhelum, Pakistan.

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Hindu temple

A Hindu temple is a symbolic house, seat and body of god.

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Nasir-ud-Din Muḥammad (نصیرالدین محمد|translit.

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Ihsan H. Nadiem

Ihsan H. Nadiem (born 1940) is a Pakistani archaeologist, museologist, author and poet.

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Indian subcontinent

The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.

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International Council on Monuments and Sites

The International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS; Conseil international des monuments et des sites) is a professional association that works for the conservation and protection of cultural heritage places around the world.

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Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Mirza Nur-ud-din Beig Mohammad Khan Salim مرزا نور الدین محمد خان سلیم, known by his imperial name (جہانگیر) Jahangir (31 August 1569 – 28 October 1627), was the fourth Mughal Emperor who ruled from 1605 until his death in 1627.

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Jhelum (جِہلم) is a city on the right bank of the Jhelum River, in the district of the same name in the north of Punjab province, Pakistan.

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Jhelum District

Jhelum District (ضِلع جِہلم), is in Pothohar Plateau of the Punjab province of Pakistan.

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Kabul (کابل) is the capital of Afghanistan and its largest city, located in the eastern section of the country.

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Kahan is located in Kohlu District of Balochistan, Pakistan.

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Kannauj also spelt Kanauj, is a city, administrative headquarters and a municipal board or Nagar Palika Parishad in Kannauj district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.

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Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent.

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Katas Raj Temples

The Katas Raj Temples (Punjabi, کٹاس راج مندر, also known as Qila Katas(), are several Hindu temples connected to one another by walkways. The temples form a complex surrounding a pond named Katas which is regarded as sacred by Hindus. The complex is located in the Potohar Plateau region of Pakistan's Punjab province. The temples are located near the town of Kallar Kahar, and are near the M2 Motorway. The temples' pond is said in the Puranas to have been created from the teardrops of Shiva, after he wandered the Earth inconsolable after the death of his wife Sati. The pond occupies an area of two kanals and 15 marlas, with a maximum depth of 20 feet. The temples play a role in the Hindu epic poem, the Mahābhārata, where the temples are traditionally believed to have been the site where the Pandava brothers spent a significant portion of their exile. It is also traditionally believed by Hindus to be the site where the brothers engaged in a riddle contest with the Yakshas, as described in the Yaksha Prashna. Another tradition states that the Hindu deity Krishna laid the foundation of the temple, and established a hand-made shivling in it. The temples were visited by India's former deputy prime minister Lal Krishna Advani in 2005. In 2006, the Pakistani government began restoration works at the temples, with further improvements announced in 2017.

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Khawas Khan Marwat

Khawas Khan Marwat was one of the best generals of Sher Shah Suri, having played a major role in defeating the Mughal Emperor Humayun in 1539 at the Battle of Chausa.

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Lahore (لاہور, لہور) is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab, and is the country’s second-most populous city after Karachi.

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Lahore Fort

The Lahore Fort (Punjabi and شاہی قلعہ: Shahi Qila, or "Royal Fort"), is a citadel in the city of Lahore, Pakistan.

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List of forts in Pakistan

The following is a partial list of forts and castles in Pakistan.

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List of museums in Pakistan

This is a list of museums, galleries, and related building structures in Pakistan.

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List of World Heritage Sites in Pakistan

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage Sites are places of outstanding cultural or natural importance to the common heritage of humanity.

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A machicolation (mâchicoulis) is a floor opening between the supporting corbels of a battlement, through which stones or other material, such as boiling water or boiling cooking oil, could be dropped on attackers at the base of a defensive wall.

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Mahabat Khan

Mahabat Khan (مهابت خان) (full title Mahabat Khan Khan-e-Khanan Sipah-Salar Zamana Beg Kabuli, born Zamana Beg (died 1634), was a prominent Mughal general and statesman, perhaps best known for his coup against the Mughal Emperor Jahangir in 1626. He also Served Subehdar of Malwa Subah from 1611 to 1623.

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Mahārāja (महाराज, also spelled Maharajah, Moharaja) is a Sanskrit title for a "great ruler", "great king" or "high king".

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Man Singh I

Man Singh (Man Singh I) (21 December 1550 – 6 July 1614) was the Rajput Raja of Amer, a state later known as Jaipur in Rajputana.

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Mankiala (مانكياله.; also known as Manikyala and Manikiyala) is a village in the Potohar plateau, Punjab near Rawalpindi, Pakistan, known for the nearby Mankiala stupa - a Buddhist stupa located at the site where, according to legend, Buddha sacrificed some of his body parts to feed seven hungry tiger cubs.

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Mian Hayaud Din

Major General Mian Hayaud Din HJ MBE MC sc, idc (2 July 1910 – 20 May 1965) was an army officer of the British Indian Army during second world war and later of the Pakistan Army.

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Muftian (دینہ) is a village situated in Tehsil Dina Jhelum District, Punjab, Pakistan.

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Mughal emperors

The Mughal emperors, from the early 16th century to the early 18th century, built and ruled the Mughal Empire on the Indian subcontinent, mainly corresponding to the modern countries of India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh.

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Mughal Empire

The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.

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Multan (Punjabi, Saraiki, مُلتان), is a Pakistani city and the headquarters of Multan District in the province of Punjab.

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Nader Shah

Nader Shah Afshar (نادر شاه افشار; also known as Nader Qoli Beyg نادر قلی بیگ or Tahmāsp Qoli Khan تهماسپ قلی خان) (August 1688 – 19 June 1747) was one of the most powerful Iranian rulers in the history of the nation, ruling as Shah of Persia (Iran) from 1736 to 1747 when he was assassinated during a rebellion.

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Naskh (script)

(نسخ /; also known as Naskhi or by its Turkish name Nesih) is a specific style of the Arabic alphabet, said to have been invented by Persian calligrapher Ibn Muqlah Shirazi (d. 940).

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Nur Jahan

Nur Jahan (born Mehr-un-Nissa) (31 May 1577 – 17 December 1645) was the twentieth (and last) wife of the Mughal emperor Jahangir.

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Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.

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The Pashtuns (or; پښتانه Pax̌tānə; singular masculine: پښتون Pax̌tūn, feminine: پښتنه Pax̌tana; also Pukhtuns), historically known as ethnic Afghans (افغان, Afğān) and Pathans (Hindustani: پٹھان, पठान, Paṭhān), are an Iranic ethnic group who mainly live in Pakistan and Afghanistan.

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Persian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Pharwala Fort (قلعہ پھروالہ) is a 15th century fort located about 40 km from Rawalpindi in Punjab, Pakistan.

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Pothohar Plateau

The Pothohar Plateau (پوٹھوار, سطح مرتفع پوٹھوہار; alternatively spelled Potohar or Potwar) is a plateau in north-eastern Pakistan, forming the northern part of Punjab.

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The Punjab, also spelled Panjab (land of "five rivers"; Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi); Πενταποταμία, Pentapotamia) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India.

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Punjab, Pakistan

Punjab (Urdu, Punjabi:, panj-āb, "five waters") is Pakistan's second largest province by area, after Balochistan, and its most populous province, with an estimated population of 110,012,442 as of 2017.

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Punjabi language

Punjabi (Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ; Shahmukhi: پنجابی) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by over 100 million native speakers worldwide, ranking as the 10th most widely spoken language (2015) in the world.

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Ranjit Singh

Maharaja Ranjit Singh (1780 –1839) was the leader of the Sikh Empire, which ruled the northwest Indian subcontinent in the early half of the 19th century.

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Rawat Fort

Rawat Fort (قلعہ روات) is an early 16th century fort in the Pothohar plateau of Pakistan, near the city of Rawalpindi in the province of Punjab.

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Sar Jalal

Sar Jalal (formerly Jalal Khurd) was a caravanserai located along an old stretch of the Grand Trunk Road in Pakistan.

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Sasaram sometimes also spelled as Sahasram, is an ancient city of India has witnessed the legacy of Sahastrabahu, Shershah Suri, and Jagjivan Ram Babu.

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Shah Alam II

Ali Gauhar (25 June 1728 – 19 November 1806), historically known as Shah Alam II, was the sixteenth Mughal Emperor and the son of Alamgir II.

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Sher Shah Suri

Shēr Shāh Sūrī (1486–22 May 1545), born Farīd Khān, was the founder of the Suri Empire in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, with its capital at Delhi. An ethnic Pashtun, Sher Shah took control of the Mughal Empire in 1538. After his accidental death in 1545, his son Islam Shah became his successor. He first served as a private before rising to become a commander in the Mughal army under Babur and then the governor of Bihar. In 1537, when Babur's son Humayun was elsewhere on an expedition, Sher Shah overran the state of Bengal and established the Suri dynasty. A brilliant strategist, Sher Shah proved himself as a gifted administrator as well as a capable general. His reorganization of the empire laid the foundations for the later Mughal emperors, notably Akbar, son of Humayun. During his seven-year rule from 1538 to 1545, he set up a new civic and military administration, issued the first Rupiya from "Taka" and re-organised the postal system of India. He further developed Humayun's Dina-panah city and named it Shergarh and revived the historical city of Pataliputra, which had been in decline since the 7th century CE, as Patna. He extended the Grand Trunk Road from Chittagong in the frontiers of the province of Bengal in northeast India to Kabul in Afghanistan in the far northwest of the country.

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Sher Singh

Maharaja Sher Singh (4 December 1807 – 15 September 1843) was a son of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.

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Six Kalimas

The Six Kalimas (from Arabic rtl kalimah "word") in Islam in South Asia are six significant parts of one's religious belief, mostly taken from hadiths (in some traditions, six phrases, then known as the five kalimas).

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Stepwells are wells or ponds in which the water is reached by descending a set of steps.

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Sultan Sarang Khan

Sultan Sarang Khan was a chief of the Gakhar tribe which resided in the Pothohar region in northern Punjab region, in modern-day Pakistan.

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Sur Empire

The Sur Empire was an empire established by a Muslim dynasty of Pashtun origin who ruled a large territory in northern part of the Indian subcontinent for nearly 16 years, between 1540 and 1556, with Delhi serving as its capital.

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Tilla Jogian

Tilla Jogian (Punjabi and ٹلہ جوگیاں) is an abandoned Hindu temple and monastic complex located on the summit of the Tilla Jogian mountain in the Salt Range of Pakistan's Punjab province.

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Timur Shah Durrani

Timur Shah Durrani, (Pashto, Persian, Urdu, Arabic:; 1748 – May 18, 1793) was the second ruler of the Durrani Empire, from October 16, 1772 until his death in 1793.

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Tomb of Jahangir

The Tomb of Jahangir (مقبرہُ جہانگیر, جہانگير دا مقبرہ) is a 17th century mausoleum built for the Mughal Emperor Jahangir.

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The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.

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Wazirabad (Urdu/وزِيرآباد) is an industrial city located in Gujranwala District, Punjab, Pakistan.

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World Heritage site

A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.

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Qila Rohtas, Rohtas, Pakistan.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rohtas_Fort

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