486 relations: Agricola (book), Alaric I, Alba, Alcester, Alchester Roman Town, Aldborough, North Yorkshire, Allectus, Ammianus Marcellinus, Amphora, Ancasta, Ancient Greece, Ancient Roman architecture, Ancient Roman pottery, Anglesey, Annals (Tacitus), Antonine Plague, Antonine Wall, Antoninus Pius, Aquae Sulis, Aqueduct (water supply), Archaeology, Armorica, Armour, Atrebates, Attacotti, Augustus, Aulus Platorius Nepos, Aulus Plautius, Aurelian, Aurelius Victor, Auxilia, Baptismal font, Bar Kokhba revolt, Barbarian, Basilica, Bath, Somerset, Battle of Caer Caradoc, Battle of Deorham, Battle of Mons Graupius, Battle of Mons Seleucus, Battle of the Medway, Battle of Watling Street, BBC, Bede, Bedrock, Bishop, Bishop of Lincoln, Bologna, Bonosus (usurper), Boudica, ..., Boulogne-sur-Mer, Bretons, Brigantes, Britannia, Britannia (disambiguation), Britannia Inferior, Britannia Prima, Britannia Secunda, Britannia Superior, British Iron Age, British Museum, Britonia, Brittany, Brough, East 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The Agricola (De vita et moribus Iulii Agricolae, lit. On the life and character of Julius Agricola) is a book by the Roman historian Tacitus, written, which recounts the life of his father-in-law Gnaeus Julius Agricola, an eminent Roman general and Governor of Britain from AD 77/78 – 83/84.
Alaric I (*Alareiks, "ruler of all"; Alaricus; 370 (or 375)410 AD) was the first King of the Visigoths from 395–410, son (or paternal grandson) of chieftain Rothestes.
Alba is the Scottish Gaelic name for Scotland.
Alcester is a market town and civil parish of Roman origin at the junction of the River Alne and River Arrow in Warwickshire, England, approximately west of Stratford-upon-Avon, and 8 miles south of Redditch, close to the Worcestershire border.
Alchester is the site of an ancient Roman town.
Aldborough is a village in the civil parish of Boroughbridge in the Borough of Harrogate in North Yorkshire, England.
Allectus (died 296) was a Roman-Britannic usurper-emperor in Britain and northern Gaul from 293 to 296.
Ammianus Marcellinus (born, died 400) was a Roman soldier and historian who wrote the penultimate major historical account surviving from Antiquity (preceding Procopius).
An amphora (Greek: ἀμφορεύς, amphoréus; English plural: amphorae or amphoras) is a type of container of a characteristic shape and size, descending from at least as early as the Neolithic Period.
Ancasta was a Celtic goddess worshipped in Roman Britain.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Ancient Roman architecture adopted the external language of classical Greek architecture for the purposes of the ancient Romans, but differed from Greek buildings, becoming a new architectural style.
Pottery was produced in enormous quantities in ancient Rome, mostly for utilitarian purposes.
Anglesey (Ynys Môn) is an island situated on the north coast of Wales with an area of.
The Annals (Annales) by Roman historian and senator Tacitus is a history of the Roman Empire from the reign of Tiberius to that of Nero, the years AD 14–68.
The Antonine Plague of 165–180 AD, also known as the Plague of Galen (from the name of the Greek physician living in the Roman Empire who described it), was an ancient pandemic brought back to the Roman Empire by troops returning from campaigns in the Near East.
The Antonine Wall, known to the Romans as Vallum Antonini, was a turf fortification on stone foundations, built by the Romans across what is now the Central Belt of Scotland, between the Firth of Forth and the Firth of Clyde.
Antoninus Pius (Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius; 19 September 867 March 161 AD), also known as Antoninus, was Roman emperor from 138 to 161.
Aquae Sulis was a small town in the Roman province of Britannia.
An aqueduct is a watercourse constructed to convey water.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
Armorica or Aremorica is the name given in ancient times to the part of Gaul between the Seine and the Loire that includes the Brittany Peninsula, extending inland to an indeterminate point and down the Atlantic Coast.
Armour (British English or Canadian English) or armor (American English; see spelling differences) is a protective covering that is used to prevent damage from being inflicted to an object, individual or vehicle by direct contact weapons or projectiles, usually during combat, or from damage caused by a potentially dangerous environment or activity (e.g., cycling, construction sites, etc.). Personal armour is used to protect soldiers and war animals.
The Atrebates (singular Atrebas) were a Belgic tribe of Gaul and Britain before the Roman conquests.
The Attacotti (Atticoti, Attacoti, Atecotti, Atticotti, Atecutti, etc. variously spelled) were a people who despoiled Roman Britain between 364 and 368, along with Scotti, Picts, Saxons, Roman military deserters, and the indigenous Britons themselves.
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
Aulus Platorius Nepos was a Roman senator who held a number of appointments in the imperial service.
Aulus Plautius was a Roman politician and general of the mid-1st century.
Aurelian (Lucius Domitius Aurelianus Augustus; 9 September 214 or 215September or October 275) was Roman Emperor from 270 to 275.
Sextus Aurelius Victor (c. 320 – c. 390) was a historian and politician of the Roman Empire.
The Auxilia (Latin, lit. "auxiliaries") constituted the standing non-citizen corps of the Imperial Roman army during the Principate era (30 BC–284 AD), alongside the citizen legions.
A baptismal font is an article of church furniture used for baptism.
The Bar Kokhba revolt (מרד בר כוכבא; Mered Bar Kokhba) was a rebellion of the Jews of the Roman province of Judea, led by Simon bar Kokhba, against the Roman Empire.
A barbarian is a human who is perceived to be either uncivilized or primitive.
A basilica is a type of building, usually a church, that is typically rectangular with a central nave and aisles, usually with a slightly raised platform and an apse at one or both ends.
Bath is the largest city in the ceremonial county of Somerset, England, known for its Roman-built baths.
The Battle of Caer Caradoc was the final battle in Caratacus's resistance to Roman rule.
The Battle of Deorham (or Dyrham) was a decisive military encounter between the West Saxons and the Britons of the West Country in 577.
The Battle of Mons Graupius was, according to Tacitus, a Roman military victory in what is now Scotland, taking place in AD 83 or, less probably, 84.
The Battle of Mons Seleucus was fought in 353 between the forces of the legitimate Roman emperor Constantius II and the forces of the usurper Magnentius.
The Battle of the Medway took place in 43 AD, probably on the River Medway in the lands of the Iron Age tribe of the Cantiaci, now the English county of Kent.
The Battle of Watling Street took place in Roman Britain in AD 60 or 61 between an alliance of indigenous British peoples led by Boudica and a Roman army led by Gaius Suetonius Paulinus.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
Bede (italic; 672/3 – 26 May 735), also known as Saint Bede, Venerable Bede, and Bede the Venerable (Bēda Venerābilis), was an English Benedictine monk at the monastery of St.
In geology, bedrock is the lithified rock that lies under a loose softer material called regolith at the surface of the Earth or other terrestrial planets.
A bishop (English derivation from the New Testament of the Christian Bible Greek επίσκοπος, epískopos, "overseer", "guardian") is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight.
The Bishop of Lincoln is the ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Lincoln in the Province of Canterbury.
Bologna (Bulåggna; Bononia) is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna Region in Northern Italy.
Bonosus (died 280) was a late 3rd-century Roman usurper.
Boudica (Latinised as Boadicea or Boudicea, and known in Welsh as Buddug) was a queen of the British Celtic Iceni tribe who led an uprising against the occupying forces of the Roman Empire in AD 60 or 61, and died shortly after its failure, having supposedly poisoned herself.
Boulogne-sur-Mer, often called Boulogne (Latin: Gesoriacum or Bononia, Boulonne-su-Mér, Bonen), is a coastal city in Northern France.
The Bretons (Bretoned) are a Celtic ethnic group located in the region of Brittany in France.
The Brigantes were a Celtic tribe who in pre-Roman times controlled the largest section of what would become Northern England.
Britannia has been used in several different senses.
Britannia has various meanings, including the island, or the female personification, of Britain.
Britannia Inferior (Latin for "Lower Britain") was a new province carved out of Roman Britain around 197 during the reforms of Septimius Severus.
Britannia Prima or Britannia I (Latin for "First Britain") was one of the provinces of the Diocese of "the Britains" created during the Diocletian Reforms at the end of the 3rd century.
Britannia Secunda or Britannia II (Latin for "Second Britain") was one of the provinces of the Diocese of "the Britains" created during the Diocletian Reforms at the end of the 3rd century.
Britannia Superior (Latin for "Upper Britain") was one of the provinces of Roman Britain created around 197 by Emperor Septimius Severus immediately after winning a civil war against Clodius Albinus, a war fought to determine who would be the next emperor.
The British Iron Age is a conventional name used in the archaeology of Great Britain, referring to the prehistoric and protohistoric phases of the Iron Age culture of the main island and the smaller islands, typically excluding prehistoric Ireland, which had an independent Iron Age culture of its own.
The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture.
Britonia (which became Bretoña in Galician) is the historical, apparently Latinized name of a Celtic settlement, presently Santa Maria de Bretoña, or A Pastoriza, in the Province of Lugo, autonomous community of Galicia, Spain.
Brittany (Bretagne; Breizh, pronounced or; Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced) is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation.
Brough is a small town in the civil parish of Elloughton-cum-Brough in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England.
The Burgundians (Burgundiōnes, Burgundī; Burgundar; Burgendas; Βούργουνδοι) were a large East Germanic or Vandal tribe, or group of tribes, who lived in the area of modern Poland in the time of the Roman Empire.
Buxton is a spa town in Derbyshire, in the East Midlands region of England.
Caer (cair or kair) is a placename element in Welsh meaning "stronghold", "fortress", or "citadel", roughly equivalent to the Old English suffix now variously written as and.
Caerellius Priscus is the name given to the man on an inscription recovered at Mogontiacum (Mainz), set up by a governor of Germania Superior who was afterwards governor of Roman Britain in the late 170s.
Caerleon (Caerllion) is a suburban town and community, situated on the River Usk in the northern outskirts of the city of Newport, Wales.
Caernarfon is a royal town, community, and port in Gwynedd, Wales, with a population of 9,615.
The Caernarfon Mithraeum is a Roman Temple to the Roman god Mithras (or a mithraeum).
Caerwent is a village and community in Monmouthshire, Wales.
Caesar (English Caesars; Latin Caesares) is a title of imperial character.
In the course of his Gallic Wars, Julius Caesar invaded Britain twice: in 55 and 54 BC.
Caister Roman Site is a Roman Saxon Shore fort, located in Caister-on-Sea, Norfolk.
Calabria (Calàbbria in Calabrian; Calavría in Calabrian Greek; Καλαβρία in Greek; Kalavrì in Arbëresh/Albanian), known in antiquity as Bruttium, is a region in Southern Italy.
Caledonia is the Latin name given by the Romans to the land in today's Scotland, north of their province of Britannia, beyond the frontier of their empire.
The Caledonians (Caledones or Caledonii; Καληδώνες, Kalēdōnes) or the Caledonian Confederacy were a Brittonic-speaking (Celtic) tribal confederacy in what is now Scotland during the Iron Age and Roman eras.
Caligula (Latin: Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 31 August 12 – 24 January 41 AD) was Roman emperor from AD 37 to AD 41.
Calleva Atrebatum ("Calleva of the Atrebates") was originally an Iron Age settlement, capital of the Atrebates tribe, and subsequently a town in the Roman province of Britannia.
Camulodunum (camvlodvnvm), the Ancient Roman name for what is now Colchester in Essex, was an important town in Roman Britain, and the first capital of the province.
Canterbury is a historic English cathedral city and UNESCO World Heritage Site, which lies at the heart of the City of Canterbury, a local government district of Kent, England.
Caracalla (Latin: Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus Augustus; 4 April 188 – 8 April 217), formally known as Antoninus, was Roman emperor from 198 to 217 AD.
Caratacus (Brythonic *Caratācos, Middle Welsh Caratawc; Welsh Caradog; Breton Karadeg; Greek Καράτακος; variants Latin Caractacus, Greek Καρτάκης) was a 1st-century AD British chieftain of the Catuvellauni tribe, who led the British resistance to the Roman conquest.
The Carausian Revolt (286–296) was an episode in Roman history, during which a Roman naval commander, Carausius, declared himself emperor over Britain and northern Gaul.
Marcus Aurelius Mausaeus Valerius Carausius (died 293) was a military commander of the Roman Empire in the 3rd century.
Carlisle (or from Cumbric: Caer Luel Cathair Luail) is the county town of Cumbria.
Carmarthen (Caerfyrddin, "Merlin's fort") is the county town of Carmarthenshire in Wales.
Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia.
Cartimandua or Cartismandua (reigned) was a 1st-century queen of the Brigantes, a Celtic people living in what is now northern England.
The Cassiterides (“Tin Islands”, from Greek κασσίτερος, kassíteros “tin”), are an ancient geographical name of islands that were regarded as situated somewhere near the west coasts of Europe.
Cassius Dio or Dio Cassius (c. 155 – c. 235) was a Roman statesman and historian of Greek origin.
Cassivellaunus was a historical British tribal chief who led the defence against Julius Caesar's second expedition to Britain in 54 BC.
In the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, the Latin word castrum (plural castra) was a building, or plot of land, used as a fortified military camp.
The Catuvellauni were a Celtic tribe or state of southeastern Britain before the Roman conquest, attested by inscriptions into the 4th century.
The Britons, also known as Celtic Britons or Ancient Britons, were Celtic people who inhabited Great Britain from the British Iron Age into the Middle Ages, at which point their culture and language diverged into the modern Welsh, Cornish and Bretons (among others).
Celtic Christianity or Insular Christianity refers broadly to certain features of Christianity that were common, or held to be common, across the Celtic-speaking world during the Early Middle Ages.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
Charles Duke Yonge (30 November 1812 – 30 November 1891) was an English historian, classicist and cricketer.
Chelmsford is the principal settlement of the City of Chelmsford district, and the county town of Essex, in the East of England.
Chester (Caer) is a walled city in Cheshire, England, on the River Dee, close to the border with Wales.
Chester-le-Street is a town in County Durham, England.
Chichester is a cathedral city in West Sussex, in South-East England.
Cirencester (see below for more variations) is a market town in east Gloucestershire, England, west northwest of London.
The City of London is a city and county that contains the historic centre and the primary central business district (CBD) of London.
In the history of Rome, the Latin term civitas (plural civitates), according to Cicero in the time of the late Roman Republic, was the social body of the cives, or citizens, united by law (concilium coetusque hominum jure sociati).
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
The Classis Britannica (literally, British fleet, in the sense of 'the fleet in British waters' or 'the fleet of the province of Britannia', rather than 'the fleet of the state of Britain') was a provincial naval fleet of the navy of ancient Rome.
The Classis Germanica was a Roman fleet in Germania Superior and Germania Inferior.
Claudius (Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 1 August 10 BC – 13 October 54 AD) was Roman emperor from 41 to 54.
Clodius Albinus (Decimus Clodius Septimius Albinus Augustus; c. 150 – 19 February 197) was a Roman usurper who was proclaimed emperor by the legions in Britain and Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula, comprising modern Spain and Portugal) after the murder of Pertinax in 193 (known as the "Year of the Five Emperors"), and who proclaimed himself emperor again in 196, before his final defeat the following year.
Colchester is an historic market town and the largest settlement within the borough of Colchester in the county of Essex.
Colijnsplaat is a town in the Dutch Province of Zeeland.
Cologne (Köln,, Kölle) is the largest city in the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the fourth most populated city in Germany (after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich).
Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium was the Roman colony in the Rhineland from which the German city of Cologne developed.
Commentāriī dē Bellō Gallicō (italic), also Bellum Gallicum (italic), is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative.
Comminution is the reduction of solid materials from one average particle size to a smaller average particle size, by crushing, grinding, cutting, vibrating, or other processes.
Commius (Commios, Comius, Comnios) was a king of the Belgic nation of the Atrebates, initially in Gaul, then in Britain, in the 1st century BC.
Commodus (31 August 161– 31 December 192AD), born Lucius Aurelius Commodus and died Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus, was Roman emperor with his father Marcus Aurelius from177 to his father's death in 180, and solely until 192.
Concangis was an auxiliary castra close to Dere Street in the Roman province of Lower Britain (Britannia Inferior).
Constans (Flavius Julius Constans Augustus;Jones, p. 220 Κῶνστας Αʹ; c. 323 – 350) or Constans I was Roman Emperor from 337 to 350.
Flavius Claudius Constantinus,Jones, pg.
Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor of Illyrian and Greek origin from 306 to 337 AD.
Constantius I (Marcus Flavius Valerius Constantius Herculius Augustus;Martindale, pg. 227 31 March 25 July 306), commonly known as Constantius Chlorus (Χλωρός, Kōnstantios Khlōrós, literally "Constantius the Pale"), was Caesar, a form of Roman co-emperor, from 293 to 306.
Constantius II (Flavius Julius Constantius Augustus; Κωνστάντιος; 7 August 317 – 3 November 361) was Roman Emperor from 337 to 361. The second son of Constantine I and Fausta, he ascended to the throne with his brothers Constantine II and Constans upon their father's death. In 340, Constantius' brothers clashed over the western provinces of the empire. The resulting conflict left Constantine II dead and Constans as ruler of the west until he was overthrown and assassinated in 350 by the usurper Magnentius. Unwilling to accept Magnentius as co-ruler, Constantius defeated him at the battles of Mursa Major and Mons Seleucus. Magnentius committed suicide after the latter battle, leaving Constantius as sole ruler of the empire. His subsequent military campaigns against Germanic tribes were successful: he defeated the Alamanni in 354 and campaigned across the Danube against the Quadi and Sarmatians in 357. In contrast, the war in the east against the Sassanids continued with mixed results. In 351, due to the difficulty of managing the empire alone, Constantius elevated his cousin Constantius Gallus to the subordinate rank of Caesar, but had him executed three years later after receiving scathing reports of his violent and corrupt nature. Shortly thereafter, in 355, Constantius promoted his last surviving cousin, Gallus' younger half-brother, Julian, to the rank of Caesar. However, Julian claimed the rank of Augustus in 360, leading to war between the two. Ultimately, no battle was fought as Constantius became ill and died late in 361, though not before naming Julian as his successor.
Continental or mainland Europe is the continuous continent of Europe excluding its surrounding islands.
Corbridge is a village in Northumberland, England, west of Newcastle and east of Hexham.
Coria was a fort and town south of Hadrian's Wall, in the Roman province of Britannia at a point where a big Roman north–south road (Dere Street) bridged the River Tyne and met another Roman road (Stanegate), which ran east–west between Coria and Luguvalium (the modern Carlisle) in the Solway Plain.
Corinium Dobunnorum was the Romano-British settlement at Cirencester in the present-day English county of Gloucestershire.
Cornish (Kernowek) is a revived language that became extinct as a first language in the late 18th century.
Cornwall (Kernow) is a county in South West England in the United Kingdom.
Count Theodosius (Comes Theodosius) was a senior military officer serving in the Western Roman Empire.
In Greek mythology, Cyrene or Kyrene (Κῡρήνη, "Sovereign Queen"), as recorded in Pindar's ninth Pythian ode, was the daughter of Hypseus, king of the Lapiths, although some myths state that her father was actually the river-god Peneus and she was a nymph rather than a mortal.
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
Dark earth in archaeology is an archaeological horizon, as much as thick, indicating settlement over long periods of time.
De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae (Latin for "On the Ruin and Conquest of Britain", sometimes just "On the Ruin of Britain") is a work by the 6th-century AD British cleric St Gildas.
The Deceangli or Deceangi (Welsh: Tegeingl) were one of the Celtic tribes living in Britain, prior to the Roman invasion of the island.
Deruvian (Deruvianus), also known by several other names including Damian, was a possibly legendary 2nd-century bishop and saint, said to have been sent by the pope to answer King Lucius's request for baptism and conversion to Christianity.
Deva Victrix, or simply Deva, was a legionary fortress and town in the Roman province of Britannia on the site of the modern city of Chester.
Diocletian (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus), born Diocles (22 December 244–3 December 311), was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305.
The Dobunni were one of the Iron Age tribes living in the British Isles prior to the Roman invasion of Britain.
The Dolaucothi Gold Mines (Mwynfeydd Aur Dolaucothi), also known as the Ogofau Gold Mine, are ancient Roman surface and underground mines located in the valley of the River Cothi, near Pumsaint, Carmarthenshire, Wales.
Domburg is a seaside resort on the North Sea, on the northwest coast of Walcheren in the Dutch province of Zeeland.
Dorchester is the county town of Dorset, England.
Dover is a town and major ferry port in the home county of Kent, in South East England.
A druid (derwydd; druí; draoidh) was a member of the high-ranking professional class in ancient Celtic cultures.
Dubris, also known as Portus Dubris and Dubrae, was a port in Roman Britain on the site of present-day Dover, Kent, England.
Durnovaria is the Latin form of the Brythonic name for the Roman town of Dorchester in the modern English county of Dorset.
Durovernum Cantiacorum was a town and hillfort (oppidum) in Roman Britain at the site of present-day Canterbury in Kent.
Early Christianity, defined as the period of Christianity preceding the First Council of Nicaea in 325, typically divides historically into the Apostolic Age and the Ante-Nicene Period (from the Apostolic Age until Nicea).
The Eastern Mediterranean denotes the countries geographically to the east of the Mediterranean Sea (Levantine Seabasin).
Eboracum (Latin /ebo'rakum/, English or) was a fort and city in the Roman province of Britannia.
Eborius or Eburius (fl. 314) is the first bishop of Eboracum (the later York) known by name.
Edward Stillingfleet (17 April 1635 – 27 March 1699) was a British theologian and scholar.
The end of Roman rule in Britain was the transition from Roman Britain to post-Roman Britain.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
The English Channel (la Manche, "The Sleeve"; Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Mor Bretannek, "Sea of Brittany"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.
Epigraphy (ἐπιγραφή, "inscription") is the study of inscriptions or epigraphs as writing; it is the science of identifying graphemes, clarifying their meanings, classifying their uses according to dates and cultural contexts, and drawing conclusions about the writing and the writers.
The equites (eques nom. singular; sometimes referred to as "knights" in modern times) constituted the second of the property-based classes of ancient Rome, ranking below the senatorial class.
Eunapius (Εὐνάπιος; fl. 4th–5th century AD) was a Greek sophist and historian of the 4th century AD.
The European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) or coney is a species of rabbit native to southwestern Europe (including Spain, Portugal and Western France) and to northwest Africa (including Morocco and Algeria).
Flavius Eutropius was an Ancient Roman historian who flourished in the latter half of the 4th century AD.
Eutychius of Alexandria (Arabic: Sa'id ibn Batriq or Bitriq; 10 September 877 – 12 May 940) was the Melkite Patriarch of Alexandria.
Exeter is a cathedral city in Devon, England, with a population of 129,800 (mid-2016 EST).
Fagan (Faganus; Ffagan), also known by other names including Fugatius, was a legendary 2nd-century Welsh bishop and saint, said to have been sent by the pope to answer King Lucius's request for baptism and conversion to Christianity.
Festus, whose name also appears in the manuscripts of his work as Rufus Festus, Ruffus Festus, Sextus Festus, Sextus Rufus, and Sextus, was a Late Roman historian and proconsul of Asia whose epitome Breviarium rerum gestarum populi Romani ("Summary of the history of Rome") was commissioned by the emperor Valens in preparation for his war against Persia.
Fire-setting is a method of traditional mining used most commonly from prehistoric times up to the Middle Ages.
The Firth of Clyde is an inlet of the Atlantic Ocean off the southwest coast of Scotland, named for the River Clyde which empties into it.
The Firth of Forth (Linne Foirthe) is the estuary (firth) of several Scottish rivers including the River Forth.
Fishbourne is a village, civil parish and electoral ward in the Chichester District of West Sussex, England and is situated two miles west of Chichester.
Flavia Caesariensis (Latin for "The Caesarian province of Flavius"), sometimes known as Britannia Flavia, was one of the provinces of the Diocese of "the Britains" created during the Diocletian Reforms at the end of the 3rd century.
Flavius Aetius (Flavius Aetius; 391–454), dux et patricius, commonly called simply Aetius or Aëtius, was a Roman general of the closing period of the Western Roman Empire.
Flavius Martinus was a vicarius of Roman Britain c. 353 under Constantius II.
The Fosse Way was a Roman road in England that linked Exeter (Isca Dumnoniorum) in South West England to Lincoln (Lindum Colonia) in Lincolnshire, via Ilchester (Lindinis), Bath (Aquae Sulis), Cirencester (Corinium) and Leicester (Ratae Corieltauvorum).
Francis Thackeray (1793–1842) was a Church of England clergyman and author.
The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.
A freedman or freedwoman is a former slave who has been released from slavery, usually by legal means.
Sextus Julius Frontinus (c. 40 – 103 AD) was a prominent Roman civil engineer, author, and politician of the late 1st century AD.
Gabriel Cossart (1615–1674) was a French Jesuit, known as a historian.
The Gaels (Na Gaeil, Na Gàidheil, Ny Gaeil) are an ethnolinguistic group native to northwestern Europe.
Gaius Suetonius Paulinus (fl. 1st century) was a Roman general best known as the commander who defeated the rebellion of Boudica.
"Gallic Empire" (Imperium Galliarum) or Gallic Roman Empire are two names for a breakaway part of the Roman Empire that functioned de facto as a separate state from 260 to 274.
The Gallic Wars were a series of military campaigns waged by the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar against several Gallic tribes.
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus Augustus; c. 218 – 268), also known as Gallien, was Roman Emperor with his father Valerian from 253 to 260 and alone from 260 to 268.
Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
The Geographica (Ancient Greek: Γεωγραφικά Geōgraphiká), or Geography, is an encyclopedia of geographical knowledge, consisting of 17 'books', written in Greek by Strabo, an educated citizen of the Roman Empire of Greek descent.
Gerald of Wales (Giraldus Cambrensis; Gerallt Gymro; Gerald de Barri) was a Cambro-Norman archdeacon of Brecon and historian.
"Germania" was the Roman term for the geographical region in north-central Europe inhabited mainly by Germanic peoples.
Germania Inferior ("Lower Germany") was a Roman province located on the west bank of the Rhine.
Geta (Latin: Publius, or Lucius, Septimius Geta Augustus;In Classical Latin, Geta's name would be inscribed as PVBLIVS SEPTIMIVS GETA AVGVSTVS. 7 March 189 – 26 December 211) was Roman emperor with his father Septimius Severus and older brother Caracalla from 209, when he was named Augustus like his brother, who had held the title since 198.
Gildas (Breton: Gweltaz; c. 500 – c. 570) — also known as Gildas the Wise or Gildas Sapiens — was a 6th-century British monk best known for his scathing religious polemic De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae, which recounts the history of the Britons before and during the coming of the Saxons.
Glevum (or, more formally, Colonia Nervia Glevensium, or occasionally Glouvia) was a Roman fort in Roman Britain that became a "colonia" of retired legionaries in AD 97.
Gloucester is a city and district in Gloucestershire, England, of which it is the county town.
Gloucestershire (formerly abbreviated as Gloucs. in print but now often as Glos.) is a county in South West England.
Gnaeus Julius Agricola (13 June 40 – 23 August 93) was a Gallo-Roman general responsible for much of the Roman conquest of Britain.
Gnaeus Julius Verus was Roman senator and general of the mid-2nd century AD.
Gold mining is the resource extraction of gold by mining.
A gold nugget is a naturally occurring piece of native gold.
Gordian I (Caesar Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus Augustus; c. 159 AD – 12 April 238 AD) was Roman Emperor for 21 days with his son Gordian II in 238, the Year of the Six Emperors.
Grave goods, in archaeology and anthropology, are the items buried along with the body.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
Great Casterton is a village and civil parish in the county of Rutland in the East Midlands of England.
Great Chesterford is a medium-sized village and civil parish in the Uttlesford district of Essex, England.
The Great Conspiracy was a year-long state of war and disorder that occurred in Roman Britain near the end of the Roman occupation of the island.
Mystery religions, sacred mysteries or simply mysteries were religious schools of the Greco-Roman world for which participation was reserved to initiates (mystai).
The Gregorian missionJones "Gregorian Mission" Speculum p. 335 or Augustinian missionMcGowan "Introduction to the Corpus" Companion to Anglo-Saxon Literature p. 17 was a Christian mission sent by Pope Gregory the Great in 596 to convert Britain's Anglo-Saxons.
Grime's Graves is a large Neolithic flint mining complex in Norfolk, England.
The Groans of the Britons (gemitus Britannorum) is the name of the final appeal made by the Britons to the Roman military for assistance against Pict and Scot raiders.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
Guy Martyn Thorold Huchet de la Bédoyère (born November 1957) is a British historian, who has published widely on Roman Britain and other subjects; and has appeared regularly on the Channel 4 archaeological television series Time Team, starting in 1998.
Hachette is a French publisher.
Hadrian (Publius Aelius Hadrianus Augustus; 24 January 76 – 10 July 138 AD) was Roman emperor from 117 to 138.
Hadrian's Wall (Vallum Aelium), also called the Roman Wall, Picts' Wall, or Vallum Hadriani in Latin, was a defensive fortification in the Roman province of Britannia, begun in AD 122 in the reign of the emperor Hadrian.
Helix pomatia, common names the Roman snail, Burgundy snail, edible snail or escargot, is a species of large, edible, air-breathing land snail, a terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Helicidae.
Sir Henry Spelman (c.1562 – October 1641) was an English antiquary, noted for his detailed collections of medieval records, in particular of church councils.
Herodian or Herodianus (Ἡρωδιανός) of Syria, sometimes referred to as "Herodian of Antioch" (c. 170 – c. 240), was a minor Roman civil servant who wrote a colourful history in Greek titled History of the Empire from the Death of Marcus (τῆς μετὰ Μάρκον βασιλείας ἱστορία) in eight books covering the years 180 to 238.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
Highlands or uplands are any mountainous region or elevated mountainous plateau.
Himilco (a Greek transliteration of the Phoenician '"HMLK," or "Himilk," was a Carthaginian navigator and explorer who lived during the height of Carthaginian power in the late 6th century BC. Himilco is the first known explorer from the Mediterranean Sea to reach the northwestern shores of Europe. His lost account of his adventures is quoted by Roman writers. The oldest reference to Himilco's voyage is a brief mention in Natural History (2.169a) by the Roman scholar Pliny the Elder. Himilco was quoted three times by Rufus Festus Avienus, who wrote Ora Maritima, a poetical account of the geography in the 4th century AD. We know next to nothing of Himilco himself. Himilco sailed north along the Atlantic coast of present-day Spain, Portugal, England and France. He reached northwestern France, as well as the territory of the Oestrimini tribe living in Portugal probably to trade for tin to be used for making bronze and for other precious metals. Records of the voyages of the Carthaginian Himilco take note of the islands of Albion and Ierne. Avienus asserts that the outward journey to the Oestriminis took the Carthaginians four months. Himilco was not (according to Avienus) the first to sail the northern Atlantic Ocean; according to Avienus, Himilco followed the trade route used by the Tartessians of southern Iberia. Himilco described his journeys as quite harrowing, repeatedly reporting sea monsters and seaweed, likely in order to deter Greek rivals from competing on their new trade routes. Carthaginian accounts of monsters became one source of the myths discouraging sailing in the Atlantic.
Hinton St Mary is a village and civil parish in the county of Dorset in southern England.
Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula.
The Histories (Ἱστορίαι;; also known as The History) of Herodotus is considered the founding work of history in Western literature.
Histories (Historiae) is a Roman historical chronicle by Tacitus.
The history of the British Isles has witnessed intermittent periods of competition and cooperation between the people that occupy the various parts of Great Britain, the Isle of Man, Ireland, the Bailiwick of Guernsey, the Bailiwick of Jersey and the smaller adjacent islands, which together make up the British Isles.
Trier in Rhineland-Palatinate, whose history dates to the Roman Empire, is often claimed to be the oldest city in Germany.
A hoard or "wealth deposit" is an archaeological term for a collection of valuable objects or artifacts, sometimes purposely buried in the ground, in which case it is sometimes also known as a cache.
The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.
Honorius (Flavius Honorius Augustus; 9 September 384 – 15 August 423) was Western Roman Emperor from 393 to 423.
Hucclecote is a village in Gloucestershire, United Kingdom, comprising a ward (population 8,826) in the City of Gloucester, and an adjacent civil parish (population 1,332) in the Borough of Tewkesbury.
Hydraulic mining, or hydraulicking, is a form of mining that uses high-pressure jets of water to dislodge rock material or move sediment.
The Iceni or Eceni were a Brittonic tribe of eastern Britain during the Iron Age and early Roman era.
Icklingham is a village in the Forest Heath district of the English county of Suffolk.
Ilchester is a village and civil parish, situated on the River Yeo or Ivel, five miles north of Yeovil, in the English county of Somerset.
In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.
The Insular Celts are the speakers of the Insular Celtic languages, which comprise all the living Celtic languages as well as their precursors, but the term is mostly used in reference to the peoples of the British Iron Age prior to the Roman conquest, and their contemporaries in Ireland.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
Isca, variously specified as Isca Augusta or Isca Silurum, was the site of a Roman legionary fortress and settlement or vicus, the remains of which lie beneath parts of the present-day suburban village of Caerleon in the north of the city of Newport in South Wales.
Isca Dumnoniorum, also known simply as Isca, was a town in the Roman province of Britannia at the site of present-day Exeter in the English county of Devon in the United Kingdom.
Isurium or Isurium of the Brigantes (Isurium Brigantum) was a Roman fort and town in the province of Britannia at the site of present-day Aldborough in North Yorkshire, England, in the United Kingdom.
James Ussher (or Usher; 4 January 1581 – 21 March 1656) was the Church of Ireland Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland between 1625 and 1656.
Joan Pilsbury Alcock BA MA DipEd PhD, FSA is an archeologist and historian and an Honorary Fellow of London South Bank University.
John Manley (born 1950) is a British archaeologist and author.
John Robert Morris (8 June 1913 – 1 June 1977) was an English historian who specialised in the study of the institutions of the Roman Empire and the history of Sub-Roman Britain.
John Selden (16 December 1584 – 30 November 1654) was an English jurist, a scholar of England's ancient laws and constitution and scholar of Jewish law.
Joseph Bingham (September 1668 – 17 August 1723), was an English scholar and divine.
Julian (Flavius Claudius Iulianus Augustus; Φλάβιος Κλαύδιος Ἰουλιανὸς Αὔγουστος; 331/332 – 26 June 363), also known as Julian the Apostate, was Roman Emperor from 361 to 363, as well as a notable philosopher and author in Greek.
Saint Aaron and Saint Julius (or Julian) were two Romano-British Christian saints who were martyred around the third century.
Julius Asclepiodotus was a Roman praetorian prefect who, according to the Historia Augusta, served under the emperors Aurelian, Probus and Diocletian, and was consul in 292.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties.
King Arthur is a legendary British leader who, according to medieval histories and romances, led the defence of Britain against Saxon invaders in the late 5th and early 6th centuries.
The La Tène culture was a European Iron Age culture named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel in Switzerland, where thousands of objects had been deposited in the lake, as was discovered after the water level dropped in 1857.
Lactodurum was a town in the Roman province of Britannia.
LACTOR (London Association of Classical Teachers - Original Records) are a series of sourcebooks published by the LACTOR committee since 1968.
The Laterculus Veronensis or Verona List is a list of Roman provinces from the times of the Roman emperors Diocletian and Constantine I. The list is transmitted only in a 7th-century manuscript, which is preserved in the Chapter House Library (Biblioteca Capitolare) in Verona.
Legend is a genre of folklore that consists of a narrative featuring human actions perceived or believed both by teller and listeners to have taken place within human history.
Legio secunda Augusta ("Augustus' Second Legion") was a legion of the Imperial Roman army that was founded during the late Roman republic.
Legio IX Hispana ("9th Legion – Spanish"), also written Legio nona Hispana or Legio VIIII Hispana, was a legion of the Imperial Roman army that existed from the 1st century BC until at least AD 120.
Legio sexta victrix ("Victorious Sixth Legion") was a legion of the Imperial Roman army founded in 41 BC by the general Octavian (later known as the emperor Augustus).
Legio quarta decima Gemina ("The Twinned Fourteenth Legion") was a legion of the Imperial Roman army, levied by Julius Caesar in 57 BC.
Legio vigesima Valeria Victrix, in English Twentieth Victorious Valeria Legion was a legion of the Imperial Roman army.
Leicester ("Lester") is a city and unitary authority area in the East Midlands of England, and the county town of Leicestershire.
Libanius (Λιβάνιος, Libanios; c. 314 – 392 or 393) was a Greek teacher of rhetoric of the Sophist school.
Lincoln is a cathedral city and the county town of Lincolnshire in the East Midlands of England.
Lindinis or Lendiniae was a small town in the Roman province of Britannia.
Lindum Colonia, was the Roman name for the settlement which is now the City of Lincoln in Lincolnshire.
This is a list of Celtic tribes, listed in order of the Roman province (after Roman conquest) or the general area in which they lived.
This is a partial list of governors of Roman Britain from 43 to 409.
This list of Welsh saints includes Christian saints with Welsh connections, either because they were of Welsh origin and ethnicity or because they travelled to Wales from their own homeland and became noted in their hagiography for their work there.
Londinium was a settlement established on the current site of the City of London around 43.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
The London Mithraeum, also known as the Temple of Mithras, Walbrook, is a Roman mithraeum that was discovered in Walbrook, a street in the City of London, during a building's construction in 1954.
The Lord's Prayer (also called the Our Father, Pater Noster, or the Model Prayer) is a venerated Christian prayer which, according to the New Testament, Jesus taught as the way to pray: Two versions of this prayer are recorded in the gospels: a longer form within the Sermon on the Mount in the Gospel of Matthew, and a shorter form in the Gospel of Luke when "one of his disciples said to him, 'Lord, teach us to pray, as John taught his disciples.'" Lutheran theologian Harold Buls suggested that both were original, the Matthaen version spoken by Jesus early in his ministry in Galilee, and the Lucan version one year later, "very likely in Judea".
Lucius Alfenus Senecio was a Roman figure of the late 2nd and early 3rd centuries.
Colonia Copia Claudia Augusta Lugdunum (modern: Lyon, France) was an important Roman city in Gaul.
Luguvalium was a Roman town in northern Britain in antiquity.
Lullingstone is a village in the county of Kent, England.
The Maeatae were a confederation of tribes who lived probably beyond the Antonine Wall in Roman Britain.
Magnentius (Latin: Flavius Magnus Magnentius Augustus; r. 303 – August 11, 353) was an usurper of the Roman Empire from 350 to 353.
Magnus Maximus (Flavius Magnus Maximus Augustus, Macsen Wledig) (August 28, 388) was Western Roman Emperor from 383 to 388.
Mamucium, also known as Mancunium, is a former Roman fort in the Castlefield area of Manchester in North West England.
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 530,300.
Mandubracius or Mandubratius was a king of the Trinovantes of south-eastern Britain in the 1st century BC.
The Marcomannic Wars (Latin: bellum Germanicum et Sarmaticum, "German and Sarmatian War") were a series of wars lasting over a dozen years from about 166 until 180 AD.
In ancient Roman religion and myth, Mars (Mārs) was the god of war and also an agricultural guardian, a combination characteristic of early Rome.
Maxima Caesariensis (Latin for "The Caesarian province of Maximus"), also known as Britannia Maxima, was one of the provinces of the Diocese of "the Britains" created during the Diocletian Reforms at the end of the 3rd century.
Maximian (Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius Augustus; c. 250 – c. July 310) was Roman Emperor from 286 to 305.
Mayen is a town in the Mayen-Koblenz District of the Rhineland-Palatinate Federal State of Germany, in the eastern part of the Volcanic Eifel Region.
Mediolanum was a fort and small town in the Roman province of Britannia.
The Menapii were a Belgic tribe of northern Gaul in pre-Roman and Roman times.
The Mendip Hills (commonly called the Mendips) is a range of limestone hills to the south of Bristol and Bath in Somerset, England.
Mercia (Miercna rīce) was one of the kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy.
Merionethshire or Merioneth (Meirionnydd or Sir Feirionnydd) is one of thirteen historic counties of Wales, a vice county and a former administrative county.
In Christian churches with episcopal polity, the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the diocesan bishop or archbishop of a metropolis (then more precisely called metropolitan archbishop); that is, the chief city of a historical Roman province, ecclesiastical province, or regional capital.
Michael Gordon Fulford, CBE, FBA, (born 1948 Hampshire) is Professor of Archaeology at the University of Reading, He studied Archaeology and Latin at Southampton University, where he was also awarded a doctorate.
Mikhail Ivanovich Rostovtzeff, or Rostovtsev (Михаи́л Ива́нович Росто́вцев) (Zhitomir, Russian Empire – October 20, 1952, New Haven, USA) was an ancient historian whose career straddled the 19th and 20th centuries and who produced important works on ancient Roman and Greek history.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Mining was one of the most prosperous activities in Roman Britain.
A minority language is a language spoken by a minority of the population of a territory.
Mithraism, also known as the Mithraic mysteries, was a mystery religion centered around the god Mithras that was practised in the Roman Empire from about the 1st to the 4th century CE.
Moridunum was a Roman fort and town in the Roman province of Britannia.
Mussel is the common name used for members of several families of bivalve molluscs, from saltwater and freshwater habitats.
The Natural History (Naturalis Historia) is a book about the whole of the natural world in Latin by Pliny the Elder, a Roman author and naval commander who died in 79 AD.
Nene Valley Colour Coated Ware (or Castor Ware) is a type of Romano-British ceramic produced in the lower Nene Valley (centered on Durobrivae (Water Newton) from the mid-2nd to 4th centuries AD. The full name is usually abbreviated to NVCC.
Nero (Latin: Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 15 December 37 – 9 June 68 AD) was the last Roman emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty.
Nettleham is a large village and civil parish within the West Lindsey district of Lincolnshire, England.
Newcastle upon Tyne, commonly known as Newcastle, is a city in Tyne and Wear, North East England, 103 miles (166 km) south of Edinburgh and 277 miles (446 km) north of London on the northern bank of the River Tyne, from the North Sea.
Newstead is a village in the Scottish Borders, about east of Melrose.
The Norman conquest of England (in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.
Northumberland (abbreviated Northd) is a county in North East England.
Northwich is a town and civil parish in the unitary authority of Cheshire West and Chester and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, England.
The Notitia Dignitatum (Latin for "The List of Offices") is a document of the late Roman Empire that details the administrative organization of the Eastern and Western Empires.
Noviomagus Reginorum was the Roman town which is today called Chichester, situated in the modern English county of West Sussex.
Oceanus (Ὠκεανός Ōkeanós), also known as Ogenus (Ὤγενος Ōgenos or Ὠγηνός Ōgēnos) or Ogen (Ὠγήν Ōgēn), was a divine figure in classical antiquity, believed by the ancient Greeks and Romans to be the divine personification of the sea, an enormous river encircling the world.
The Ordovices were one of the Celtic tribes living in Great Britain before the Roman invasion.
Orkney (Orkneyjar), also known as the Orkney Islands, is an archipelago in the Northern Isles of Scotland, situated off the north coast of Great Britain.
Paulus Orosius (born 375, died after 418 AD) — less often Paul Orosius in English — was a Gallaecian Chalcedonian priest, historian and theologian, a student of Augustine of Hippo.
The Pagans Hill Roman Temple was a Romano-British-style temple (Romano-Celtic temple) excavated on Pagans Hill at Chew Stoke in the English county of Somerset.
XII Panegyrici Latini or Twelve Latin Panegyrics is the conventional title of a collection of twelve ancient Roman and late antique prose panegyric orations written in Latin.
Patronage (clientela) was the distinctive relationship in ancient Roman society between the patronus (plural patroni, "patron") and their cliens (plural clientes, "client").
Paulus was the name of an imperial notary, or senior civil servant, who served under the Roman Emperor Constantius II in the middle of the 4th century.
Pelagianism is the belief that original sin did not taint human nature and that mortal will is still capable of choosing good or evil without special divine aid.
Pelagius (– 418) was a theologian of British origin who advocated free will and asceticism.
Pertinax (Publius Helvius Pertinax Augustus; 1 August 126 – 28 March 193) was a Roman military leader and Roman Emperor for the first three months of 193, succeeding Commodus to become the first emperor during the tumultuous Year of the Five Emperors.
Pescennius Niger (Gaius Pescennius Niger Augustus; c. 135/140 – 194) was Roman Emperor from 193 to 194 during the Year of the Five Emperors.
Petuaria (or Petuaria Parisorum) was originally a Roman fort situated where the town of Brough in the East Riding of Yorkshire now stands.
Philippe Labbe (Philippus Labbeus; 10 July 1607 – 16 or 17 March 1667) was a French Jesuit writer on historical, geographical and philological questions.
Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.
The Picts were a tribal confederation of peoples who lived in what is today eastern and northern Scotland during the Late Iron Age and Early Medieval periods.
Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence by ship or boat-borne attackers upon another ship or a coastal area, typically with the goal of stealing cargo and other valuable items or properties.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.
Polemius Silvius (fl. 5th century) was the author of an annotated Julian calendar that attempted to integrate the traditional Roman festival cycle with the new Christian holy days.
Pons Aelius (Latin for "Aelian Bridge"), or Newcastle Roman Fort, was an auxiliary castra and small Roman settlement on Hadrian's Wall in the Roman province of Britannia Inferior (northern England), situated on the north bank of the River Tyne close to the centre of present-day Newcastle upon Tyne, and occupied between the 2nd and 4th centuries AD.
Marcus Cassianius Latinius PostumusJones & Martindale (1971), p. 720 was a Roman commander of provincial origin who ruled as emperor in the west.
Poundbury is an experimental new town or urban extension on the outskirts of Dorchester in the county of Dorset, England.
Praeses (Latin praesides) is a Latin word meaning "placed before" or "at the head".
The praetorian prefect (praefectus praetorio, ἔπαρχος/ὕπαρχος τῶν πραιτωρίων) was a high office in the Roman Empire.
Several species of humans have intermittently occupied Britain for almost a million years.
Probus (Marcus Aurelius Probus Augustus; c. 19 August 232 – September/October 282), was Roman Emperor from 276 to 282.
In ancient Rome a promagistrate (pro magistratu) was an ex consul or ex praetor whose imperium (the power to command an army) was extended at the end of his annual term of office or later.
Publius Ostorius Scapula (died 52) was a Roman statesman and general who governed Britain from 47 until his death, and was responsible for the defeat and capture of Caratacus.
A punitive expedition is a military journey undertaken to punish a state or any group of persons outside the borders of the punishing state.
Pytheas of Massalia (Ancient Greek: Πυθέας ὁ Μασσαλιώτης Pythéas ho Massaliōtēs; Latin: Pytheas Massiliensis; fl. 4th century BC), was a Greek geographer and explorer from the Greek colony of Massalia (modern-day Marseille).
Quern-stones are stone tools for hand-grinding a wide variety of materials.
Quintus Lollius Urbicus was a Berber governor of Roman Britain between the years 139 and 142, during the reign of the Emperor Antoninus Pius.
Quintus Petillius Cerialis Caesius Rufus, otherwise known as Quintus Petillius Cerialis (born ca. AD 30—died after AD 83) was a Roman general and administrator who served in Britain during Boudica's rebellion and who went on to participate in the civil wars after the death of Nero.
Quintus Pompeius Falco (c. 70 - after 140) was a Roman senator and general of the early 2nd century AD.
Ratae Corieltauvorum or simply Ratae was a town in the Roman province of Britannia.
Rectors and rectorates in politics and administration included.
Res Gestae Divi Augusti (Eng. The Deeds of the Divine Augustus) is the funerary inscription of the first Roman emperor, Augustus, giving a first-person record of his life and accomplishments.
Restitutus was a Romano-British bishop, probably from Londinium (London), one of the British delegation who attended the church synod or Council held at Arles (Arelate), in Gaul, in AD 314.
--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.
Richborough is a settlement north of Sandwich on the east coast of the county of Kent, England.
Richborough Castle contains the ruins of a Roman Saxon Shore fort, collectively known as Richborough Fort or Richborough Roman Fort.
The River Nene (or: see below) is a river in the east of England that rises from three sources in Northamptonshire.
The River Tay (Tatha) is the longest river in Scotland and the seventh-longest in the United Kingdom.
The River Thames is a river that flows through southern England, most notably through London.
The River Tyne is a river in North East England and its length (excluding tributaries) is.
Very Rev Robert Henry FRSE FSA(Scot) (18 February 1718 – 24 November 1790) was a Scottish minister and historian.
Roger Gale (27 September 1672 – 25 June 1744) was an English scholar and antiquary as well as a member of Parliament for Northallerton.
Agriculture in ancient Rome was not only a necessity, but was idealized among the social elite as a way of life.
The Roman army (Latin: exercitus Romanus) is a term that can in general be applied to the terrestrial armed forces deployed by the Romans throughout the duration of Ancient Rome, from the Roman Kingdom (to c. 500 BC) to the Roman Republic (500–31 BC) and the Roman Empire (31 BC – 395), and its medieval continuation the Eastern Roman Empire.
The Roman Baths complex is a site of historical interest in the English city of Bath.
The Roman client kingdoms in Britain were native tribes who chose to align themselves with the Roman Empire because they saw it as the best option for self-preservation or for protection from other hostile tribes.
The Roman conquest of Britain was a gradual process, beginning effectively in AD 43 under Emperor Claudius, whose general Aulus Plautius served as first governor of Roman Britain (Britannia).
A consul held the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic (509 to 27 BC), and ancient Romans considered the consulship the highest level of the cursus honorum (an ascending sequence of public offices to which politicians aspired).
Roman currency for most of Roman history consisted of gold, silver, bronze, orichalcum and copper coinage.
The word diocese (dioecēsis, from the διοίκησις, "administration") means 'administration,' 'management,' 'assize district,' 'management district.' It can also refer to the collection of taxes and to the territory per se. The earliest use of "diocese" as an administrative unit is found in the Greek-speaking East.
During the Roman Republic, the Roman economy was largely agrarian, centered on the trading of commodities such as grain and wine.
The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC).
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Roman Gaul refers to Gaul under provincial rule in the Roman Empire from the 1st century BC to the 5th century AD.
A Roman governor was an official either elected or appointed to be the chief administrator of Roman law throughout one or more of the many provinces constituting the Roman Empire.
Roman historiography is indebted to the Greeks, who invented the form.
Roman Inscriptions of Britain is a 3-volume corpus of inscriptions found in Britain from the Roman period.
The Roman invasion of Caledonia launched in 208 by the Roman emperor Septimius Severus.
A Roman legion (from Latin legio "military levy, conscription", from legere "to choose") was a large unit of the Roman army.
The Roman navy (Classis, lit. "fleet") comprised the naval forces of the Ancient Roman state.
In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin: provincia, pl. provinciae) was the basic and, until the Tetrarchy (from 293 AD), the largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside Italy.
Roman roads (Latin: viae Romanae; singular: via Romana meaning "Roman way") were physical infrastructure vital to the maintenance and development of the Roman state, and were built from about 300 BC through the expansion and consolidation of the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.
The Roman Senate (Senatus Romanus; Senato Romano) was a political institution in ancient Rome.
There are many Roman sites in Great Britain that are open to the public.
Syria was an early Roman province, annexed to the Roman Republic in 64 BC by Pompey in the Third Mithridatic War, following the defeat of Armenian King Tigranes the Great.
Ancient Roman temples were among the most important buildings in Roman culture, and some of the richest buildings in Roman architecture, though only a few survive in any sort of complete state.
Usurpers are individuals or groups of individuals who obtain and maintain the power or rights of another by force and without legal authority.
A Roman villa was a country house built for the upper class in the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, similar in form to the hacienda estates in the colonies of the Spanish Empire.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
Romanization or Latinization (or Romanisation or Latinisation), in the historical and cultural meanings of both terms, indicate different historical processes, such as acculturation, integration and assimilation of newly incorporated and peripheral populations by the Roman Republic and the later Roman Empire.
Romano-British culture is the culture that arose in Britain under the Roman Empire following the Roman conquest in AD 43 and the creation of the province of Britannia.
A Romano-Celtic temple (more specifically a Romano-British temple in Great Britain, or Gallo-Roman temple in the Continental region formerly comprising Gaul) is a sub-class of Roman temple found in the north-western provinces of the Roman Empire.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
Rudchester Mithraeum is a Roman Temple to the Roman god Mithras at Rudchester (Vindobala), an auxiliary fort on Hadrian's Wall, the northern frontier of Roman Britain.
Rutland is a landlocked county in the East Midlands of England, bounded to the west and north by Leicestershire, to the northeast by Lincolnshire and the southeast by Northamptonshire.
A sacred grove or sacred woods are any grove of trees that are of special religious importance to a particular culture.
Saint Alban (Albanus) is venerated as the first-recorded British Christian martyr, and he is considered to be the British protomartyr.
Saint Patrick (Patricius; Pádraig; Padrig) was a fifth-century Romano-British Christian missionary and bishop in Ireland.
Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and adequate treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage.
The Sarmatians (Sarmatae, Sauromatae; Greek: Σαρμάται, Σαυρομάται) were a large Iranian confederation that existed in classical antiquity, flourishing from about the 5th century BC to the 4th century AD.
The Sator Square (or Rotas Square) is a word square containing a five-word Latin palindrome: In particular, this is a square 2D palindrome, which is when a square text admits four symmetries: identity, two diagonal reflections, and 180 degree rotation.
The Saxon Shore (litus Saxonicum) was a military command of the late Roman Empire, consisting of a series of fortifications on both sides of the English Channel.
The Saxons (Saxones, Sachsen, Seaxe, Sahson, Sassen, Saksen) were a Germanic people whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country (Old Saxony, Saxonia) near the North Sea coast of what is now Germany.
The Scheldt (l'Escaut, Escô, Schelde) is a long river in northern France, western Belgium and the southwestern part of the Netherlands.
Scoti or Scotti is a Latin name for the Gaels,Duffy, Seán.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
Scotland during the Roman Empire refers to the protohistorical period during which the Roman Empire interacted with the area that is now Scotland, which was known to them as "Caledonia".
The Highlands (the Hielands; A’ Ghàidhealtachd, "the place of the Gaels") are a historic region of Scotland.
The Lowlands (the Lallans or the Lawlands; a' Ghalldachd, "the place of the foreigner") are a cultural and historic region of Scotland.
Segontium (Cair Seiont) is a Roman fort on the outskirts of Caernarfon in Gwynedd, North Wales.
Septimius Severus (Lucius Septimius Severus Augustus; 11 April 145 – 4 February 211), also known as Severus, was Roman emperor from 193 to 211.
Silchester is a village and civil parish about north of Basingstoke in Hampshire.
The Silures were a powerful and warlike tribe or tribal confederation of ancient Britain, occupying what is now south east Wales and perhaps some adjoining areas.
Snail is a common name loosely applied to shelled gastropods.
The Solway Firth (Tràchd Romhra) is a firth that forms part of the border between England and Scotland, between Cumbria (including the Solway Plain) and Dumfries and Galloway.
South Wales (De Cymru) is the region of Wales bordered by England and the Bristol Channel to the east and south, and Mid Wales and West Wales to the north and west.
Southampton is the largest city in the ceremonial county of Hampshire, England.
Speculum: A Journal of Medieval Studies is a quarterly academic journal published by University of Chicago Press on behalf of the Medieval Academy of America.
A spring is any natural situation where water flows from an aquifer to the Earth's surface.
St Albans is a city in Hertfordshire, England, and the major urban area in the City and District of St Albans.
St Andrews (S.; Saunt Aundraes; Cill Rìmhinn) is a town on the east coast of Fife in Scotland, 10 miles (16 km) southeast of Dundee and 30 miles (50 km) northeast of Edinburgh.
The Stanegate, or "stone road" (Old Norse), was an important Roman road built in what is now northern England.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
The Strait of Dover or Dover Strait, historically known as the Dover Narrows (pas de Calais - Strait of Calais); Nauw van Kales or Straat van Dover), is the strait at the narrowest part of the English Channel, marking the boundary between the Channel and North Sea, separating Great Britain from continental Europe. The shortest distance across the strait,, is from the South Foreland, northeast of Dover in the English county of Kent, to Cap Gris Nez, a cape near to Calais in the French département of Pas-de-Calais. Between these points lies the most popular route for cross-channel swimmers. The entire strait is within the territorial waters of France and the United Kingdom, but a right of transit passage under the UNCLOS exists allowing unrestricted shipping. On a clear day, it is possible to see the opposite coastline of England from France and vice versa with the naked eye, with the most famous and obvious sight being the white cliffs of Dover from the French coastline and shoreline buildings on both coastlines, as well as lights on either coastline at night, as in Matthew Arnold's poem "Dover Beach".
Sub-Roman Britain is the transition period between the Roman Empire's Crisis of the Third Century around CE 235 (and the subsequent collapse and end of Roman Britain), until the start of the Early Medieval period.
Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, commonly known as Suetonius (c. 69 – after 122 AD), was a Roman historian belonging to the equestrian order who wrote during the early Imperial era of the Roman Empire.
Arles (ancient Arelate) in the south of Roman Gaul (modern France) hosted several councils or synods referred to as Concilium Arelatense in the history of the early Christian church.
Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (–) was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire.
Tasciovanus was a historical king of the Catuvellauni tribe before the Roman conquest of Britain.
The Temple of Claudius (TEMPLVM CLAVDII) or Temple of the Deified Claudius (TEMPLVM DIVI CLAVDII) was a large octastyle temple built in Camulodunum, the modern Colchester in Essex.
Terra sigillata is a term with at least three distinct meanings: as a description of medieval medicinal earth; in archaeology, as a general term for some of the fine red Ancient Roman pottery with glossy surface slips made in specific areas of the Roman Empire; and more recently, as a description of a contemporary studio pottery technique supposedly inspired by ancient pottery.
Tertullian, full name Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, c. 155 – c. 240 AD, was a prolific early Christian author from Carthage in the Roman province of Africa.
Theodosius I (Flavius Theodosius Augustus; Θεοδόσιος Αʹ; 11 January 347 – 17 January 395), also known as Theodosius the Great, was Roman Emperor from AD 379 to AD 395, as the last emperor to rule over both the eastern and the western halves of the Roman Empire. On accepting his elevation, he campaigned against Goths and other barbarians who had invaded the empire. His resources were not equal to destroy them, and by the treaty which followed his modified victory at the end of the Gothic War, they were established as Foederati, autonomous allies of the Empire, south of the Danube, in Illyricum, within the empire's borders. He was obliged to fight two destructive civil wars, successively defeating the usurpers Magnus Maximus and Eugenius, not without material cost to the power of the empire. He also issued decrees that effectively made Nicene Christianity the official state church of the Roman Empire."Edict of Thessalonica": See Codex Theodosianus XVI.1.2 He neither prevented nor punished the destruction of prominent Hellenistic temples of classical antiquity, including the Temple of Apollo in Delphi and the Serapeum in Alexandria. He dissolved the order of the Vestal Virgins in Rome. In 393, he banned the pagan rituals of the Olympics in Ancient Greece. After his death, Theodosius' young sons Arcadius and Honorius inherited the east and west halves respectively, and the Roman Empire was never again re-united, though Eastern Roman emperors after Zeno would claim the united title after Julius Nepos' death in 480 AD.
The Theoretical Roman Archaeology Conference (TRAC) is an academic organisation and conference which was designed to be an arena for open discussion of archaeological theory in Roman archaeology.
Thomas Gale (1635/1636? – 7 or 8 April 1702) was an English classical scholar, antiquarian and cleric.
Tiberius (Tiberius Caesar Divi Augusti filius Augustus; 16 November 42 BC – 16 March 37 AD) was Roman emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD, succeeding the first emperor, Augustus.
Tiberius Claudius Cogidubnus (or Togidubnus, Togidumnus or similar) was a 1st-century king of the Regnenses or Regni tribe in early Roman Britain.
Sextus Tigidius Perennis (died 185) was a prefect of the Roman imperial bodyguard, known as the Praetorian Guard, during the reigns of the emperors Marcus Aurelius and Commodus.
Tin mining in Britain took place from prehistoric times, during Bronze Age Britain, and until the 20th century.
Togodumnus (d. AD 43) was a historical king of the British Catuvellauni tribe at the time of the Roman conquest.
Towcester, the Roman town of Lactodorum, is an affluent market town in south Northamptonshire, England.
The Dacian Wars (101–102, 105–106) were two military campaigns fought between the Roman Empire and Dacia during Emperor Trajan's rule.
A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations.
Tribune was the title of various elected officials in ancient Rome.
Trier (Tréier), formerly known in English as Treves (Trèves) and Triers (see also names in other languages), is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle.
Trimontium is the name of a Roman fort at Newstead, near Melrose, Scottish Borders, Scotland, close under the three Eildon Hills (whence the name trium montium).
The Trinovantes or Trinobantes were one of the Celtic tribes of pre-Roman Britain.
A typographical error (often shortened to typo), also called misprint, is a mistake made in the typing process (such as a spelling mistake) of printed material.
Ulpius Marcellus was a Roman consular governor of Britannia who returned there as general of the later 2nd century.
Urtica pilulifera, the Roman nettle, is a herbaceous annual flowering plant in the family Urticaceae.
Valentia (Latin for "Land of Valens") was probably one of the Roman provinces of the Diocese of "the Britains" in late Antiquity.
The Vandals were a large East Germanic tribe or group of tribes that first appear in history inhabiting present-day southern Poland.
Venta Belgarum was a town in the Roman province of Britannia Superior, the civitas capital of the local tribe, the Belgae, and which later became the city of Winchester.
Venta Silurum was a town in the Roman province of Britannia or Britain.
Venutius was a 1st-century king of the Brigantes in northern Britain at the time of the Roman conquest.
Verica (early 1st century AD) was a British client king of the Roman Empire in the years preceding the Claudian invasion of 43 AD.
Verulamium was a town in Roman Britain.
Vespasian (Titus Flavius Vespasianus;Classical Latin spelling and reconstructed Classical Latin pronunciation: Vespasian was from an equestrian family that rose into the senatorial rank under the Julio–Claudian emperors. Although he fulfilled the standard succession of public offices and held the consulship in AD 51, Vespasian's renown came from his military success; he was legate of Legio II ''Augusta'' during the Roman invasion of Britain in 43 and subjugated Judaea during the Jewish rebellion of 66. While Vespasian besieged Jerusalem during the Jewish rebellion, emperor Nero committed suicide and plunged Rome into a year of civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors. After Galba and Otho perished in quick succession, Vitellius became emperor in April 69. The Roman legions of Roman Egypt and Judaea reacted by declaring Vespasian, their commander, emperor on 1 July 69. In his bid for imperial power, Vespasian joined forces with Mucianus, the governor of Syria, and Primus, a general in Pannonia, leaving his son Titus to command the besieging forces at Jerusalem. Primus and Mucianus led the Flavian forces against Vitellius, while Vespasian took control of Egypt. On 20 December 69, Vitellius was defeated, and the following day Vespasian was declared emperor by the Senate. Vespasian dated his tribunician years from 1 July, substituting the acts of Rome's Senate and people as the legal basis for his appointment with the declaration of his legions, and transforming his legions into an electoral college. Little information survives about the government during Vespasian's ten-year rule. He reformed the financial system of Rome after the campaign against Judaea ended successfully, and initiated several ambitious construction projects, including the building of the Flavian Amphitheatre, better known today as the Roman Colosseum. In reaction to the events of 68–69, Vespasian forced through an improvement in army discipline. Through his general Agricola, Vespasian increased imperial expansion in Britain. After his death in 79, he was succeeded by his eldest son Titus, thus becoming the first Roman emperor to be directly succeeded by his own natural son and establishing the Flavian dynasty.
Vicarius is a Latin word, meaning substitute or deputy.
In Ancient Rome, the vicus (plural vici) was a neighborhood or settlement.
Vindobala (Brytonnic Celtic: windo- fair, white, bala ?) was a Roman fort at the modern-day hamlet of Rudchester, Northumberland.
VindolandaBritish windo- 'fair, white, blessed', landa 'enclosure/meadow/prairie/grassy plain' (the modern Welsh word would be something like gwynlan, and the modern Gaelic word fionnlann). was a Roman auxiliary fort (castrum) just south of Hadrian's Wall in northern England.
Virius Lupus (– after 205) (possibly Lucius Virius Lupus) was a Roman soldier and politician of the late 2nd and early 3rd century.
Viroconium or Uriconium, formally Viroconium Cornoviorum, was a Roman town, one corner of which is now occupied by Wroxeter, a small village in Shropshire, England, about east-south-east of Shrewsbury.
Vortigern (Old Welsh Guorthigirn, Guorthegern; Gwrtheyrn; Wyrtgeorn; Old Breton Gurdiern, Gurthiern; Foirtchern; Vortigernus, Vertigernus, Uuertigernus, etc), also spelled Vortiger, Vortigan, and Vortigen, was possibly a 5th-century warlord in Britain, known perhaps as a king of the Britons, at least connoted as such in the writings of Bede.
A votive deposit or votive offering is one or more objects displayed or deposited, without the intention of recovery or use, in a sacred place for broadly religious purposes.
Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.
The history of Wales in the Roman era began in 48 AD with a military invasion by the imperial governor of Roman Britain.
Wastewater (or waste water) is any water that has been affected by human use.
The Water Newton Treasure is a hoard of fourth-century Roman silver, discovered near the Roman town of Durobrivae at Water Newton in the English county of Cambridgeshire.
The Weald is an area of South East England between the parallel chalk escarpments of the North and the South Downs.
Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.
West Stow is a small village and civil parish in West Suffolk, England.
In historiography, the Western Roman Empire refers to the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any one time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court, coequal with that administering the eastern half, then referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire.
Whitchurch is a market town in northern Shropshire, England.
Winchester is a city and the county town of Hampshire, England.
A witch-hunt or witch purge is a search for people labelled "witches" or evidence of witchcraft, often involving moral panic or mass hysteria.
Wroxeter is a village in Shropshire, England.
The Year of the Four Emperors, 69 AD, was a year in the history of the Roman Empire in which four emperors ruled in succession: Galba, Otho, Vitellius, and Vespasian.
York is a historic walled city at the confluence of the rivers Ouse and Foss in North Yorkshire, England.
Zosimus (Ζώσιμος; also known by the Latin name Zosimus Historicus, i.e. "Zosimus the Historian"; fl. 490s–510s) was a Greek historian who lived in Constantinople during the reign of the Eastern Roman Emperor Anastasius I (491–518).
The 2nd century is the period from 101 to 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Common Era.
Britain as a Roman province, Britannia (Roman province), Britannia province, Diocese of Britain, Diocese of Britannia, Diocese of the Britains, Great Britain in the Roman era, History of Britain/Roman Britain, History of Roman Britain, Province of Britain, Provincia Britannia, Roman Britannia, Roman Empire in Britain, Roman England, Roman britain, Roman occupation of Britain, Roman occupation of Britannia, Roman province of Britain, Roman province of Britannia, Roman rule in Britain, Roman-British, Romano-Britain, Talaith Prydain, United Kingdom in the Roman era.