381 relations: Ab Urbe Condita Libri, Accensi, Achaea (Roman province), Achaean League, Adherbal (king of Numidia), Aedile, Aemilia (gens), Aeneid, Agathias, Ahenobarbus, Alexander the Great, Althaea (plant), Anatolia, Ancient Corinth, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek, Ancient Rome, Annals (Tacitus), Appian, Aquitanian language, Aramaic language, Aristotle, Asia, Assassination of Julius Caesar, Atrium (architecture), Augustus, Augustus (title), Aulus Hirtius, Battle of Actium, Battle of Alesia, Battle of Aquae Sextiae, Battle of Beneventum (275 BC), Battle of Bovianum, Battle of Cannae, Battle of Carrhae, Battle of Carthage (c. 149 BC), Battle of Corbio, Battle of Cynoscephalae, Battle of Lake Regillus, Battle of Magnesia, Battle of Mount Algidus, Battle of Munda, Battle of Mutina, Battle of Pharsalus, Battle of Philippi, Battle of Populonia, Battle of Pydna, Battle of Pydna (148 BC), Battle of Thapsus, Battle of the Aegates, ..., Battle of the Allia, Battle of the Colline Gate (82 BC), Battle of the Cremera, Battle of the Lycus, Battle of the Metaurus, Battle of Thermopylae, Battle of Thermopylae (191 BC), Battle of Trifanum, Battle of Vercellae, Battle of Vesuvius, Battle of Zama, Berber languages, Brennus (4th century BC), Britannia, Brutus, Brutus (Cicero), Caecilia (gens), Caesar's invasions of Britain, Calceus, Campus Martius, Carthage, Cassius Dio, Catiline, Cato the Elder, Cato the Younger, Celtiberian language, Census, Central Italy, Centuriate Assembly, Cicero, Cicero Minor, Cilicia, Cimbri, Cimbrian War, City, Classical antiquity, Classical Latin, Claudia (gens), Cleopatra, Cloelia, Cohort (military unit), Commentarii de Bello Civili, Confarreatio, Conflict of the Orders, Constitutional reforms of Sulla, Corinthian helmet, Cornelia (gens), Corvus (boarding device), Crisis of the Third Century, Cursus honorum, Curule seat, Cynicism (philosophy), Dardanelles, De Agri Cultura, De Divinatione, De Oratore, De rerum natura, Decemviri, Demagogue, Denarius, Dice, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Domitia (gens), Draughts, Due process, Eastern Mediterranean, Elections in the Roman Republic, Endive, English Channel, Epicureanism, Epirus, Equestrian statue, Equites, Etruria, Etruscan civilization, Etruscan language, F. W. Walbank, Fabia (gens), Fasces, First Macedonian War, First Mithridatic War, First Punic War, First secessio plebis, First Triumvirate, Founding of Rome, Fourth Macedonian War, Fulvia (gens), Gaius Cassius Longinus, Gaius Gracchus, Gaius Marius, Gaius Vibius Pansa Caetronianus, Gallaecian language, Gallic Wars, Gaul, Gaulish language, Gauls, Gens, Geography of Greece, Germanic peoples, Gracchi, Greece, Greek East and Latin West, Gymnasium (ancient Greece), Habeas corpus, Han dynasty, Hannibal, Hasdrubal Barca, Heavy infantry, Hebrew language, Hegemony, Hiempsal I, Histories (Tacitus), History of the Constitution of the Roman Republic, History of the Roman Empire, Horace, House, Iberian language, Iberian Peninsula, Iliad, Illyrian languages, Impeachment, Imperialism, Imperium, In Our Time (radio series), In Verrem, Infamia, Italian Peninsula, Italic peoples, Italy, Janiculum, Jugurtha, Jugurthine War, Julio-Claudian dynasty, Julius Caesar, Jupiter (mythology), King of Rome, Kingdom of Armenia (antiquity), Kingdom of Pontus, Lamé (fabric), Landed nobility, Lares, Latin, Latin literature, Latin War, Latins, Latins (Italic tribe), Legislative assemblies of the Roman Republic, Lex Hortensia, Lex Licinia Sextia, Lex Oppia, Licinia (gens), Lictor, Ligurian language (ancient), List of Greek mythological figures, List of Roman civil wars and revolts, List of Roman deities, Literary language, Livius Andronicus, Livy, Lucius Cornelius Cinna, Lucius Junius Brutus, Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, Lucretia, Lucretius, Lucullus, Ludus duodecim scriptorum, Ludus latrunculorum, Lusitanian language, Macedonia (ancient kingdom), Macedonia (Roman province), Manus marriage, Marcia (gens), Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (triumvir), Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus, Marcus Furius Camillus, Marcus Junius Brutus the Younger, Marcus Licinius Crassus, Marcus Octavius, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, Marian reforms, Mark Antony, Marriage in ancient Rome, Mars (mythology), Mediterranean Basin, Mediterranean Sea, Metropolitan France, Micipsa, Mithridates VI of Pontus, Mos maiorum, Nobiles, North Africa, Numidia, Obverse and reverse, Old Latin, Optimates, Osco-Umbrian languages, Overthrow of the Roman monarchy, Palatine Hill, Paleo-Sardinian language, Pallium, Parallel Lives, Parthia, Parthian Empire, Pater familias, Patrician (ancient Rome), Patronage in ancient Rome, Phalanx, Philip V of Macedon, Philippicae, Placenta cake, Plautus, Plebeian Council, Plebiscitum Ovinium, Plebs, Plutarch, Politics (Aristotle), Polybius, Pompey, Pontus (region), Populares, Praetor, Princeps, Promagistrate, Proto-Indo-European religion, Ptolemaic Kingdom, Publius Clodius Pulcher, Publius Valerius Publicola, Punic language, Punic Wars, Pyrrhus of Epirus, Quaestor, Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio Nasica, Religion in ancient Rome, Republic, Rhaetian language, Rhetoric, Roman aqueduct, Roman censor, Roman commerce, Roman concrete, Roman consul, Roman dictator, Roman economy, Roman emperor, Roman Empire, Roman expansion in Italy, Roman Forum, Roman Kingdom, Roman province, Roman Republican currency, Roman Senate, Roman theatre (structure), Roman tribe, Roman triumph, Roman villa, Roman–Seleucid War, Rome, Rubicon, Sabines, Sacrosanctity, Samnite Wars, Samnites, Samnium, Satyr play, Scipio Africanus, Secessio plebis, Second Macedonian War, Second Mithridatic War, Second Punic War, Second Triumvirate, Seleucid Empire, Sempronia (gens), Senate of the Roman Republic, Senatus consultum ultimum, Senones, Servile Wars, Servius Tullius, Seven hills of Rome, Sextus Tarquinius, Sicels, Sicily, Silk, Social class in ancient Rome, Social War (91–88 BC), Socii, Southern France, Spain, Spartacus, SPQR, Stoicism, Stola, Sulla, Sulla's civil wars, Sumptuary law, Syriac language, Tacitus, Taranto, Tarquinian conspiracy, Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus, Teutons, The Histories (Polybius), Thermae, Third Macedonian War, Third Mithridatic War, Third Punic War, Third Servile War, Tiberius Gracchus, Tic-tac-toe, Tigranes the Great, Titus Annius Milo, Toga, Tribune of the Plebs, Triumvirate, Troy, Tunic, Twelve Tables, Tyrant, Tyrian purple, Valeria (gens), Veii, Venetic language, Venus Throw, Verres, Veto, Virgil, Virtus, Vulgar Latin, Women in ancient Rome, Works attributed to Florus, Xanthippus of Carthage. Expand index (331 more) » « Shrink index
Livy's History of Rome, sometimes referred to as Ab Urbe Condita, is a monumental history of ancient Rome, written in Latin, between 27 and 9 BC.
The term Accensi (Singular: accensus) is applied to two different groups.
Achaea or Achaia (Ἀχαΐα Achaïa), was a province of the Roman Empire, consisting of the Peloponnese, eastern Central Greece, and parts of Thessaly.
The Achaean League (Greek: Κοινὸν τῶν Ἀχαιῶν, Koinon ton Akhaion - "League of Achaeans") was a Hellenistic-era confederation of Greek city states on the northern and central Peloponnese.
Adherbal, son of Micipsa and grandson of Masinissa, was a king of Numidia between 118 and 112 BC.
Aedile (aedīlis, from aedes, "temple edifice") was an office of the Roman Republic.
The gens Aemilia, originally written Aimilia, was one of the greatest patrician families at Rome.
The Aeneid (Aeneis) is a Latin epic poem, written by Virgil between 29 and 19 BC, that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who travelled to Italy, where he became the ancestor of the Romans.
Agathias or Agathias Scholasticus (Ἀγαθίας σχολαστικός; Martindale, Jones & Morris (1992), pp. 23–25582/594), of Myrina (Mysia), an Aeolian city in western Asia Minor (now in Turkey), was a Greek poet and the principal historian of part of the reign of the Roman emperor Justinian I between 552 and 558.
Ahenobarbus was a cognomen used by a plebeian branch of the gens Domitia in the late Roman Republic and early Empire.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Althaea is a genus of 6–12 species of perennial herbs native to Europe, North Africa and western Asia.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Corinth (Κόρινθος Kórinthos) was a city-state (polis) on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnese to the mainland of Greece, roughly halfway between Athens and Sparta.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
The Annals (Annales) by Roman historian and senator Tacitus is a history of the Roman Empire from the reign of Tiberius to that of Nero, the years AD 14–68.
Appian of Alexandria (Ἀππιανὸς Ἀλεξανδρεύς Appianòs Alexandreús; Appianus Alexandrinus) was a Greek historian with Roman citizenship who flourished during the reigns of Emperors of Rome Trajan, Hadrian, and Antoninus Pius.
The Aquitanian language was spoken on both sides of the western Pyrenees in ancient Aquitaine (approximately between the Pyrenees and the Garonne, in the region later known as Gascony) and in the areas south of the Pyrenees in the valleys of the Basque Country before the Roman conquest.
Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
The assassination of Julius Caesar was the result of a conspiracy by many Roman senators led by Gaius Cassius Longinus, Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus, and Marcus Junius Brutus.
In architecture, an atrium (plural: atria or atriums) is a large open air or skylight covered space surrounded by a building.
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
Augustus (plural augusti;;, Latin for "majestic", "the increaser" or "venerable"), was an ancient Roman title given as both name and title to Gaius Octavius (often referred to simply as Augustus), Rome's first Emperor.
Aulus Hirtius (c. 90 – 43 BC) was one of the consuls of the Roman Republic and a writer on military subjects.
The Battle of Actium was the decisive confrontation of the Final War of the Roman Republic, a naval engagement between Octavian and the combined forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra on 2 September 31 BC, on the Ionian Sea near the promontory of Actium, in the Roman province of Epirus Vetus in Greece.
The Battle of Alesia or Siege of Alesia was a military engagement in the Gallic Wars that took place in September, 52 BC, around the Gallic oppidum (fortified settlement) of Alesia, a major centre of the Mandubii tribe.
The Battle of Aquae Sextiae (Aix-en-Provence) took place in 102 BC.
The Battle of Beneventum (275 BC) was the last battle of the Pyrrhic War.
The Battle of Bovianum was fought in 305 BC between the Romans and the Samnites.
The Battle of Cannae was a major battle of the Second Punic War that took place on 2 August 216 BC in Apulia, in southeast Italy.
The Battle of Carrhae was fought in 53 BC between the Roman Republic and the Parthian Empire near the town of Carrhae.
The Battle of Carthage was the main engagement of the Third Punic War between the Punic city of Carthage in Africa and the Roman Republic.
The Battle of Corbio took place in 446 BC.
The Battle of Cynoscephalae (Μάχη τῶν Κυνὸς Κεφαλῶν) was an encounter battle fought in Thessaly in 197 BC between the Roman army, led by Titus Quinctius Flamininus, and the Antigonid dynasty of Macedon, led by Philip V.
The Battle of Lake Regillus was a legendary Roman victory over the Latin League shortly after the establishment of the Roman Republic and as part of a wider Latin War.
The Battle of Magnesia was the concluding battle of the Roman–Seleucid War, fought in 190 BC near Magnesia ad Sipylum on the plains of Lydia between Romans, led by the consul Lucius Cornelius Scipio and the Roman ally Eumenes II of Pergamum, and the army of Antiochus III the Great of the Seleucid Empire.
The Battle of Mount Algidus was fought in 458 BC, between the Roman Republic and the Aequi, near Mount Algidus in Latium.
The Battle of Munda (17 March 45 B.C.), in southern Hispania Ulterior, was the final battle of Caesar's civil war against the leaders of the Optimates.
The Battle of Mutina took place on 21 April 43 BC between the forces loyal to the Senate under consuls Gaius Vibius Pansa and Aulus Hirtius, supported by the legions of Caesar Octavian, and the Caesarian legions of Mark Antony who were besieging the troops of Decimus Brutus.
The Battle of Pharsalus was a decisive battle of Caesar's Civil War.
The Battle of Philippi was the final battle in the Wars of the Second Triumvirate between the forces of Mark Antony and Octavian (of the Second Triumvirate) and the leaders of Julius Caesar's assassination, Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus in 42 BC, at Philippi in Macedonia.
The Battle of Populonia was fought in 282 BC between Rome and the Etruscans.
The Battle of Pydna took place in 168 BC between Rome and Macedon during the Third Macedonian War.
The Battle of Pydna was fought in 148 BC between Rome and the forces of the Macedonian leader Andriscus.
The Battle of Thapsus was an engagement in Caesar's Civil War that took place on April 6, 46 BC near Thapsus (in modern Tunisia).
The Battle of the Aegates (Italian Battaglia delle Isole Egadi) was fought off the Aegadian Islands, off the western coast of the island of Sicily on 10 March 241 BC.
The Battle of the Allia was fought between the Senones (one of the Gallic tribes which had invaded northern Italy) and the Roman Republic.
The Battle of the Colline Gate, fought on the Kalends of November, 82 BC, was the final battle of the second civil war between Lucius Cornelius Sulla and the Marians.
The Battle of the Cremera was fought between the Roman Republic and the Etruscan city of Veii, in 477 BC (276 AUC).
The Battle of the Lycus was fought in 66 BC between the Roman Republic army of Pompey and the forces of Mithridates VI of Pontus.
The Battle of the Metaurus was a pivotal battle in the Second Punic War between Rome and Carthage, fought in 207 BC near the Metauro River in Italy.
The Battle of Thermopylae (Greek: Μάχη τῶν Θερμοπυλῶν, Machē tōn Thermopylōn) was fought between an alliance of Greek city-states, led by King Leonidas of Sparta, and the Persian Empire of Xerxes I over the course of three days, during the second Persian invasion of Greece.
The Battle of Thermopylae was fought in 191 BC between a Roman army led by consul Manius Acilius Glabrio and a Seleucid force led by King Antiochus III the Great.
The Battle of Trifanum was fought in 340 BC between the Roman Republic and the Latins.
The Battle of Vercellae, or Battle of the Raudine Plain, in 101 BC was the Roman victory of Consul Gaius Marius over the invading Celto-Germanic tribe of the Cimbri near the settlement of Vercellae in Cisalpine Gaul.
The Battle of Vesuvius (also known as the Battle of the Veseris) was the first recorded battle of the Latin War.
The Battle of Zama—fought in 202 BC near Zama (Tunisia)—marked the end of the Second Punic War.
The Berber languages, also known as Berber or the Amazigh languages (Berber name: Tamaziɣt, Tamazight; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ, Tuareg Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵜ, ⵝⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵝ), are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.
Brennus (or Brennos) was a chieftain of the Senones.
Britannia has been used in several different senses.
Brutus is a cognomen of the Roman gens Junia, a prominent family of the Roman Republic.
Cicero's Brutus (also known as De claris oratibus) is a history of Roman oratory.
The gens Caecilia was a plebeian family at Rome.
In the course of his Gallic Wars, Julius Caesar invaded Britain twice: in 55 and 54 BC.
The Calceus (pl. calcei: cf Latin calx "ankle") was a mid-weight, outdoor walking "shoe-boot", worn in ancient Rome.
The Campus Martius (Latin for the "Field of Mars", Italian Campo Marzio), was a publicly owned area of ancient Rome about in extent.
Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia.
Cassius Dio or Dio Cassius (c. 155 – c. 235) was a Roman statesman and historian of Greek origin.
Lucius Sergius Catilina, known in English as Catiline (108–62 BC), was a Roman Senator of the 1st century BC best known for the second Catilinarian conspiracy, an attempt to overthrow the Roman Republic and, in particular, the power of the aristocratic Senate.
Cato the Elder (Cato Major; 234–149 BC), born and also known as (Cato Censorius), (Cato Sapiens), and (Cato Priscus), was a Roman senator and historian known for his conservatism and opposition to Hellenization.
Marcus Porcius Cato Uticensis (95 BC – April 46 BC), commonly known as Cato the Younger (Cato Minor) to distinguish him from his great-grandfather (Cato the Elder), was a statesman in the late Roman Republic, and a follower of the Stoic philosophy.
Celtiberian or Northeastern Hispano-Celtic is an extinct Indo-European language of the Celtic branch spoken by the Celtiberians in an area of the Iberian Peninsula lying between the headwaters of the Douro, Tagus, Júcar and Turia rivers and the Ebro river.
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population.
Central Italy (Italia centrale or just Centro) is one of the five official statistical regions of Italy used by the National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT), a first level NUTS region and a European Parliament constituency.
The Centuriate Assembly (Latin: comitia centuriata) of the Roman Republic was one of the three voting assemblies in the Roman constitution.
Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.
Marcus Tullius Cicero Minor (Minor Latin for ‘the younger’), or Cicero the Younger, was born in 65 BC.
In antiquity, Cilicia(Armenian: Կիլիկիա) was the south coastal region of Asia Minor and existed as a political entity from Hittite times into the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia during the late Byzantine Empire.
The Cimbri were an ancient tribe.
The Cimbrian or Cimbric War (113–101 BC) was fought between the Roman Republic and the Celtic or Germanic tribes of the Cimbri and the Teutones, who migrated from the Jutland peninsula into Roman controlled territory, and clashed with Rome and her allies.
A city is a large human settlement.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Classical Latin is the modern term used to describe the form of the Latin language recognized as standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.
The gens Claudia, sometimes written Clodia, was one of the most prominent patrician houses at Rome.
Cleopatra VII Philopator (Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ Cleopatra Philopator; 69 – August 10 or 12, 30 BC)Theodore Cressy Skeat, in, uses historical data to calculate the death of Cleopatra as having occurred on 12 August 30 BC.
Cloelia is a legendary woman from the early history of ancient Rome.
A cohort (from the Latin cohors, plural cohortes, see wikt:cohors for full inflection table) was a standard tactical military unit of a Roman legion, though the standard changed with time and situation, and was composed of between 360-800 soldiers.
Commentarii de Bello Civili (Commentaries on the Civil War), or Bellum Civile, is an account written by Julius Caesar of his war against Gnaeus Pompeius and the Senate.
In ancient Rome, confarreatio was a traditional patrician form of marriage.
The Conflict of the Orders, also referred to as the Struggle of the Orders, was a political struggle between the Plebeians (commoners) and Patricians (aristocrats) of the ancient Roman Republic lasting from 500 BC to 287 BC, in which the Plebeians sought political equality with the Patricians.
The constitutional reforms of Lucius Cornelius Sulla were a series of laws enacted by the Roman Dictator Lucius Cornelius Sulla between 82 and 80 BC, which reformed the Constitution of the Roman Republic.
The Corinthian helmet originated in ancient Greece and took its name from the city-state of Corinth.
The gens Cornelia was one of the greatest patrician houses at Rome.
The corvus (meaning "crow" or "raven" in Latin) was a Roman naval boarding device used in sea battles against Carthage during the First Punic War.
The Crisis of the Third Century, also known as Military Anarchy or the Imperial Crisis (AD 235–284), was a period in which the Roman Empire nearly collapsed under the combined pressures of invasion, civil war, plague, and economic depression.
The cursus honorum (Latin: "course of offices") was the sequential order of public offices held by aspiring politicians in both the Roman Republic and the early Roman Empire.
A curule seat is a design of chair noted for its uses in Ancient Rome and Europe through to the 20th century.
Cynicism (κυνισμός) is a school of thought of ancient Greek philosophy as practiced by the Cynics (Κυνικοί, Cynici).
The Dardanelles (Çanakkale Boğazı, translit), also known from Classical Antiquity as the Hellespont (Ἑλλήσποντος, Hellespontos, literally "Sea of Helle"), is a narrow, natural strait and internationally-significant waterway in northwestern Turkey that forms part of the continental boundary between Europe and Asia, and separates Asian Turkey from European Turkey.
De Agri Cultura (On Farming or On Agriculture), written by Cato the Elder, is the oldest surviving work of Latin prose.
Cicero's De Divinatione (Latin, "Concerning Divination") is a philosophical treatise in two books written in 44 BC.
De Oratore (On the Orator; not to be confused with Orator) is a dialogue written by Cicero in 55 BCE.
De rerum natura (On the Nature of Things) is a first-century BC didactic poem by the Roman poet and philosopher Lucretius (c. 99 BC – c. 55 BC) with the goal of explaining Epicurean philosophy to a Roman audience.
The decemviri or decemvirs (Latin for "ten men") were any of several 10-man commissions established by the Roman Republic.
A demagogue (from Greek δημαγωγός, a popular leader, a leader of a mob, from δῆμος, people, populace, the commons + ἀγωγός leading, leader) or rabble-rouser is a leader in a democracy who gains popularity by exploiting prejudice and ignorance among the common people, whipping up the passions of the crowd and shutting down reasoned deliberation.
The denarius (dēnāriī) was the standard Roman silver coin from its introduction in the Second Punic War c. 211 BC to the reign of Gordian III (AD 238-244), when it was gradually replaced by the Antoninianus.
Dice (singular die or dice; from Old French dé; from Latin datum "something which is given or played") are small throwable objects with multiple resting positions, used for generating random numbers.
Dionysius of Halicarnassus (Διονύσιος Ἀλεξάνδρου Ἁλικαρνασσεύς, Dionysios Alexandrou Halikarnasseus, "Dionysios son of Alexandros of Halikarnassos"; c. 60 BCafter 7 BC) was a Greek historian and teacher of rhetoric, who flourished during the reign of Caesar Augustus.
The gens Domitia was a plebeian family at Rome.
Draughts (British English) or checkers (American English) is a group of strategy board games for two players which involve diagonal moves of uniform game pieces and mandatory captures by jumping over opponent pieces.
Due process is the legal requirement that the state must respect all legal rights that are owed to a person.
The Eastern Mediterranean denotes the countries geographically to the east of the Mediterranean Sea (Levantine Seabasin).
Elections in the Roman Republic were an essential part to its governance, although all citizens did not always play a consistently equal part in them.
Endive is a leaf vegetable belonging to the genus Cichorium, which includes several similar bitter leafed vegetables.
The English Channel (la Manche, "The Sleeve"; Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Mor Bretannek, "Sea of Brittany"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.
Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus, founded around 307 BC.
Epirus is a geographical and historical region in southeastern Europe, now shared between Greece and Albania.
An equestrian statue is a statue of a rider mounted on a horse, from the Latin "eques", meaning "knight", deriving from "equus", meaning "horse".
The equites (eques nom. singular; sometimes referred to as "knights" in modern times) constituted the second of the property-based classes of ancient Rome, ranking below the senatorial class.
Etruria (usually referred to in Greek and Latin source texts as Tyrrhenia Τυρρηνία) was a region of Central Italy, located in an area that covered part of what are now Tuscany, Lazio, and Umbria.
The Etruscan civilization is the modern name given to a powerful and wealthy civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany, western Umbria and northern Lazio.
The Etruscan language was the spoken and written language of the Etruscan civilization, in Italy, in the ancient region of Etruria (modern Tuscany plus western Umbria and northern Latium) and in parts of Corsica, Campania, Veneto, Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna.
Frank William Walbank, CBE (10 December 1909 – 23 October 2008) was a scholar of ancient history, particularly the history of Polybius.
The gens Fabia was one of the most ancient patrician families at Rome.
Fasces ((Fasci,, a plurale tantum, from the Latin word fascis, meaning "bundle") is a bound bundle of wooden rods, sometimes including an axe with its blade emerging. The fasces had its origin in the Etruscan civilization and was passed on to ancient Rome, where it symbolized a magistrate's power and jurisdiction. The axe originally associated with the symbol, the Labrys (Greek: λάβρυς, lábrys) the double-bitted axe, originally from Crete, is one of the oldest symbols of Greek civilization. To the Romans, it was known as a bipennis. Commonly, the symbol was associated with female deities, from prehistoric through historic times. The image has survived in the modern world as a representation of magisterial or collective power, law and governance. The fasces frequently occurs as a charge in heraldry: it is present on the reverse of the U.S. Mercury dime coin and behind the podium in the United States House of Representatives; and it was the origin of the name of the National Fascist Party in Italy (from which the term fascism is derived). During the first half of the 20th century both the fasces and the swastika (each symbol having its own unique ancient religious and mythological associations) became heavily identified with the authoritarian/fascist political movements of Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini. During this period the swastika became deeply stigmatized, but the fasces did not undergo a similar process. The fact that the fasces remained in use in many societies after World War II may have been due to the fact that prior to Mussolini the fasces had already been adopted and incorporated within the governmental iconography of many governments outside Italy. As such, its use persists as an accepted form of governmental and other iconography in various contexts. (The swastika remains in common usage in parts of Asia for religious purposes which are also unrelated to early 20th century European fascism.) The fasces is sometimes confused with the related term fess, which in French heraldry is called a fasce.
The First Macedonian War (214–205 BC) was fought by Rome, allied (after 211 BC) with the Aetolian League and Attalus I of Pergamon, against Philip V of Macedon, contemporaneously with the Second Punic War (218–201 BC) against Carthage.
The First Mithridatic War (89–85 BC) was a war challenging Rome's expanding Empire and rule over the Greek world.
The First Punic War (264 to 241 BC) was the first of three wars fought between Ancient Carthage and the Roman Republic, the two great powers of the Western Mediterranean.
The first secessio plebis of 494 B.C. was an event in ancient Roman political and social history between 495 and 493 BC, involving a dispute between the patrician ruling class and the plebeian underclass, and was one of a number of secessions by the plebs and part of a broader political conflict known as the conflict of the orders.
The First Triumvirate is a term historians use for an informal political alliance of three prominent men between 59 and 53 BC, during the late Roman Republic: Gaius Julius Caesar, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great), and Marcus Licinius Crassus.
The founding of Rome can be investigated through archaeology, but traditional stories handed down by the ancient Romans themselves explain the earliest history of their city in terms of legend and myth.
The Fourth Macedonian War (150 BC to 148 BC) was fought between the Roman Republic and a Greek uprising led by the Macedonian pretender to the throne Andriscus.
The gens Fulvia, originally Foulvia, was one of the most illustrious plebeian families at Rome.
Gaius Cassius Longinus (October 3, before 85 BC – October 3, 42 BC) was a Roman senator, a leading instigator of the plot to kill Julius Caesar, and the brother in-law of Marcus Junius Brutus.
Gaius Sempronius Gracchus (154–121 BC) was a Roman Popularis politician in the 2nd century BC and brother of the reformer Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus.
Gaius MariusC·MARIVS·C·F·C·N is how Marius was termed in official state inscriptions in Latin: "Gaius Marius, son of Gaius, grandson of Gaius" (157 BC – January 13, 86 BC) was a Roman general and statesman.
Gaius Vibius Pansa Caetronianus (died 22 April 43 BC) was consul of the Roman Republic in 43 BC.
Gallaecian or Northwestern Hispano-Celtic is an extinct Celtic language, and was one of the Hispano-Celtic languages.
The Gallic Wars were a series of military campaigns waged by the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar against several Gallic tribes.
Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
Gaulish was an ancient Celtic language that was spoken in parts of Europe as late as the Roman Empire.
The Gauls were Celtic people inhabiting Gaul in the Iron Age and the Roman period (roughly from the 5th century BC to the 5th century AD).
In ancient Rome, a gens, plural gentes, was a family consisting of all those individuals who shared the same nomen and claimed descent from a common ancestor.
Greece is a country in Southern Europe, bordered to the north by Albania, the Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria; to the east by the Aegean Sea and Turkey, to the south by the Libyan Sea and to the west by the Ionian Sea, which separates Greece from Italy.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
The Gracchi brothers, Tiberius and Gaius, were Romans who both served as tribunes in the late 2nd century BC.
Greek East and Latin West are terms used to distinguish between the two parts of the Greco-Roman world, specifically the eastern regions where Greek was the lingua franca (Anatolia, Eastern Europe, and the Middle East) and the western parts where Latin filled this role (Central and Western Europe).
The gymnasium (Greek: gymnasion) in Ancient Greece functioned as a training facility for competitors in public games.
Habeas corpus (Medieval Latin meaning literally "that you have the body") is a recourse in law through which a person can report an unlawful detention or imprisonment to a court and request that the court order the custodian of the person, usually a prison official, to bring the prisoner to court, to determine whether the detention is lawful.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
Hannibal Barca (𐤇𐤍𐤁𐤏𐤋 𐤁𐤓𐤒 ḥnb‘l brq; 247 – between 183 and 181 BC) was a Carthaginian general, considered one of the greatest military commanders in history.
Hasdrubal Barca (245–207 BC) was Hamilcar Barca's second son and a Carthaginian general in the Second Punic War.
Heavy infantry refers to heavily armed and armoured infantrymen trained to mount frontal assaults and/or anchor the defensive center of a battle line.
Hegemony (or) is the political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others.
Hiempsal I (died c. 117 BC), son of Micipsa and grandson of Masinissa, was a king of Numidia in the late 2nd century BC.
Histories (Historiae) is a Roman historical chronicle by Tacitus.
The history of the Constitution of the Roman Republic is a study of the ancient Roman Republic that traces the progression of Roman political development from the founding of the Roman Republic in 509 BC until the founding of the Roman Empire in 27 BC.
The history of the Roman Empire covers the history of Ancient Rome from the fall of the Roman Republic in 27 BC until the abdication of the last Western emperor in 476 AD.
Quintus Horatius Flaccus (December 8, 65 BC – November 27, 8 BC), known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus (also known as Octavian).
A house is a building that functions as a home.
The Iberian language was the language of an indigenous pre-Migration Period people identified by Greek and Roman sources who lived in the eastern and southeastern regions of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
The Iliad (Ἰλιάς, in Classical Attic; sometimes referred to as the Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium) is an ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to Homer.
The Illyrian languages are a group of Indo-European languages that were spoken in the western part of the Balkans in former times by groups identified as Illyrians: Ardiaei, Delmatae, Pannonii, Autariates, Taulantii (see list of ancient tribes in Illyria).
Impeachment is the process by which a legislative body formally levels charges against a high official of government.
Imperialism is a policy that involves a nation extending its power by the acquisition of lands by purchase, diplomacy or military force.
Imperium is a Latin word that, in a broad sense, translates roughly as 'power to command'.
In Our Time is a live BBC radio discussion series exploring the history of ideas, presented by Melvyn Bragg since 15 October 1998.
In Verrem ("Against Verres") is a series of speeches made by Cicero in 70 BC, during the corruption and extortion trial of Gaius Verres, the former governor of Sicily.
In ancient Roman culture, infamia (in-, "not," and fama, "reputation") was a loss of legal or social standing.
The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Penisola italiana, Penisola appenninica) extends from the Po Valley in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south.
The Italic peoples are an Indo-European ethnolinguistic group identified by speaking Italic languages.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
The Janiculum (Gianicolo) is a hill in western Rome, Italy.
Jugurtha or Jugurthen (c. 160 – 104 BC) was a king of Numidia, born in Cirta (modern-day Constantine).
The Jugurthine War took place in 112–106 BC, between Rome and Jugurtha of Numidia, a kingdom on the north African coast approximating to modern Algeria.
The Julio-Claudian dynasty was the first Roman imperial dynasty, consisting of the first five emperors—Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero—or the family to which they belonged.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
Jupiter (from Iūpiter or Iuppiter, *djous “day, sky” + *patēr “father," thus "heavenly father"), also known as Jove gen.
The King of Rome (Rex Romae) was the chief magistrate of the Roman Kingdom.
The Kingdom of Armenia, also the Kingdom of Greater Armenia, or simply Greater Armenia (Մեծ Հայք; Armenia Maior), was a monarchy in the Ancient Near East which existed from 321 BC to 428 AD.
The Kingdom of Pontus or Pontic Empire was a state founded by the Persian Mithridatic dynasty,http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/pontus which may have been directly related to Darius the Great and the Achaemenid dynasty.
Lamé is a type of fabric woven or knit with thin ribbons of metallic fiber, as opposed to guipé, where the ribbons are wrapped around a fibre yarn.
Landed nobility or landed aristocracy is a category of nobility in various countries over the history, for which landownership was part of their noble privileges.
Lares (archaic Lases, singular Lar), were guardian deities in ancient Roman religion.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latin literature includes the essays, histories, poems, plays, and other writings written in the Latin language.
The (Second) Latin War (340–338 BC)The Romans customarily dated events by noting which consuls held office that year, The Latin War broke out in the year in which Titus Manlius Imperiosus Torquatus and Publius Decius Mus were consuls, and ended when Lucius Furius Camillus and Gaius Maenius were consuls.
The Latins were originally an Italic tribe in ancient central Italy from Latium.
The Latins (Latin: Latini), sometimes known as the Latians, were an Italic tribe which included the early inhabitants of the city of Rome.
The legislative assemblies of the Roman Republic were political institutions in the ancient Roman Republic.
The lex Hortensia, also sometimes referred to as the Hortensian law, was a law passed in Ancient Rome in 287 BC which made all resolutions passed by the Plebeian Council, known as plebiscita, binding on all citizens.
The Lex Licinia Sextia, also known as the Licinian Rogations, was a series of laws proposed by the tribunes of the plebs, Lucius Sextius Lateranus and Gaius Licinius Stolo.
The Lex Oppia was a law established in ancient Rome in 215 BC, at the height of the Second Punic War during the days of national catastrophe after the Battle of Cannae.
The gens Licinia was a celebrated plebeian family at Rome, which appears from the earliest days of the Republic until imperial times, and which eventually obtained the imperial dignity.
A lictor (possibly from ligare, "to bind") was a Roman civil servant who was a bodyguard to magistrates who held imperium.
The Ligurian language was spoken in pre-Roman times and into the Roman era by an ancient people of north-western Italy and south-eastern France known as the Ligures.
The following is a list of gods, goddesses and many other divine and semi-divine figures from Ancient Greek mythology and Ancient Greek religion.
This is a list of civil wars and organized civil unrest in ancient Rome (753 BC – AD 476).
The Roman deities most familiar today are those the Romans identified with Greek counterparts (see interpretatio graeca), integrating Greek myths, iconography, and sometimes religious practices into Roman culture, including Latin literature, Roman art, and religious life as it was experienced throughout the Empire.
A literary language is the form of a language used in the writing of the language.
Lucius Livius Andronicus (c. 284 – c. 205 BC) was a Greco-Roman dramatist and epic poet of the Old Latin period.
Titus Livius Patavinus (64 or 59 BCAD 12 or 17) – often rendered as Titus Livy, or simply Livy, in English language sources – was a Roman historian.
Lucius Cornelius Cinna (died 84 BC) was a four-time consul of the Roman Republic, serving four consecutive terms from 87 to 84 BC, and a member of the ancient Roman Cinna family of the Cornelii gens.
Lucius Junius Brutus was the founder of the Roman Republic and traditionally one of the first consuls in 509 BC.
Lucius Tarquinius Ar.
Lucius Tarquinius Superbus (died 495 BC) was the legendary seventh and final king of Rome, reigning from 535 BC until the popular uprising in 509 that led to the establishment of the Roman Republic.
According to Roman tradition, Lucretia or Lucrece (Lucretia; died) was a noblewoman in ancient Rome whose rape by Sextus Tarquinius (Tarquin), an Etruscan king's son, was the cause of a rebellion that overthrew the Roman monarchy and led to the transition of Roman government from a kingdom to a republic.
Titus Lucretius Carus (15 October 99 BC – c. 55 BC) was a Roman poet and philosopher.
Lucius Licinius Lucullus (118 – 57/56 BC) was an optimate politician of the late Roman Republic, closely connected with Lucius Cornelius Sulla.
Ludus duodecim scriptorum, or XII scripta, was a board game popular during the time of the Roman Empire.
Ludus latrunculorum, latrunculi, or simply latrones (“the game of brigands”, from latrunculus, diminutive of latro, mercenary or highwayman) was a two-player strategy board game played throughout the Roman Empire.
Lusitanian (so named after the Lusitani or Lusitanians) was an Indo-European Paleohispanic language.
Macedonia or Macedon (Μακεδονία, Makedonía) was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece.
The Roman province of Macedonia (Provincia Macedoniae, Ἐπαρχία Μακεδονίας) was officially established in 146 BC, after the Roman general Quintus Caecilius Metellus defeated Andriscus of Macedon, the last self-styled King of the ancient kingdom of Macedonia in 148 BC, and after the four client republics (the "tetrarchy") established by Rome in the region were dissolved.
Manus was an Ancient Roman type of marriage,Jane F. Gardner,Women in Roman Law and Society,First Midland Book Edition, 1991, 11 of which there were two forms: cum manu and sine manu.
The gens Marcia, occasionally written Martia, was one of the oldest and noblest houses at ancient Rome.
Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (c. 89 or 88 BC – late 13 or early 12 BC) was a Roman patrician who was a part of the Second Triumvirate alongside Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (the future Augustus) and Marcus Antonius, and the last Pontifex Maximus of the Roman Republic.
Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus (c. 102 BC – 48 BC) was a politician of the late Roman Republic.
Marcus Furius Camillus (c. 446 – 365 BC) was a Roman soldier and statesman of patrician descent.
Marcus Junius Brutus (the Younger) (85 BC – 23 October 42 BC), often referred to as Brutus, was a politician of the late Roman Republic.
Marcus Licinius Crassus (c. 115 – 6 May 53 BC) was a Roman general and politician who played a key role in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
Marcus Octavius (Latin:, lived 2nd century BC) was a Roman tribune in 133 BC and a major rival of Tiberius Gracchus.
Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (64/62 BC – 12 BC) was a Roman consul, statesman, general and architect.
The Marian reforms of 107 BC were a group of military reforms initiated by Gaius Marius, a statesman and general of the Roman Republic.
Marcus Antonius (Latin:; 14 January 1 August 30 BC), commonly known in English as Mark Antony or Marc Antony, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from an oligarchy into the autocratic Roman Empire.
Marriage in ancient Rome was a strictly monogamous institution: a Roman citizen by law could have only one spouse at a time.
In ancient Roman religion and myth, Mars (Mārs) was the god of war and also an agricultural guardian, a combination characteristic of early Rome.
In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also known as the Mediterranean region or sometimes Mediterranea) is the region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea that have a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers, which supports characteristic Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub vegetation.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Metropolitan France (France métropolitaine or la Métropole), also known as European France or Mainland France, is the part of France in Europe.
Micipsa (pronounced: Mikipsa, Berber name: MKWSN; died: c. 118 BC) was the eldest legitimate son of Masinissa, the King of Numidia, a Berber kingdom in North Africa.
Mithridates VI or Mithradates VI (Μιθραδάτης, Μιθριδάτης), from Old Persian Miθradāta, "gift of Mithra"; 135–63 BC, also known as Mithradates the Great (Megas) and Eupator Dionysius, was king of Pontus and Armenia Minor in northern Anatolia (now Turkey) from about 120–63 BC.
The mos maiorum ("ancestral custom" or "way of the ancestors," plural mores, cf. English "mores"; maiorum is the genitive plural of "greater" or "elder") is the unwritten code from which the ancient Romans derived their social norms.
During the Roman Republic, nobilis ("noble," plural nobiles) was a descriptive term of social rank, usually indicating that a member of the family had achieved the consulship.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
Numidia (202 BC – 40 BC, Berber: Inumiden) was an ancient Berber kingdom of the Numidians, located in what is now Algeria and a smaller part of Tunisia and Libya in the Berber world, in North Africa.
Obverse and its opposite, reverse, refer to the two flat faces of coins and some other two-sided objects, including paper money, flags, seals, medals, drawings, old master prints and other works of art, and printed fabrics.
Old Latin, also known as Early Latin or Archaic Latin, refers to the Latin language in the period before 75 BC: before the age of Classical Latin.
The Optimates (optimates, "best ones", singular; also known as boni, "good men") were the traditionalist Senatorial majority of the late Roman Republic.
The Osco-Umbrian, Sabellic or Sabellian languages are a group of Italic languages, the Indo-European languages that were spoken in Central and Southern Italy by the Osco-Umbrians before Latin replaced them, as the power of Ancient Rome expanded.
The overthrow of the Roman monarchy, a political revolution in ancient Rome, took place around 509 BC and resulted in the expulsion of the last king of Rome, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, and the establishment of the Roman Republic.
The Palatine Hill (Collis Palatium or Mons Palatinus; Palatino) is the centremost of the Seven Hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city.
Paleo-Sardinian, also known as Proto-Sardinian or Nuragic, is an extinct language (or perhaps set of languages) spoken in Sardinia (and possibly Corsica) during the Bronze Age, which is thought to have left traces in the onomastics as well as toponyms of the island and in the modern Sardinian language.
The pallium (derived from the Roman pallium or palla, a woolen cloak;: pallia) is an ecclesiastical vestment in the Roman Catholic Church, originally peculiar to the Pope, but for many centuries bestowed by him on metropolitans and primates as a symbol of the jurisdiction delegated to them by the Holy See.
Plutarch's Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans, commonly called Parallel Lives or Plutarch's Lives, is a series of biographies of famous men, arranged in tandem to illuminate their common moral virtues or failings, probably written at the beginning of the second century AD.
Parthia (𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺 Parθava; 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅 Parθaw; 𐭯𐭫𐭮𐭥𐭡𐭥 Pahlaw) is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran.
The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran and Iraq.
The pater familias, also written as paterfamilias (plural patres familias), was the head of a Roman family.
The patricians (from patricius) were originally a group of ruling class families in ancient Rome.
Patronage (clientela) was the distinctive relationship in ancient Roman society between the patronus (plural patroni, "patron") and their cliens (plural clientes, "client").
The phalanx (φάλαγξ; plural phalanxes or phalanges, φάλαγγες, phalanges) was a rectangular mass military formation, usually composed entirely of heavy infantry armed with spears, pikes, sarissas, or similar weapons.
Philip V (Φίλιππος; 238–179 BC) was King (Basileus) of the ancient kingdom of Macedonia from 221 to 179 BC.
The Philippicae or Philippics are a series of 14 speeches Cicero gave condemning Mark Antony in 44 and 43 BC.
Placenta is a dish from ancient Rome consisting of many dough layers interspersed with a mixture of cheese and honey and flavored with bay leaves, then baked and covered in honey.
Titus Maccius Plautus (c. 254 – 184 BC), commonly known as Plautus, was a Roman playwright of the Old Latin period.
The Concilium Plebis (English: Plebeian Council or Plebeian Assembly) was the principal assembly of the ancient Roman Republic.
The Plebiscitum Ovinium (often called the Lex Ovinia) was an initiative by the Plebeian Council that transferred the power to revise the list of members of the Roman Senate (the lectio senatus) from consuls to censors.
The plebs were, in ancient Rome, the general body of free Roman citizens who were not patricians, as determined by the census.
Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.
Politics (Πολιτικά, Politiká) is a work of political philosophy by Aristotle, a 4th-century BC Greek philosopher.
Polybius (Πολύβιος, Polýbios; – BC) was a Greek historian of the Hellenistic period noted for his work which covered the period of 264–146 BC in detail.
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (29 September 106 BC – 28 September 48 BC), usually known in English as Pompey or Pompey the Great, was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic.
Pontus (translit, "Sea") is a historical Greek designation for a region on the southern coast of the Black Sea, located in modern-day eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey.
The Populares (populares, "favouring the people", singular popularis) were a grouping in the late Roman Republic which favoured the cause of the plebeians (the commoners).
Praetor (also spelled prætor) was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army (in the field or, less often, before the army had been mustered); or, an elected magistratus (magistrate), assigned various duties (which varied at different periods in Rome's history).
Princeps (plural: principes) is a Latin word meaning "first in time or order; the first, foremost, chief, the most eminent, distinguished, or noble; the first man, first person".
In ancient Rome a promagistrate (pro magistratu) was an ex consul or ex praetor whose imperium (the power to command an army) was extended at the end of his annual term of office or later.
Proto-Indo-European religion is the belief system adhered to by the Proto-Indo-Europeans.
The Ptolemaic Kingdom (Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ basileía) was a Hellenistic kingdom based in Egypt.
Publius Clodius Pulcher (c. December 93 BC – 52 BC, on January 18 of the pre-Julian calendar) was a Roman politician.
Publius Valerius Poplicola or Publicola (d. 503 BC) was one of four Roman aristocrats who led the overthrow of the monarchy, and became a Roman consul, the colleague of Lucius Junius Brutus in 509 BC, traditionally considered the first year of the Roman Republic.
The Punic language, also called Carthaginian or Phoenicio-Punic, is an extinct variety of the Phoenician language, a Canaanite language of the Semitic family.
The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage from 264 BC to 146 BC.
Pyrrhus (Πύρρος, Pyrrhos; 319/318–272 BC) was a Greek general and statesman of the Hellenistic period.
A quaestor (investigator) was a public official in Ancient Rome.
Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius Cornelianus Scipio Nasica (c. 100/98 BC – 46 BC), in modern scholarship often referred to as Metellus Scipio, was a Roman consul and military commander in the Late Republic.
Religion in Ancient Rome includes the ancestral ethnic religion of the city of Rome that the Romans used to define themselves as a people, as well as the religious practices of peoples brought under Roman rule, in so far as they became widely followed in Rome and Italy.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
Rhaetian or Rhaetic (Raetic) was a language spoken in the ancient region of Rhaetia in the Eastern Alps in pre-Roman and Roman times.
Rhetoric is the art of discourse, wherein a writer or speaker strives to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations.
The Romans constructed aqueducts throughout their Empire, to bring water from outside sources into cities and towns.
The censor was a magistrate in ancient Rome who was responsible for maintaining the census, supervising public morality, and overseeing certain aspects of the government's finances.
The commerce of the Roman Empire was a major sector of the Roman economy during the early Republic and throughout most of the imperial period.
Roman concrete, also called opus caementicium, was a material used in construction during the late Roman Republic until the fading of the Roman Empire.
A consul held the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic (509 to 27 BC), and ancient Romans considered the consulship the highest level of the cursus honorum (an ascending sequence of public offices to which politicians aspired).
A dictator was a magistrate of the Roman Republic, entrusted with the full authority of the state to deal with a military emergency or to undertake a specific duty.
During the Roman Republic, the Roman economy was largely agrarian, centered on the trading of commodities such as grain and wine.
The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC).
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Roman expansion in Italy covers a series of conflicts in which the city-state of Rome grew from being the dominant state in Latium to become the ruler of all of Italy.
The Roman Forum, also known by its Latin name Forum Romanum (Foro Romano), is a rectangular forum (plaza) surrounded by the ruins of several important ancient government buildings at the center of the city of Rome.
The Roman Kingdom, or regal period, was the period of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a monarchical form of government of the city of Rome and its territories.
In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin: provincia, pl. provinciae) was the basic and, until the Tetrarchy (from 293 AD), the largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside Italy.
Roman Republican currency refers to the gold and silver Coinage struck by the various magistrates of the Roman Republic, to be used as legal tender.
The Roman Senate (Senatus Romanus; Senato Romano) was a political institution in ancient Rome.
Roman theatres derive from and are part of the overall evolution of earlier Greek theatres.
A tribus, or tribe, was a division of the Roman people, constituting the voting units of a legislative assembly of the Roman Republic.
The Roman triumph (triumphus) was a civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly celebrate and sanctify the success of a military commander who had led Roman forces to victory in the service of the state or, originally and traditionally, one who had successfully completed a foreign war.
A Roman villa was a country house built for the upper class in the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, similar in form to the hacienda estates in the colonies of the Spanish Empire.
The Roman–Seleucid War (192–188 BC), also known as the War of Antiochos or the Syrian War, was a military conflict between two coalitions led by the Roman Republic and the Seleucid Empire.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
The Rubicon (Rubicō, Rubicone) is a shallow river in northeastern Italy, just south of Ravenna.
The Sabines (Sabini; Σαβῖνοι Sabĩnoi; Sabini, all exonyms) were an Italic tribe which lived in the central Apennines of ancient Italy, also inhabiting Latium north of the Anio before the founding of Rome.
Sacrosanctity was the declaration of physical inviolability of a temple, a sacred object or a person through the lex sacrata (sacred law), which had religious connotations.
The First, Second, and Third Samnite Wars (343–341 BC, 326–304 BC and 298–290 BC) were fought between the Roman Republic and the Samnites, who lived on a stretch of the Apennine Mountains to the south of Rome and the north of the Lucanians.
The Samnites were an ancient Italic people who lived in Samnium in south-central Italy.
Samnium (Sannio) is a Latin exonym for a region of Southern Italy anciently inhabited by the Samnites.
Satyr plays were an ancient Greek form of tragicomedy, similar in spirit to the bawdy satire of burlesque.
Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus (236–183 BC), also known as Scipio the African, Scipio Africanus-Major, Scipio Africanus the Elder and Scipio the Great, was a Roman general and later consul who is often regarded as one of the greatest generals and military strategists of all time.
Secessio plebis (withdrawal of the commoners, or Secession of the Plebs) was an informal exercise of power by Rome's plebeian citizens, similar to a general strike taken to the extreme.
The Second Macedonian War (200–197 BC) was fought between Macedon, led by Philip V of Macedon, and Rome, allied with Pergamon and Rhodes.
The Second Mithridatic War (83–81 BC) was one of three wars fought between Pontus and the Roman Republic.
The Second Punic War (218 to 201 BC), also referred to as The Hannibalic War and by the Romans the War Against Hannibal, was the second major war between Carthage and the Roman Republic and its allied Italic socii, with the participation of Greek polities and Numidian and Iberian forces on both sides.
The Second Triumvirate is the name historians have given to the official political alliance of Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (Caesar Augustus), Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony), and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, formed on 27 November 43 BC with the enactment of the Lex Titia, the adoption of which some view as marking the end of the Roman Republic, whilst others argue the Battle of Actium or Octavian becoming Caesar Augustus in 27 BC.
The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
The gens Sempronia was a Roman family of great antiquity.
The Senate of the Roman Republic was a political institution in the ancient Roman Republic.
Senatus consultum ultimum ("final decree of the Senate" or Final Act, often abbreviated SCU), more properly senatus consultum de re publica defendenda ("decree of the Senate about defending the Republic") is the modern term (based on Caesar's wording at Bell. Civ. 1.5) given to a decree of the Roman Senate during the late Roman Republic passed in times of emergency.
The Senones (Σήνωνες) were an ancient Celtic Gallic culture.
The Servile Wars were a series of three slave revolts ("servile" is derived from "servus", Latin for "slave") in the late Roman Republic.
Servius Tullius was the legendary sixth king of Rome, and the second of its Etruscan dynasty.
The seven hills of Rome (Sette colli di Roma, Septem colles/ montes Romae) east of the river Tiber form the geographical heart of Rome, within the walls of the city.
Sextus Tarquinius (known as Tarquin) was the third and youngest son of the last king of Rome, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, according to Livy, but by Dionysius of Halicarnassus he was the oldest of the three.
The Sicels (Siculi; Σικελοί Sikeloi) were an Italic tribe who inhabited eastern Sicily during the Iron Age.
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles.
Social class in ancient Rome was hierarchical, but there were multiple and overlapping social hierarchies, and an individual's relative position in one might be higher or lower than in another.
The Social War (from socii ("allies"), thus Bellum Sociale; also called the Italian War, the War of the Allies or the Marsic War) was a war waged from 91 to 88 BC between the Roman Republic and several of the other cities in Italy, which prior to the war had been Roman allies for centuries.
The socii (in Classical Latin; in Italian Latin; in English; "allies") were the autonomous tribes and city-states of the Italian Peninsula in permanent military alliance with the Roman Republic until the Social War of 91–88 BC.
Southern France or the South of France, colloquially known as le Midi, is a defined geographical area consisting of the regions of France that border the Atlantic Ocean south of the Marais Poitevin, Spain, the Mediterranean, and Italy.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Spartacus (Σπάρτακος; Spartacus; c. 111–71 BC) was a Thracian gladiator who, along with the Gauls Crixus, Gannicus, Castus, and Oenomaus, was one of the escaped slave leaders in the Third Servile War, a major slave uprising against the Roman Republic.
SPQR is an initialism of a phrase in ("The Roman Senate and People", or more freely as "The Senate and People of Rome"), referring to the government of the ancient Roman Republic, and used as an official emblem of the modern-day comune (municipality) of Rome.
Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens in the early 3rd century BC.
The stola was the traditional garment of Roman women, corresponding to the toga, that was worn by men.
Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (c. 138 BC – 78 BC), known commonly as Sulla, was a Roman general and statesman.
Sulla's civil wars were a series of civil wars in which Lucius Cornelius Sulla, a Roman statesman and general, attempted to take control of the Roman Republic.
Sumptuary laws (from Latin sumptuāriae lēgēs) are laws that attempt to regulate consumption; Black's Law Dictionary defines them as "Laws made for the purpose of restraining luxury or extravagance, particularly against inordinate expenditures in the matter of apparel, food, furniture, etc." Historically, they were laws that were intended to regulate and reinforce social hierarchies and morals through restrictions, often depending upon a person's social rank, on their permitted clothing, food, and luxury expenditures.
Syriac (ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ), also known as Syriac Aramaic or Classical Syriac, is a dialect of Middle Aramaic.
Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (–) was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire.
Taranto (early Tarento from Tarentum; Tarantino: Tarde; translit; label) is a coastal city in Apulia, Southern Italy.
The Tarquinian conspiracy was a conspiracy amongst a number of senators and leading men of ancient Rome in 509 BC to reinstate the monarchy, and to put Lucius Tarquinius Superbus back on the throne.
The Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus, also known as the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus (italic; Tempio di Giove Ottimo Massimo; English: "Temple of Jupiter Best and Greatest on the Capitoline") was the most important temple in Ancient Rome, located on the Capitoline Hill.
The Teutons (Latin: Teutones, Teutoni, Greek: "Τεύτονες") were an ancient tribe mentioned by Roman authors.
Polybius’ Histories (Ἱστορίαι Historíai) were originally written in 40 volumes, only the first five of which are extant in their entirety.
In ancient Rome, thermae (from Greek θερμός thermos, "hot") and balneae (from Greek βαλανεῖον balaneion) were facilities for bathing.
The Third Macedonian War (171–168 BC) was a war fought between the Roman Republic and King Perseus of Macedon.
The Third Mithridatic War (73–63 BC) was the last and longest of three Mithridatic Wars and was fought between Mithridates VI of Pontus, who was joined by his allies, and the Roman Republic.
The Third Punic War (Latin: Tertium Bellum Punicum) (149–146 BC) was the third and last of the Punic Wars fought between the former Phoenician colony of Carthage and the Roman Republic.
The Third Servile War, also called by Plutarch the Gladiator War and The War of Spartacus, was the last in a series of slave rebellions against the Roman Republic, known collectively as the Servile Wars.
Tiberius Gracchus (Latin: TI·SEMPRONIVS·TI·F·P·N·GRACCVS; born c. 169–164 – 133 BC): Plutarch says Tiberius "was not yet thirty when he was slain." was a Roman populist and reformist politician of the 2nd century BC.
Tic-tac-toe (also known as noughts and crosses or Xs and Os) is a paper-and-pencil game for two players, X and O, who take turns marking the spaces in a 3×3 grid.
Tigranes II, more commonly known as Tigranes the Great (Տիգրան Մեծ, Tigran Mets; Τιγράνης ὁ Μέγας Tigránes ho Mégas; Tigranes Magnus) (140 – 55 BC) was King of Armenia under whom the country became, for a short time, the strongest state to Rome's east.
Titus Annius Milo Papianus was a Roman political agitator.
The toga, a distinctive garment of Ancient Rome, was a roughly semicircular cloth, between in length, draped over the shoulders and around the body.
Tribunus plebis, rendered in English as tribune of the plebs, tribune of the people, or plebeian tribune, was the first office of the Roman state that was open to the plebeians, and throughout the history of the Republic, the most important check on the power of the Roman Senate and magistrates.
A triumvirate (triumvirātus) is a political regime ruled or dominated by three powerful individuals known as triumvirs (triumviri).
Troy (Τροία, Troia or Τροίας, Troias and Ἴλιον, Ilion or Ἴλιος, Ilios; Troia and Ilium;Trōia is the typical Latin name for the city. Ilium is a more poetic term: Hittite: Wilusha or Truwisha; Truva or Troya) was a city in the far northwest of the region known in late Classical antiquity as Asia Minor, now known as Anatolia in modern Turkey, near (just south of) the southwest mouth of the Dardanelles strait and northwest of Mount Ida.
A tunic is any of several types of garment for the body, usually simple in style, reaching from the shoulders to a length somewhere between the hips and the ankles.
According to Greek tradition, the Law of the Twelve Tables (Leges Duodecim Tabularum or Duodecim Tabulae) was the legislation that stood at the foundation of Roman law.
A tyrant (Greek τύραννος, tyrannos), in the modern English usage of the word, is an absolute ruler unrestrained by law or person, or one who has usurped legitimate sovereignty.
Tyrian purple (Greek, πορφύρα, porphyra, purpura), also known as Tyrian red, Phoenician purple, royal purple, imperial purple or imperial dye, is a reddish-purple natural dye.
The Gens Valeria was a patrician family at Rome, prominent from the very beginning of the Republic to the latest period of the Empire.
Veii (also Veius, Veio) was an important ancient Etruscan city situated on the southern limits of Etruria and only north-northwest of Rome, Italy.
Venetic is an extinct Indo-European language, usually classified into the Italic subgroup, that was spoken by the Veneti people in ancient times in the North East of Italy (Veneto) and part of modern Slovenia, between the Po River delta and the southern fringe of the Alps.
The Venus Throw was the highest roll in the Ancient Roman gambling game of tali (knucklebones).
Gaius Verres (ca. 120 BC – 43 BC) was a Roman magistrate, notorious for his misgovernment of Sicily.
A veto – Latin for "I forbid" – is the power (used by an officer of the state, for example) to unilaterally stop an official action, especially the enactment of legislation.
Publius Vergilius Maro (traditional dates October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period.
Virtus was a specific virtue in Ancient Rome.
Vulgar Latin or Sermo Vulgaris ("common speech") was a nonstandard form of Latin (as opposed to Classical Latin, the standard and literary version of the language) spoken in the Mediterranean region during and after the classical period of the Roman Empire.
Freeborn women in ancient Rome were citizens (cives), but could not vote or hold political office.
There are 3 main sets of works attributed to Florus (a Roman cognomen): Virgilius orator an poeta, an Epitome of Roman History and a collection of poems (26 tetrameters, and 5 hexameters about roses).
Xanthippus (Greek: Ξάνθιππος) was a Spartan mercenary general hired by the Carthaginians to aid in their war against the Romans during the First Punic War.
Ancient Roman Republic, Early Italian campaigns (458–396 BC), First Roman Republic, History of the Roman Republic, Optimates and Populares, Republic of rome, Republican Government in Ancient Rome, Republican Rome, Res Publica Romana, Res Pvblica Romana, Roman Rupublicanism, Roman republic.